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A look at paragraph Unity, Coherence, Transitional words and phrases, Parallelism, Development, Intr

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Good examples are pets, boy/girl friends, places, and cars. Writing Strong Paragraphs ... sandwich, how to change spark plugs, and how to change a diaper. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A look at paragraph Unity, Coherence, Transitional words and phrases, Parallelism, Development, Intr


1
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A look at paragraph Unity, Coherence,
    Transitional words and phrases, Parallelism,
    Development, Introductions, and Conclusions.

2
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A paragraph is a group of related sentences which
    may be complete in itself or part of a longer
    piece of writing.
  • Most good paragraphs are built around a central
    idea. The exception being a paragraph that
    describes a person or scene.
  • Paragraphs break the writing into pieces the
    reader can easily digest. Long paragraphs become
    difficult to understand because the reader
    becomes lost. Short paragraphs are usually
    undeveloped.

3
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Topic Sentences are sentences that contain
    general information and may appear at any point
    in a paragraph. They may appear at the
    beginning, the middle, or the end.
  • A good paragraph usually has more than one topic
    sentence.
  • A topic sentence must be followed by at least two
    supporting sentences. Any less and the paragraph
    will lack proper development.

4
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A paragraph is Unified when it supports a single
    central idea.
  • An Essay is Unified when all its paragraphs
    support the thesis.
  • The best way to achieve Unity in an essay is by
    completing an outline before writing the first
    draft.

5
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A paragraph is Coherent when all its sentences
    are logically related to each other.
  • An essay is Coherent when the paragraphs and
    individual sentences all relate logically to each
    other.
  • Coherence is also being able to go from a topic
    sentence (general) to a supporting detail
    (specific) in a seamless manner.

6
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Spatial Order utilizes space to organize the
    paragraph. For example, a person may be
    described from head to toe, or a room may be
    described from east to west.
  • Chronological Order utilizes time to organize the
    paragraph. The events are unfolded to the reader
    in the same order they occurred.
  • Logical Order utilizes some kind of reason to
    determine how ideas are presented. They may be
    from general to specific, or least important to
    most important.

7
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Transitional Phases (see page 66) provide signals
    to the reader about when things happen in a
    paragraph. Without transitional phrases,
    everything happens at once.
  • Use Transitional Phrases to link closely
    associated ideas and paragraphs.

8
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Parallelism is repetition in consecutive words,
    phrases, clauses, or sentences of identical or
    similar grammatical form to express ideas of
    nearly equal importance.
  • Parallelism is also matching words, phrases,
    clauses, or sentence structure to increase
    coherence.

9
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • They fought to protect farms, crops, and wives.
  • They fought to protect their farms, crops, and
    wives.
  • They fought to protect their farms, their crops,
    and their wives.
  • All of these sentences are in parallel form, but
    the last one is the most emphatic, because of the
    repetition of the key word their to remind the
    reader what they were fighting for.

10
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • She likes to run, playing piano, and works hard.
  • This sentence is not in parallel form.
  • She likes to run, to play piano, and to work
    hard.
  • (infinitive)
  • She likes running, playing piano, and working
    hard. (present participle)

11
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A Well Developed paragraph is one that includes
    adequate support for each of the topic sentences
    in the paragraph. Such support may be facts,
    examples, statistics, expert opinion, or any
    other evidence the writer wants to present.
  • A Well Developed paragraph has at least two
    supporting sentences for each topic sentence.

12
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Narration- Telling a story. Good examples are
    first dates, a typical day at work, an experience
    at a theme park, a wedding, a dining experience.

13
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Description- Conveys how something looks,
    sounds, tastes, and feels like. Dont forget to
    describe personality if it is a person. Good
    examples are pets, boy/girl friends, places, and
    cars.

14
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Exemplification- Uses specific examples to prove
    a point. To prove teen drivers are dangerous,
    describe the teen next door who totaled his car
    and other teens who race or are careless drivers.

15
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Process- Describes how something works or
    occurs. Good examples are how to make a peanut
    butter sandwich, how to change spark plugs, and
    how to change a diaper.

16
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Cause and Effect- The results of actions taken.
  • For example rude drivers who use closed lanes to
    try and beat traffic actually cause more delays
    when they merge back into traffic. Hence traffic
    if backed up more, which encourages more drivers
    to use the closed lane.

17
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Comparison and Contrast- describes the
    similarities and differences between two people,
    places, or things. An example would be comparing
    Apple and IBM computers.
  • Compare and contrast may be either point by
    point or subject by subject.

18
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Division- takes a single item and breaks it into
    subgroups. For example popcorn comes in many
    varieties caramel corn, movie theatre popcorn,
    microwave popcorn, and cracker-jack.

19
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Classification- Separates an item into its
    components, and then it describes each component
    and its function. For example, a car can be
    divided into engine, frame, wheels, and passenger
    compartment.

20
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Patterns of Development
  • Definition- Describes the qualities associated
    with the thing being defined. For example, what
    are the qualities of a good boss?

21
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • An introductory paragraph introduces the subject,
    narrows it down, and states the essays thesis.
  • It focuses the readers attention and arouses his
    or her interest in the topic.
  • It sets the tone for the rest of the essay by
    stating the topic and implies the writers
    attitude toward that topic.

22
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Introduction Dos
  • Ask a question (one question.)
  • Relate an incident (keep it short)
  • Use a vivid quotation (no research)
  • Offer a surprising fact or statistic
  • Provide Background
  • Describe the argument your thesis refutes
  • Define a word that is central to the subject

23
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Introduction Donts
  • Dont reach back too far with vague generalities
    or truths such as Throughout Human History.
  • Dont start with The purpose of this essay is to
    . . . or refer to the title of the essay in the
    essay.
  • Dont apologize for a lack of knowledge about
    your subject.
  • Dont start with According to Webster . . .

24
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • A concluding paragraph summarizes all of the
    important points of the essay for the reader.
  • The concluding paragraph is the part of the essay
    the reader is most likely to remember, so it must
    be concise and well developed.

25
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Conclusion Dos
  • Strike a note of hope or despair
  • Give a symbolic or powerful fact or detail
  • Recommend a course of action
  • Use a Quotation (no research)
  • Reflect on the implications of the thesis
  • Draw a conclusion based upon the evidence of the
    essay.

26
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • Conclusion Donts
  • Dont copy the thesis into the conclusion.
    Condense the main points of the paper instead.
  • Dont start off in a new direction.
  • Dont conclude more than can be reasonably
    derived from the evidence presented in the essay.
  • Dont apologize or cast doubt upon the essay.

27
Writing Strong Paragraphs
  • The End
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