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Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources

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Death Valley 282 feet. Dead Sea 1309 feet. Mariana Trench 36,000 feet. Positive Elevation ... rift African Rift Valley. sea floor spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources


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Chapter 4
  • Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources

3
  • Section 1Landforms
  • Landformany physical feature of the earth.
    Hills, valleys, mountains, plateaus, plains.
  • Characteristics
  • 1. elevationmeasures the height of landforms
    above and below sea level.
  • Negative elevation
  • Death Valley 282 feet.
  • Dead Sea 1309 feet.
  • Mariana Trench 36,000 feet
  • Positive Elevation
  • Mt. Everest 29,028 feet
  • 2. Reliefdifference between highest and lowest
    point in elevation.
  • 3. Slopesteepness or slant

4
  • Forces That Shape the Land
  • 1. Rock weathering
  • a. first step in soil formation
  • b. breaks up rock, dissolves, causes them
    to decay
  • c. sedimentrocks broken into smaller
    particles of mud, sand, gravel.
  • 2. Water
  • a. most powerful form of erosion and
    transportation.
  • Ex river or gully
  • 3. Glaciers
  • a. thick masses of ice that slowly glide
    across the
  • earths surface.
  • b. sheetcovers large areas. Thick in the
    middle.
  • c. mountaincreates U-shaped valleys.

5
  • 4. Wind
  • a. works most where there is fewer plants.
  • b. wears down rock by blowing sand and
    other particles.
  • c. blows sand and dust from one place to
    anothersand dunes.
  • 5. Strong rocks resist erosionhigh ground
  • 6. Erosion of weak rocks produces lowlands
  • Internal Structure of the Earth
  • 1. We know whats there because of shockwaves.
  • a. primary wavetravels through solid and
    liquid
  • b. secondarywill not pass through a
    liquid
  • 2. Whats inside
  • a. inner core
  • -solid
  • -5,000 to 6,000? F

6
  • b. outer core
  • -liquid
  • c. mantle
  • -solid but elastic
  • d. crust
  • -solid but brittle
  • - 5-25 miles thick
  • Forces Beneath the Crust
  • Shaped by heat and rock movement in crust and
    upper mantle
  • 1. Volcano
  • a. opening in earths crust through which
    lava flows
  • b. lavamelted, liquid rock or magma
  • 2. Foldrock layers are bent
  • 3. Faultrock layers break and move.
  • Earthquakes caused by movement
    along a fault

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  • Plate Tectonics
  • Based on Alfred Wegeners Continental Drift
    Theory
  • earths crust is on several slow moving
    plates.
  • Unanswered Questions
  • a. fossilized remains of sea life in
    Himalayas.
  • b. coal in Antarctica.
  • c. oil in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska
  • d. fossilized species of same species
    of dinosaur in Africa, South America, and
    Antarctica.
  • 3. The Theory
  • a. 200 million years ago all continents
    were joined as one super-continentPangea.
  • b. Pangea surrounded by one
    oceanPanthellassa.
  • c. Pangea splits along east-west rift.
  • Laurasia--north

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  • Gandwanasouth
  • d. Gandwana and Laurasia separated by
    Tethys Seaway.
  • Plate tectonics animations
  • 4. Plate Boundaries
  • a. Divergenttwo plates separating
  • riftAfrican Rift Valley
  • sea floor spreadingMid-Atlantic
    Ridge
  • b. Convergenttwo plates colliding
  • Subductionone plate dives
    underneath. Trenches
  • Mountains
  • c. Transform fault2 tectonic plates
    sliding past
  • San Andreas Fault

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  • Section 2Water
  • Evaporates from the ocean, about ¼ of that falls
    over the land.
  • Distillationsalt water becomes fresh at point of
    evaporation.
  • Uses of
  • 1. Irrigationmove water to where its needed
  • 2. Industry
  • a. industrializationlarge scale
    manufacturing of goods using
  • machine power.
  • b. Fire protection, coolant.
  • 3. Hydroelectricity
  • a. water stored behind dams drives engines
    that produce power.
  • 4. Transportation
  • Characteristics of
  • 1. Three forms solid, liquid, and gas
  • 2. Dissolve anything over time
  • 3. Heats and cools slowly, which moderates
    earths surface
  • temperature.

13
  • Distribution (How its spread around the earth)
  • 1. unevenly a source of conflict
  • 2. Hydrosphere
  • a. 97 ocean
  • b. 2 ice caps
  • c. less than 1 freshwater

14
  • Hydrologic Cycle
  • 1. Cycle in which water is always changing form
    and location
  • biosphere, lithosphere, oceans, etc.
  • Water goes from oceans to land (rivers and
    lakes) and eventually returns to the ocean.
  • 2. driven by solar energy
  • 3. involves evaporation, condensation,
    precipitation
  • 4. transpirationevaporation from the land.
    Plants give off water vapor from leaves.

15
  • Surface Water
  • Precipitation flows down hills and mountains
    towards lowlands and coast.
  • Headwaterssmallest streams to form eventually
    form rivers.
  • Tributaryany smaller stream that flows into a
    larger one.
  • Watershedarea of land drained by a river.
  • Estuarywhere rivers meet inlet of the sea salt
    and fresh water meet.
  • Rivers
  • 1. Origins
  • a. snowmelt from mountainsColorado,
    Missouri, Amazon.
  • b. confluence of two smaller
    streamsMonongahela and
  • Allegheny meet to form the Ohio.
  • c. Underground springsPatoka
  • d. Glacial melt
  • e. lakes

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  • 2. Life
  • a. early youth
  • -cutting down into the earth
  • -rapids, water falls, natural lakes
  • b. late youth
  • -still cutting down
  • -rapids disappear
  • c. early maturity
  • -river first begins to meander because
    it cuts sideways
  • (still cuts downward)
  • d. late maturity
  • -meanders fully develop
  • -ox bows
  • e. old age
  • -reaches sea level
  • -deltas

17
  • Ponds
  • 1. kettle-glacial
  • 2. Cyprusflood plain of river
  • 3. beaver
  • 4. ox bow
  • 5. karstsinkhole
  • 6. farmman made
  • Wetlands
  • 1. land areas flooded at least ½ of the year
  • 2. salt marsh
  • a. develops at the mouth of a river or in
    the delta
  • b. brackish watersalt and fresh mixed
  • 3. wooded swamps
  • 4. tundra bogs
  • 5. river bottoms
  • 6. Everglades

18
  • 7. support wide variety of wildlife
  • 8. drained for farmland, housing, industry
  • Groundwater
  • 1. found in tiny spaces between soil and rock
    grains.
  • 2. main source is precipitation
  • 3. water table
  • a. top of saturated zonerock grains.
  • Area right above ground water.
  • b. dig past water table for wells
  • 4. Aquifer
  • a. underground water that travels
  • b. stored in and carried through porous
    rock
  • c. Ogallala Aquiferbeing depleted because
    of irrigation.

19
  • 5. Oceans
  • a. 71 of earths surface.
  • b. One continuous body of water divided
    into fourAtlantic,
  • Pacific, Indian, Arctic Ocean.
  • c. Pacific is the largest, Arctic is the
    smallest
  • d. Seassmaller bodies of water connected
    to oceans.
  • e. Gulfsnear coasts and extend into land
  • f. Depth13,000 ft. average. Marianna
    Trench36,000 ft.
  • g. Continental shelfshallowest, slopes
    from continents
  • 6. Seawater
  • a. contains every element known on earth,
    even gold.
  • b. no temperature extremes--1? difference
    between day and
  • night.
  • c. moving and circulating.
  • d. most life found in shallow areas.

20
  • Section 3Natural Resources
  • Plants and Soil
  • Environmental regions
  • 1. Hygrophytesplants which require a lot of
    water to grow. Trees.
  • 2. Hydrophytesplants that grow in water.
    Wetland vegetation.
  • 3. Mesophytesmoderate amounts of water.
    Grasslands.
  • 4. Xerophytesvery little water. Cactus.
  • 5. Tropophytesadapt to seasonal changes
    temperature and moisture. Deciduous plants
  • 6. Halophytesplants that grow in soils
    saturated with salt.

21
  • Ecosystems
  • 1. ecosystemcombination of physical and
    biological environments. Interdependent.
  • 2. environmentthose things that surround us and
    influence us, and cause us to adapt.
  • 3. Physical environment
  • a. those things that are inorganicnon
    living or never have lived.
  • b. air, climate, landforms, water.
  • 4. Biological environment
  • a. those things that are organicliving or
    have lived.
  • b. Plants and animals
  • 5. Biospherethose areas where life exists.
  • a. biocyclessubdivision of biosphere
  • land, freshwater, saltwater.
  • b. biomessubdivisions of biocycles.

22
  • Adaptationability of plants and animals to
    adjust to their environment.
  • 1. Natural/Plant Successionorderly transferal
    from one plant community to another (process).
    One plant group replaces anothershort ones
    replaced by taller ones.
  • e.g. cedar woods replace by a forest.
  • Plant communityplants that live in groups
    and support life in that area.
  • 2. Climax communitytype of vegetation in final
    stage of
  • succession. Deciduous forest for us. Best
    suited for resources of that area.
  • Building Blocks of Adaptation
  • (Factors that will cause plants to adjust)
  • 1. Climate
  • 2. Soil

23
  • 3. Base Minerals
  • a. nitrogen
  • b. phosphorous
  • c. potassium
  • 4. How minerals get into soil
  • a. rotrapid decomposition
  • moisture and heat
  • b. decayslow decomposition
  • drier and cooler middle latitudes
  • c. leachingdown percolation of minerals
    into soil

24
  • 5. Soil building processdiffers from place to
    place, depends on climate.
  • a. Laterization
  • - tropics
  • - do not have base minerals shallow
    tree roots
  • - minerals washed down by leeching
  • b. Podzolization
  • - mid-latitude deciduous forests
  • - contains the base minerals
  • c. Calcification
  • - richest soils, develop under thick
    grasses
  • - Black Earth

25
  • d. Gleization
  • - develop under wetlands
  • - South Florida and Gulf Coast
  • e. Salinization
  • - dry saltbeds of a desert
  • f. Humustop soil
  • Soil Conservation
  • 1. Contour plowing and crop rotation
  • 2. Soil salinizationcaused by too much
    irrigation
  • 3. Desertificationovergrazing, millions starved
    in Africa
  • Forests
  • 1. U.S. government created national forests in
    early 1900s.

26
  • 2. Deforestation
  • a. logging and clearing of the rainforests
  • b. 2 billion people rely on wood as their
    fuel source (charcoal)
  • Lumber for Japanese
  • 3. No reforestation
  • Governments say logging provides jobs and income
    to invest in their economy.
  • Water and Air
  • 1. Water Quantity
  • a. issue because of large populations
  • b. desalinizationchanging salt water to
    fresh water

27
  • 2. Water Quality
  • a. affected by population growth
  • b. Developing countriessewage coming into
    contact with drinking water.
  • c. Developedindustrial pollutants
  • 3. Air Pollution
  • a. smogsmoke fog
  • b. Developing countriesrush to
    industrialize (Kyoto)
  • c. Developedreduced by clean air laws
  • d. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) hurt the
    ozone
  • e. Global Warmingbuild up of CO2 traps
    heat
  • f. ice ages occur when CO2 was low, warmer
    periods when it increased.

28
  • g. volcanic activity and forest fires increase
    CO2
  • Humans produce CO2 by burning fuels. Increase
    this past century coincides with industrial
    development.
  • Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
  • Nonrenewablenot replaced by natural processes.
    Oil
  • Renewablecan be replaced by natural processes.
    Solar
  • energy, water, forests.
  • Fossil Fuels
  • 1. Coal, petroleum, natural gas
  • 2. Prehistoric fossils
  • 3. Large amounts needed since the Industrial
    Revolution

29
  • 4. Coal
  • a. major fuel for two centuries
  • b. replaced by natural gas and petroleum
  • c. still used, expensive to liquefy
  • d. U.S. Russia, China, Australia
  • 5. Petroleum
  • a. liquid fuels
  • b. essential for being an industrial power
  • c. petrochemicals
  • -fertilizers, food additives, etc.
  • d. Texas, Alaska, Louisiana

30
  • 6. Natural Gas
  • a. found with oil or separately
  • b. cleanest burning fossil fuel
  • c. shipped through long pipelines
  • d. limited and becoming more expensive
  • 7. Nuclear energy
  • a. originally seen as clean and inexpensive
  • b. Chernobyl incident
  • c. Wasted buried in sealed containers in
    solid rock.
  • Transportation is risky.

31
  • Renewable Resources
  • 1. Hydroelectricity
  • a. changes natural flow of rivers and
    interferes with fish migration.
  • 2. Geothermalelectricity generated from
    escaping steam
  • 3. Solar energyconverting sunlight to heat or
    electricity.
  • 4. Windaerogenerators.
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