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What is leprosy

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The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper ... of leprosy is three weeks in Martinique (Montestruc & Berdonneau, 1954) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is leprosy


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(No Transcript)
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What is leprosy?
  • Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by
    mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast, rod-shaped
    bacillus. The disease mainly affects the skin,
    the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper
    respiratory tract and also the eyes, apart from
    some other structures. Leprosy has afflicted
    humanity since time immemorial. It once affected
    every continent and it has left behind a
    terrifying image in history and human memory - of
    mutilation, rejection and exclusion from society

3
What causes Leprosy?
  • The bacterium that causes Leprosy is rod-shaped
    and called Mycobacterium leprae.
  • When Mycobacterium leprae enters the body, one of
    these things can happen
  • 1)Tuberculoid leprosy (TT) the body's immune
    cells attempt to seal off the infection from the
    rest of the body by surrounding the offending
    pathogen. Because this response by the immune
    system occurs in the deeper layers of the skin,
    the hair follicles, sweat glands, and nerves can
    be destroyed. As a result, the skin becomes dry
    and discolored and loses its sensitivity.
  • 2)Lepromatous leprosy (LL) this is the more
    dangerous type, in which the body's immune system
    is unable to mount a strong response to the
    invading organism. Hence, the organism multiplies
    freely in the skin. This type of leprosy is also
    called the multibacillary (MB) leprosy, because
    of the presence of large numbers of bacteria.
    Occasionally, the mucous membranes of the eyes,
    nose, and throat may be involved. Facial
    involvement can produce a lion-like appearance
    (leonine facies). This type of leprosy can lead
    to blindness, drastic change in voice, or
    mutilation of the nose

4
  • Leprosy has struck fear into human beings for
    thousands of years, and was well recognized in
    the oldest civilizations of China, Egypt and
    India. A cumulative total of the number of
    individuals who, over the millennia, have
    suffered its chronic course of incurable
    disfigurement and physical disabilities can never
    be calculated. Since ancient times, leprosy has
    been regarded by the community as a contagious,
    mutilating and incurable disease. There are many
    countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America with
    a significant number of leprosy cases. It is
    estimated that there are between one and two
    million people visibly and irreversibly disabled
    due to past and present leprosy who require to be
    cared for by the community in which they
    live. When M.leprae was discovered by G.A.
    Hansen in 1873, it was the first bacterium to be
    identified as causing disease in man. However,
    treatment for leprosy only appeared in the late
    1940s with the introduction of dapsone, and its
    derivatives. Leprosy bacilli resistant to dapsone
    gradually appeared and became widespread.

5
  • Leprosy is known to occur at all ages ranging
    from early infancy to very old age. The youngest
    age reported for occurrence of leprosy is three
    weeks in Martinique (Montestruc Berdonneau,
    1954). The youngest case seen by the author was
    in an infant of two-and-a-half months, where the
    diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by
    histopathology. Occurrence of leprosy, presumably
    for the first time, is not uncommon even after
    the age of seventy.
  • Method of transmission of leprosy
  • The exact mechanism of transmission of leprosy is
    not known. At least until recently, the most
    widely held belief was that the disease was
    transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy
    and healthy persons. More recently the
    possibility of transmission by the respiratory
    route is gaining ground. There are also other
    possibilities such as transmission through
    insects which cannot be completely ruled out.

6
  • Transmission by contact
  • The term 'contact' in leprosy is generally not
    clearly defined. All that we know at present is
    that individuals who are in close association or
    proximity with leprosy patients have a greater
    chance of acquiring the disease. It is with
    reference to this observation that the early
    workers appear to have used the term 'contact' as
    method of transmission. However, it is the
    definition of contact by later workers with
    qualifications such as 'skin to skin',
    'intimate', 'repeated', etc. that has made it
    appear as if the disease could be acquired only
    under such conditions, and that the transmission
    involved some kind of 'inunction' or rubbing in
    of the organisms from the skin of affected
    persons into the skin of healthy subjects.
    Certainly, there is no proof that transmission
    takes place only through such inunction.
  • In general, closeness of contact is related to
    the dose of infection which in turn is related to
    the occurrence of disease. Of the various
    situations that promote close contact, contact
    within the household is the only one that is
    easily identified. In that area the relative risk
    for contacts was about four times that of
    non-contacts. The actual incidence among contacts
    and the relative risk for them appear to vary
    considerably in different studies. Attack rates
    for contacts of lepromatous leprosy have varied
    from 6.2 per 1000 per year in Cebu (Doull et al,
    1942) to 55.8 per 1000 per year in a part of
    South India (Noordeen Neelan, 1978).
  • The possibility of transmission of leprosy
    through the respiratory route is gaining
    increasing attention in recent years. It is
    interesting to note that as early as 1898 this
    possibility has also been discussed at some
    length by Sch ffer (Sch ffer, 1898). The
    possibility of transmission through the
    respiratory route is based on (a) the inability
    of the organisms to be found on the surface of
    the skin, (b) the demonstration of a large number
    of organisms in the nasal discharge, (c) the high
    proportion of morphologically intact bacilli in
    the nasal secretions, and (d) the evidence that
    M.leprae could survive outside the human host for
    several hours or days.
  • Transmission through insects
  • With the available evidence on intracutaneous
    inoculation as a successful method of
    transmission of M.leprae in the mouse footpad
    model and a similar situation possibly existing
    in human beings, the question arises whether
    insects could play any role in natural infection.
    Although a large number of experiments had been
    conducted in the past demonstrating AFB in biting
    insects, the question whether insects actually
    transmitted infection had remained unanswered.

7
Graphs
Cases detected during 2003
8
Human Body Diagram
The Immune cells attempt to seal off the
infection, which can destroy sweat glands and
hair follicles and the skins sensitivity.
Mycobacterium Leprae enters the body
On of these things can happen
Immune cells unable to destroy M. Leprae and the
bacteria multiplies freely in the skin.
9
Bibliography
  • (Unknown Title)- http//www.tesarta.com/www/resour
    ces/library/leprosy.html
  • Bayanihan- http//www.bayanihan.org/html/public_ht
    ml/article.php?story20030831193559038
  • The Dark Light- Mette Newth
  • Ffd- http//www.thalidomide.org/English/Thalidomid
    e/Against_Leprosy.html
  • Genesis- http//www.genesishealth.com/micromedex/d
    etaileddisease/00054640.aspx
  • Invisible Enemies Stories of Infectious
    Diseases- Jeanette Farell
  • Yahoo (Health Page)- http//www.yahoo.com

10
  • This Slideshow was created by Johan Mickos
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