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The Sitzkrieg, The Winter War, and the War At Sea

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Began Sept. 3, 1939, 250 miles off the coast of Ireland ... Ships gather in groups and were escorted by destroyers who circled around the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Sitzkrieg, The Winter War, and the War At Sea


1
The Sitzkrieg, The Winter War, and the War At Sea
2
The Sitzkrieg
  • After fury of the blitzkrieg came the sitzkrieg
    on the Western Front
  • Sit down war
  • Also called the phony war
  • Was a six month lull between the fall of Poland
    and the German attack on Norway and Denmark

3
The Sitzkrieg
  • British and French were behind the Maginot line
  • Germans gathered behind the Siegfried Line
  • Almost no combat
  • Ended when Germany attacks Norway and Denmark in
    April, 1940

4
Russia Invades Finland
  • Russia was still very active during the phony
    war
  • Force Estonia to give them bases on Estonian soil
  • Latvia and Lithuania bullied into the same thing

5
Russia Invades Finland
  • Finland refused to give in to Russia
  • Nov. 30, 1939- Soviet army struck at Finland
  • Soldiers carried propaganda leaflets
  • Expected to be welcomed as liberators
  • Thought it would be quick and only had light
    clothing
  • Not equipped or trained for harsh Finnish winter

6
The Winter War
A Finnish soldier
Frozen Russian soldier
7
Russia Invades Finland
  • Finns fall back and draw the Germans into the
    forest and then they strike
  • Would hit and hold the Russian front while other
    Finns moved to the Russian flank
  • Cut off routes of retreat
  • Separated Russian units from each other
  • Russians fell by the thousands

8
Russia Invades Finland
  • World was amazed at Finnish resistance
  • France and Britain begin to consider aiding
    Finland
  • Stalin realizes Hitler is watching
  • Is Russia weak enough for Germany to take?
  • Russia must take action against the Finnish
    Mannerheim Line

9
Russia Invades Finland
  • Stalin brings all five of his forces together
  • In two weeks, they break through the Mannerheim
    Line and after 42 days, Finland is lost
  • Russia gets everything they demand
  • Their second largest city
  • Their biggest Artic Ocean port
  • Karelian Isthmus

10
The Struggle At Sea
  • Never was a sitzkrieg at sea
  • Began Sept. 3, 1939, 250 miles off the coast of
    Ireland
  • Germans sink British passenger liner Athenia
  • Was a violation of international agreement

11
The Struggle At Sea
  • By the end of September, British losses were
    staggering.
  • Resorted to the convoy system
  • Ships gather in groups and were escorted by
    destroyers who circled around the convoy, hunting
    for submarines
  • Was offense and defensive system
  • The freighters and tankers acted as bait

12
The Struggle At Sea
  • Churchill improved the convoy system by adding
    aircraft protection at either end of the voyage.

13
The Struggle At Sea
  • British ships began to blow up and sink as they
    entered or left port
  • Germans were dropping a new type of mine, a
    magnetic mine, at harbor mouths
  • Was drawn to a ships hull as the vessel passed
    over it

14
The Struggle At Sea
  • Late November, a German airplane was seen
    dropping a magnetic mine
  • It was captured by two skillful and brave naval
    officers and brought to Portsmouth Naval Base to
    be analyzed
  • They could then combat it by encircling British
    ships with an electric cable
  • Called degaussing

15
The Struggle At Sea
  • Germany had three pocket battleships
  • Deutschland and Graf Spee left Germany between
    Aug. 21 and Aug. 24 and were loose in the ocean
  • By Dec. 13th the Graf Spee had sunk 3 British
    merchant ships in five days
  • Was tracked down by 3 British cruisers, Achilles,
    Ajax, and Exeter

16
The Struggle At Sea
  • Battle enrages
  • The Spee leaves under smoke cover and enters
    Montevideo, Uruguay with Ajax and Achilles
    outside
  • Uruguay is neutral
  • Captain Langsdorff telephones the German Admiral
    that escape is hopeless
  • Spee leaves harbor with British ships waiting
    hungrily

17
The Struggle At Sea
  • Graf Spee is scuttled, sunk itself
  • Fear if ship is captured secret equipment will
    fall into enemy hands
  • Langsdorff was so brokenhearted by the loss of
    the ship that he wrapped himself in an old
    Imperial flag, an insult to Hitler, and shot
    himself.
  • This ends the first phase of the Battle of the
    Atlantic

18
The War At Sea
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