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Satellite Industry Overview U'S' Department of Commerce Thursday, December 16th 2004


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Title: Satellite Industry Overview U'S' Department of Commerce Thursday, December 16th 2004

Satellite Industry OverviewU.S. Department of
Commerce Thursday, December 16th 2004
Value of Satellite Systems
  • Value of satellite systems grows with widely
    distributed networks and mobility of users
  • Satellite systems perform most effectively when
  • interconnecting wide distributed networks,
  • providing broadcasting services over very wide
    areas such as a country, region, or entire
  • providing connectivity for the last mile in
    cases where fiber networks are simply not
    available for interactive services.
  • providing mobile wideband and narrow band
  • satellites are best and most reliable form of
    communications in the case of natural disasters
    or terrorist attacks - fiber networks or even
    terrestrial wireless can be disrupted by
    tsunamis, earthquakes, etc..

Satellite-Fiber Comparison
Typical Fixed Satellite Network
  • Applications
  • Credit Card Validation
  • ATM/Pay at the Pump
  • Inventory Control
  • Store Monitoring
  • Electronic Pricing
  • Training Videos
  • In-Store Audio
  • Broadband Internet Access
  • Distance Learning

Network HUB
Apartment Buildings
Gas Stations
Corporate Data Center/HQ
Corporate Offices
Branch Offices
Some large scale corporate networks have as many
as 10,000 nodes
Orbital Options
  • A Geosynchronous satellite (GEO) completes one
    revolution around the world every 23 hrs and 56
    minutes in order to maintain continuous
    positioning above the earths sub-satellite point
    on the equator.
  • A medium earth orbit satellite (MEO) requires a
    constellation of 10 to 18 satellites in order to
    maintain constant coverage of the earth.
  • A low earth orbit satellite (LEO) offers reduced
    signal loss since these satellites are 20 to 40
    times closer to the earth in their orbits thus
    allowing for smaller user terminals/antennas.

Geostationary Orbit (GEO)
  • Characteristics of Geostationary (GEO) Orbit
  • User terminals do not have to track the satellite
  • Only a few satellites can provide global coverage
  • Maximum life-time (15 years or more)
  • Above Van Allen Belt Radiation
  • Often the lowest cost system and simplest in
    terms of tracking and high speed switching
  • Challenges of Geostationary (GEO) Orbit
  • Transmission latency or delay of 250 millisecond
    to complete up/down link
  • Satellite antennas must be of larger aperture
    size to concentrate power and to create narrower
    beams for frequency reuse
  • Poor look angle elevations at higher latitudes

Geostationary Orbit Today
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
  • Characteristics of Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Systems
  • - Low latency or transmission delay
  •  - Higher look angle (especially in
    high-latitude regions)
  •  - Less path loss or beam spreading
  • - Easier to achieve high levels of frequency
  • - Easier to operate to low-power/low-gain
    ground antennas
  • Challenges of Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Systems
  • - Larger number of satellites (50 to 70
    satellites). Thus higher launch costs to deploy,
    build, and operate.
  • - Harder to deploy, track and operate. There
    is higher TTCM costs even with cross links.
  • - Shorter in-orbit lifetime due to orbital

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
  • Characteristics of Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO)
  • Less latency and delay than GEO (but greater than
  • Improved look angle to ground receivers in higher
  • Fewer satellites to deploy and operate and
    cheaper TTCM systems than LEO (but more
    expensive than with GEO)
  • Longer in-orbit lifetime than LEO systems (but
    less than GEO)
  • Challenges of Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) Systems
  • More satellites to deploy than GEO (10 to 18 vs.
    3 to 4)
  • Ground antennas are generally more expensive and
    complex because of the need to track satellites.
    Or, one must use lower-gain, quasi-omni antennas.
  • Increased exposure to Van Allen Belt radiation

  • Bus
  • Power Subsystem
  • Telemetry and Command Subsystem
  • Attitude and Control Subsystem
  • Propulsion Subsystem
  • Payload
  • Communications Subsystem
  • Transponders

  • The transponder is the brains of the satellite
    - provides the connection between the satellites
    receive and transmit antennas.
  • Satellites can have 12 to 96 transponders plus
    spares, depending on the size of the satellite.
  • A transponder bandwidth can frequently be 36 MHz,
    54 MHz, or 72 MHz or it can be even wider.
  • A transponders function is to
  • Receive the signal, (Signal is one trillion times
    weaker then when transmitted)
  • Filter out noise,
  • Shift the frequency to a down link frequency (to
    avoid interference w/uplink)
  • Amplify for retransmission to ground

Frequency Efficiency
  • The vital resource in satellite communications is
  • As the demand for satellite services has grown,
    the solution has been
  • To space satellites closer together,
  • Allocate new spectrum in higher bands,
  • Make satellite transmissions more efficient so
    that more bits/Hz can be transmitted, and
  • To find ways to re-use allocated spectrum such as
    through geographic separation into separated
    cells or beams or through polarization separation
  • Today the satellites systems transmit more
    efficiently than ever before but interference is
    now a bigger problem - there is a basic trade
  • The higher the frequency the more spectrum that
    is available
  • But, the higher the frequency the more problems
    with interference from other users terrestrial,
    unlicensed, etc.

Satellite Frequencies
  • There are specific frequency ranges used by
    commercial satellites.
  • L-band (Mobile Satellite Services)
  • 1.0 2.0 GHz
  • S-band (MSS, DARS XM, Sirius)
  • 1.55 3.9 GHz
  • C-band (FSS, VSAT)
  • 3.7 6.2 GHz
  • X-Band (Military/Satellite Imagery)
  • 8.0 12.0 GHz
  • Ku-band (FSS, DBS, VSAT)
  • 11.714.5 GHz
  • Ka-band (FSS broadband and inter-satellite
  • 17.7 - 21.2GHz and 27.5 31 GHz

Satellite Power Systems
  • Main source of power is solar cell panels - new
    solar cells are increasingly efficient
  • The solar cell system is backed up by battery
    system that provides energy during solar eclipses
    and other periods of outages.
  • Typical power levels of 2 to 5 KWs for Fixed
    Satellite Systems and 10 to 12 KWs for Mobile and
    Broadcast Satellite Systems.
  • Batteries
  • latest battery technology is represented by
    Lithium Ion systems that can provide a greater
    power density for longer periods of time and
    survive a greater depth of discharge

Satellite Technologies of the Future
  • Satellites in general are becoming more capable,
    with higher power and larger aperture antennas to
    promote frequency re-use and creating highly
    capable super- computers-in-the-sky
  • With electronically formed beams, the beam
    patterns can be re-formed on command to respond
    to needs at different times of day, or of
    changing requirements that emerge in response to
    market demand
  • Future Technologies include
  • Advanced Phased Array Antennas
  • Dynamic Beam Management
  • Advanced Antenna Systems
  • More Efficient Power Systems
  • Turbo-coding
  • Advanced Modems
  • New materials for Light weight antennas
    (Inflatable Antennas)

Satellite Services Applications
  • Voice/Video/Data Communications
  • Rural Telephony
  • News Gathering/Distribution
  • Internet Trunking
  • Corporate VSAT Networks
  • Tele-Medicine
  • Distance-Learning
  • Mobile Telephony
  • Videoconferencing
  • Business Television
  • Broadcast and Cable Relay
  • VOIP Multi-media over IP
  • GPS/Navigation
  • Position Location
  • Timing
  • Search and Rescue
  • Mapping
  • Fleet Management
  • Security Database Access
  • Emergency Services
  • Remote Sensing
  • Pipeline Monitoring
  • Infrastructure Planning
  • Forest Fire Prevention
  • Urban Planning
  • Flood and Storm watches
  • Air Pollution Management
  • Geo-spatial Services
  • Direct-To-Consumer
  • Broadband IP
  • DTH/DBS Television
  • Digital Audio Radio
  • Interactive Entertainment Games
  • Video Data to handhelds

Infrastructure / Support Services
Launch Vehicles Ground Equipment Insurance
World Satellite Industry Revenues
World Satellite Services Revenue
FSSVSAT services, remote sensing, and
transponder leasing MSSMobile telephone and
mobile data DBS/DARSDTH TV, DARS, and Broadband
Fixed Satellite Services
  • FSS Industry
  • Geosynchronous Spacecraft
  • 22,000 miles in orbit
  • C, Ku and Ka Frequencies
  • Terrestrial Infrastructures
  • Teleports
  • TTC Centers
  • Service Platforms
  • Fiber Interconnects
  • Diverse market-base
  • Media Distribution
  • Telecom Infrastructure
  • Enterprise Networks
  • Government Networks Apps
  • 250 operational commercial GEO satellites in
    use today

Mobile Satellite Industry
  • Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) refer to services
    to mobile user terminals
  • Use a mix of orbit types
  • Geosynchronous (GEO)
  • Non-geosynchronous (LEO and MEO)
  • System sizes range from (1) GEO satellite to (66)
    LEO Satellites
  • Some use Inter-Satellite Links (ISLs)
  • Use a mix of frequencies
  • Mostly L-Band / Some S-Band, UHF/VHF
  • Feeder links and some services use C, Ka, and
  • Applications
  • Aeronautical
  • Maritime
  • Land

Ground Antennas
  • The size of the antenna depends on the satellite
    frequency band used, the data rate, and whether
    the service is bidirectional or receive only
  • Higher data rates require larger antennas and/or
    higher power
  • Higher transmit capability (EIRP) of the
    satellite allows the antenna size to be reduced
  • The use of spot beams instead of global beams
    improves VSAT link performance
  • Receive-only antennas can be substantially smaller

Ground Equipment Trends
  • Overall systems costs have decreased because of
    the explosion of low cost user terminals that can
    now receive video via hand-held units.
  • Omni directional antennas
  • Smaller, lighter, cheaper
  • More powerful, faster
  • Pocket, notebook, rugged
  • Application specific terminals, embedded modems
  • Phones
  • Voice, Asynchronous Data and Packet Data
  • Smaller (antenna and battery in particular)

Minimal Set-Up Time, Robust, Portable, Easy To Use
World Ground Equipment Revenues
Includes Gateways, NOCs, Satellite News
Gathering equipment, flyaways, VSATs, DBS Dishes,
DARS equipment, satellite phone booths, satellite
Launch Industry Overview
  • U.S. Launch Service Providers
  • Lockheed Martin (Atlas)
  • Boeing Launch Services (Delta)
  • Orbital (Pegasus)
  • SpaceX (Falcon)
  • International Launch Vehicle Market
  • Boeing Ukraine - Sea Launch (Zenit)
  • Lockheed Russian - ILS (Atlas/Proton)
  • European- Arianespace (Ariane)
  • India (PSLV)
  • Russian Energia - (Proton)
  • China Great Wall - (LongMarch)
  • Japan Mitsubishi - (H2A)

Global Manufacturing Environment
Big Five Manufacturers
Other Players
Global Supply vs. Demand GEO Communications
Satellites and Launches
U.S. Manufacturing Market Share
  • Satellites Are Critical Infrastructure

Early 2003 GAO Report re Commercial Satellite
Infrastructure Commercial Satellite Security
Should Be More Fully Addressed Early 2003
Homeland Security Act Satellite Communications
Infrastructure Is Critical National
Infrastructure Late 2003 GAO Report re DoDs
Procurement Of Commercial SATCOM Strategic
Approach Need For DoDs Procurement Of Commercial
Satcom Early 2004 NSTAC Satellite Task Force
Report to President Commercial Satellite
Industry Is Critical To Our National, Economic,
and Homeland Security
Critical To The Economy
Eat Out
Stay at Hotels
Buy Service Automobile
Transact Financially
Critical to Flow of Information
  • Newsgathering First choicefor live coverage,
    providinghigh-bandwidth video links from remote
    locations to capture breaking news
  • Program Delivery National broadcasts from four
    major television networks and more than 180 cable
    channels are relayed to over 10,000 local cable
    systems via satellite

Critical to Homeland Security
  • Federal Government utilize satellites for backup
    communications and diversified access
    alternatives to their federal facilities,
    especially at COOP/COG sites
  • Over 80 of the Federal agencies rely on
    satellites for communications, such as -
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) uses
    mobile satellite on wheels trucks, fixed voice
    terminals, and mobile satellite phones for
  • Coast Guard uses satellites for ship-to-ship and
    ship-to-shore communications
  • Customs and Border Protection uses satellites for
    border monitoring and remote access voice
  • Satellites support network reconstitution,
    improving infrastructure resiliency with media
  • USG used PanAmSat capacity over New York to
    during September 11 events
  • Satellites support economic continuity
  • CIP industries, such as finance/banking, oil,
    gas, communications, and retail rely on satellites

Emergency Preparedness Users
Bureau of Indian Affairs Centers for Disease
Control Environmental Protection Agency Federal
Aviation Administration Federal Bureau of
Investigation Fish and Wildlife Service Food and
Drug Administration General Services
Administration Internal Revenue Service National
Institutes of Health National Park
Service National Weather Service Nuclear
Regulatory Commission Transportation Security
Agency Social Security Administration White
U.S. Senate U.S. Navy U.S. Army U.S. Air
Force U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Marine Corps U.S.
Forest Service U.S. Customs Service U.S.
Geological Survey Department of
Commerce Department of Agriculture Department of
Justice Department of State Department of
Homeland Security Department of the
Treasury Department of Veterans Affairs Agency
for International Development
Satellite Task Force Findings
  • The STF Report includes 22 findings on
    vulnerabilities of the commercial SATCOM
    infrastructure and implications of commercial
    satellite use for NS/EP
  • Key task force findings include
  • Satellite services are important for NS/EP
    telecommunications because of their ubiquity and
    independence from other communications
  • Civil agencies have a shortage of in-house
    technical expertise that can integrate SATCOM
    into the agencies communications architectures
  • Agency procurement processes do not allow the
    Government to compete effectively for commercial
    SATCOM capacity
  • All components of commercial satellite systems
    are susceptible to both intentional and
    unintentional threats
  • The current regulatory structure evaluating
    foreign ownership provides a framework that
    adequately protects NS/EP interests

NSTAC STF Recommendations
  • The NSTAC made three recommendations to the
  • 1. Direct the Assistant to the President for
    National Security Affairs, the Assistant to the
    President for Homeland Security, and the
    Director, Office of Science and Technology
    Policy, to develop a national policy with respect
    to the provisioning and management of commercial
    SATCOM services integral to NS/EP communications,
    recognizing the vital and unique capabilities
    commercial satellites provide for global military
    operations, diplomatic missions, and homeland
    security contingency support
  • 2. Fund the Department of Homeland Security to
    implement a commercial SATCOM NS/EP improvement
    program within the National Communications System
    to procure and manage the non-Department of
    Defense satellite communications satellite
    facilities and services necessary to increase the
    robustness of Government communications
  • 3. Appoint several members to represent service
    providers and associations from all sectors of
    the commercial satellite industry to the NSTAC to
    increase satellite industry involvement in NS/EP

Critical To Rural America
Satellites Are The Only Viable Option For Rural
Critical to the Future of Aviation
  • Currently providing secure and reliable voice and
    data communications
  • In-flight data and voice communications for Crew,
    Air Marshals and passengers
  • Establishing specialized secure communications
    for airplanes, airports, seaports, and border
  • Enable Search and Rescue
  • Next Generation Satellite Services
  • Global Air Traffic Management
  • Black Box Alternatives
  • Advanced passenger and safety services

Navigation GPS
  • A military system that is now central to the
    lives of millions of civil and commercial users
  • Public safety dispatch improves response time
  • Search and Rescue locates emergency calls
  • Air Traffic Control guides planes in all
  • Telecommunications primary timing source,
  • E-911 enabler
  • Transportation tracks trains, trucks, vital
  • Underpins US Warfighting
  • Precision Munitions
  • Cruise Missiles
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Commercial Remote Sensing
  • Provides scientific, industrial, civil, military
    and individual users with high resolution images
  • Defense intelligence
  • Homeland security asset protection
  • Insurance risk management
  • Transportation infrastructure planning
  • Natural resource assessment
  • Agriculture
  • Disaster relief
  • Insurance and risk management
  • Oil gas exploration
  • Mapping

QuickBird .61 m color image
Remote Sensing Industry
  • Three U.S. Commercial Satellite Imagery Companies

Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy
  • CRSSP Signed by President, April 2003
  • Goal advance and protect U.S. national security
    by maintaining the nations leadership in remote
    sensing space activities, and by sustaining and
    enhancing the U.S. remote sensing industry.
  • Rely to the maximum practical extent on U.S.
    commercial remote sensing space capabilities
  • Focus USG remote sensing space systems on meeting
    needs that can not be effectively, affordably,
    and reliably satisfied by commercial providers
  • Develop a long-term, sustainable relationship
    between the USG and the U.S. commercial remote
    sensing space industry
  • Provide a timely and responsive regulatory
    environment for licensing the operations of
    commercial remote sensing space systems
  • Enable U.S. industry to compete successfully as a
    provider of remote sensing space capabilities for
    foreign governments and foreign commercial users,
    while ensuring appropriate measures are
    implemented to protect national security and
    foreign policy
  • NGA leading implementation of policy on national
    security side
  • Promoting long-term partnerships
  • ClearView Guaranteed, long term purchase
  • NextView Commitment to advancing next
    generation systems

Critical to Weather Forecasting Search and Rescue
  • NOAAs operational environmental satellite system
    is composed of
  • Geostationary Operational Environmental
    Satellites (GOES) short-range warning and
  • Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES)
    longer term forecasting
  • Both are required for providing complete global
    weather monitoring
  • The satellites carry search and rescue
    instruments, and have helped save the lives of
    about 10,000 people to date.

Critical To National Security
  • 80 of satellite communications used during
    Operation Iraqi Freedom were provided by the
    private sector
  • To meet its near-to-midterm war-fighting
    requirements, DOD must continue to use commercial

Increasing Satcom Requirement
Source Maj. Gen. Charles Croom Briefing,
Federal Telecom Conference, 2002
Benefits Of Partnership
DoD Benefits
Industry Benefits
  • Responsive Procurement
  • Long-Term Planning
  • Lower Operational Risk
  • Coordinated Protection of Private Sector
  • Timely Response to Jamming and Orbital Debris
  • Shaping Warfighter SATCOM Tools for specific
  • Bandwidth portability
  • Network-Centric Operations
  • Centralized/Bulk Procurement
  • Long-Term Contracts
  • Lower Business Risk
  • Coordinated Protection of Private Sector
  • Timely Response to Jamming and Orbital Debris
  • Information Sharing
  • Improved Industry Planning

Mutual Benefits for DoD and Industry
Emerging Services/Applications
Source 2003 Media Business Annual Report
Derived from SG Cowan, January 2003
Satellite Broadband
  • Broadband Connectivity to Homes/Offices
  • Forward link 2-3 Mbps
  • Return link 128 - 512 Kbps
  • Connectivity regardless of location/geography
  • Mobile Broadband Services Comms on the Pause
  • In-motion Transmit and Receive on-the-go
  • Multi-Mb inbound to vehicle, up to 500kbs out
  • Valuable for Network Centric Operations
  • Air, Sea and Land-based vehicle applications
  • Broadband Connectivity to Aircraft
  • Forward link 10 Mbps
  • Return link 128 - 512 Kbps
  • Near-global connectivity
  • E-mail/Internet access
  • FSS Satellite capacity

Satellite Business Factors
  • Satellite Services
  • Lower Transponder Rates
  • Higher Insurance Costs
  • Industry Consolidation
  • Export Controls
  • Access To Adequate Spectrum
  • Competition With Terrestrial Giants
  • Satellite Manufacturing/Launch
  • Overcapacity
  • Export Controls
  • Ground Equipment
  • Interference with Terrestrial/Unlicensed Devices
  • Foreign Licensing/Market Access

Regulatory Issues
  • Satellites Are Inherently International
  • Spectrum Fees
  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  • Interference
  • Interference Noise Temperature
  • Unlicensed Devices
  • Extended C-Band
  • Radar Detectors
  • Ultra Wide-Band
  • Licensing
  • Earth Station
  • Orbital Debris
  • Critical Infrastructure/Homeland Security
  • Emergency Alert System (EAS)

Problems With U.S. Export Controls
  • Lack of Transparency and Predictability
  • Increase costs and delays
  • Widely Available Technologies
  • Deny high-tech industries in the U.S. a level
    playing field
  • Lack of Tiered System
  • Allies are examined under the same scrutiny as
    rogue states
  • Extra-Territorial Reach On Components
  • Foreign manufacturers wary of U.S. components

Satellite Manufacturing Orders
  • Worldwide Orders For (U.S / Non-U.S)
  • Commercial GEO Satellites
  • 1995 18 (11 / 7)
  • 1996 31 (21 / 10)
  • 1997 25 (19 / 6)
  • 1998 22 (16 / 6)
  • 1999 13 (8 / 5)
  • 2000 35 (15 / 20)
  • 2001 28 (24 / 4)
  • 2002 6 (4 cancelled) (1 / 5)

Trade/Market Access
  • Eliminate Excessive Regulatory Fees
  • Regulatory or control fees for satellite services
    should be proportional to the regulation of the
    service i.e. on a cost reimbursable basis
  • Provide Transparent, Non-Discriminatory Licensing
  • Where individual authorizations or registrations
    are required, they should only serve to validate
    the licenses already obtained by the satellite
    operator from its licensing administration.
  • Eliminate Local Entity/Local Presence
  • Satellite operators should not be required to
    establish a local commercial and technical
    presence in each country in which they seek to
    provide services.
  • Provide National Treatment For Foreign
    Operators/Eliminate Monopolies
  • Regulators should remove any foreign ownership
    restrictions (or preference for domestic
    operators) that affect the competitive provision
    of satellite services.
  • Eliminate Burdensome Frequency Coordination
  • Satellite operators should not be required to
    obtain a license or authorization to use the
    radio-electric spectrum associated with their
    space stations on a country-by-country basis.

  • Satellite Industry Issues are Inherently Global
  • International Ramifications for Domestic Actions
  • Satellites Are Critical Infrastructure
  • National, Economic, Homeland Security
  • Spectrum is the Life-Blood Of The Satellite
  • Satellite Spectrum Must Be Protected From
    Interference, Excessive Fees, Regulations
  • Government Must Improve Partnership/Relationship
    with Satellite Industry
  • Acquisition, Protection, Management of Commercial