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Methamphetamine: How it Influences the Brain and Behavior of Users

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Other names: shabu, crystal, crystal meth, crank, tina, yaba. Methamphetamine: Ice ... Meth Lab Seizures ... and supply the majority of meth to the market. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Methamphetamine: How it Influences the Brain and Behavior of Users


1
Methamphetamine How it Influences the Brain and
Behavior of Users
  • Richard A. Rawson, Ph.D
  • Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral
    Sciences
  • David Geffen School of Medicine
  • University of California at Los Angeles

2
Methamphetamine
  • Methamphetamine is a powerful central nervous
    system stimulant that strongly activates multiple
    systems in the brain. Methamphetamine is closely
    related chemically to amphetamine, but the
    central nervous system effects of methamphetamine
    are greater.

3
Methamphetamine Speed
  • Methamphetamine powder ranging in color from
    white, yellow, orange, pink, or brown.
  • Color variations are due to differences in
    chemicals used to produce it and the expertise of
    the cooker.
  • Other names shabu, crystal, crystal meth, crank,
    tina, yaba

4
Methamphetamine Ice
  • High purity methamphetamine crystals or
    coarse powder ranging from translucent to white,
    sometimes with a green, blue, or pink tinge.

5
Methamphetamine A Brief History
  • 1887
  • 1919
  • 1932
  • Amphetamine developed
  • Methamphetamine developed
  • Amphetamine methamphetamine used as
    decongestant

6
Methamphetamines A Brief History
  • WW II Extensive use by
  • - RAF fighter pilots
  • - German Panzer troops
  • - Japanese workers
  • - Led to Kamikaze fever

7
Scope of the Methamphetamine Problem Worldwide
  • According to surveys and estimates by WHO and
    UNDCP, methamphetamine is the most widely used
    illicit drug in the world except for cannabis.
  • World wide it is estimated there are over 42
    million regular users of methamphetamine, as
    compared to approximately 15 million heroin users
    and 10 million cocaine users

8
IHS-Wide Outpatient Encounters for Amphetamine
Related Visit by Calendar Year
9
The Eastward Spread of Methamphetamine
10
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12
Methamphetamine A Growing Menace in Rural America
  • In 1998, rural areas nationwide reported 949
    methamphetamine labs.
  • Last year, 9,385 were reported.
  • This year, 4,589 rural labs had been reported as
    of July 26.
  • Source El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC), U.S.
    DEA

13
Meth Lab Seizures
  • A small percentage of labs seized are labeled
    Super Labs and are capable of producing over 10
    lbs per batch.
  • Super Labs are operated by Mexican National Drug
    Trafficking Organizations (MNDTOs), and supply
    the majority of meth to the market.

14
Stove Top Labs
  • The active ingredient in making methamphetamine
    is ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, commonly found
    in over the counter cold remedies.

15
Toxic Effects of Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Fires
  • Explosions
  • Toxic gases
  • Toxic wastes

16
Toxic Effects of Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Manufacturers
  • Law enforcement officers
  • Bystanders

17
Children
  • Children who live in and around the area of the
    meth lab become exposed to the drug and its toxic
    precursors and byproducts.
  • 80-90 of children found in homes where there
    are meth labs test positive for exposure to meth.
    Some are as young as 19 months old.

18
Children
  • Children can test positive for methamphetamine
    by
  • Having inhaled fumes during the manufacturing
    process
  • Coming into direct contact with the drug
  • Through second-hand smoke.

19
Cardiovascular problems
  • ? heart rate
  • Palpitations
  • Arrhythmia
  • ? blood pressure
  • Chest Pain
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Valve thickening

20
Neurological problems
  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Cerebral vasculitis
  • Mydriasis

21
Respiratory problems
  • Dyspnea
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pleuritic chest pain

22
Other problems
  • Eye ulcers
  • Over-heating
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Obstetric complications
  • Anorexia / weight loss
  • Tooth wear, cavities
  • Speed bumps

23
Trauma
  • Interpersonal trauma
  • Assault
  • Gunshot
  • Knife
  • Motor Vehicles
  • Suicide attempts

24
Methamphetamine Acute Physical Effects
  • - Increases -Decreases
  • Heart rate Appetite
  • Blood pressure Sleep
  • Pupil size Reaction time
  • Respiration
  • Sensory acuity
  • Energy

25
Methamphetamine Acute Psychological Effects
  • Increases
  • Confidence
  • Alertness
  • Mood
  • Sex drive
  • Energy
  • Talkativeness
  • Decreases
  • Boredom
  • Loneliness
  • Timidity

26
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27
Methamphetamine Chronic Physical Effects
  • - Tremor - Sweating
  • - Weakness - Burned lips sore nose
  • - Dry mouth - Oily skin/complexion
  • - Weight loss - Headaches
  • - Cough - Diarrhea
  • - Sinus infection - Anorexia

28
Methamphetamine Chronic Psychological Effects
  • - Confusion -
    Irritability
  • - Concentration - Paranoia
  • - Hallucinations - Panic
    reactions
  • - Fatigue -
    Depression
  • - Memory loss - Anger
  • - Insomnia -
    Psychosis

29
Methamphetamine Psychiatric Consequences
  • Paranoid reactions
  • Permanent memory loss
  • Depressive reactions
  • Hallucinations
  • Psychotic reactions
  • Panic disorders
  • Rapid addiction

30
A Major Reason People Take a Drug is they Like
What It Does to Their Brains
31
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32
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33
Methamphetamine abusers have abnormal brain
activity.
34
Natural Rewards Elevate Dopamine Levels
35
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36
Prolonged Drug Use Changes the Brain In
Fundamental and Long-Lasting Ways
37
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38
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39
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40
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41
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42
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43
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44
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45
Prolonged Drug Use Changes the Brain In
Fundamental and Long-Lasting Ways
46
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47
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48
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49
Control gt MA
4
3
2
1
0
50
MA gt Control
51
Treatment Length by Route
Plt.05
52
Treatment Completion by Route
Plt.05
53
MA-Free Samples by Route
Plt.05
54
BSI Psychiatric Symptoms by Route
Plt.05
Positive Symptom Total (PST)
55
Depression Symptoms by Route
Plt.05
56
Psychopathology and Route
  • IDUs gt likely to have a psychiatric disability.
  • IDUs gt likely to have prior hospitalizations for
    psychiatric problems

57
Hepatitis C by Route
Plt.05
58
Women and Meth
59
Meth and Women
  • Typical gender ratio of heroin users in treatment
    3 men to 1 woman
  • Typical gender ratio of cocaine users in
    treatment 2 men to 1 woman
  • Typical gender ratio of methamphetamine users in
    treatment 1 man to 1 woman
  • among large clinical research populations

60
Drug Use by Gender
61
Self-Reported Reasons for Starting
Methamphetamine Use
62
Self-Reported Reasons for Starting
Methamphetamine Use
63
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64
My sexual drive is increased by the use of …
(Rawson et al., 2002)
65
My sexual pleasure is enhanced by the use of …
(Rawson et al., 2002)
66
My sexual performance is improved by the use of …
(Rawson et al., 2002)
67
CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project
Cross-Site Sample Description
  • 1,016 clients
  • Average age was 32.8 years
  • 55 female
  • 60 Caucasian
  • 12.2 years of education on average
  • 16 currently married
  • 31 awaiting charges, trial, or sentencing

68
Methamphetamine Use History
  • Avg. years of lifetime use 7.54
  • Avg. days used in past 30 11.53
  • Percent that usually smoked 65

69
Violence Issues in Lifetime
  • 78 experienced violence
  • 39 experienced sexual abuse
  • 81 experienced one or the other
  • 36 experienced both

70
Psychological Issues in Lifetime
  • 60 depressed
  • 56 anxiety
  • 45 memory problems
  • 43 violence control problems
  • 34 suicidal thoughts
  • 32 received medication
  • 9 memory problems

71
Gender Differences in Violence History
72
Gender Differences in Partner Violence
73
Gender Differences in Sexual Abuse History
74
  • Analyses reveal that a history of physical or
    sexual violence (controlling for gender) is
    significantly related to a number of negative
    outcomes.
  • These results suggest the importance of
    understanding client background factors before
    they enter treatment.

75
Behavior Symptom Inventory (BSI) Scores at
Baseline
76
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Scores at Baseline
77
Implications
  • Physical and sexual violence is related to
    psychological problems and drug use pattern
    differences
  • Different types of traumas may have different
    outcomes and may affect people in different ways
  • A history of trauma may be related to treatment
    engagement and outcome
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