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Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer


Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer. Cancer Statistics. Cancer still remains a major cause of death worldwide despite many therapies and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer

Cancer Vaccines A novel approach to cancer
Cancer Statistics
  • Cancer still remains a major cause of death
    worldwide despite many therapies and treatment
    modalities available.
  • ACS predicted in 2006 565,000 Americans would
    die of cancer and approximately 1.4 million would
    be diagnosed.

Immunotherapy New class of cancer treatment
  • Considered by many to be the fourth modality of
    cancer treatment after chemotherapy, radiation,
    and surgery.
  • Based on utilizing the patients immune system to
    fight the cancer.
  • Cancer vaccines fall under this category of

Cancer Vaccines
  • Majority used for treatment not prevention.
  • May offer method that can enhance the immune
    response against cancer.
  • Cancer Vaccines Different than HPV vaccine and
    traditional prophylactic vaccines.
  • HPV Vaccine Immunity to the virus, which causes
    cervical cancer.
  • Traditional prophylactic vaccines As with the
    HPV vaccine, provide immunity to a particular
  • At this time, cancer vaccines are only available
    in clinical trials.

Science behind Cancer Vaccines
  • Key players
  • Dendritic Cell
  • Remarkable ability to capture and process
  • Antigen presenting cell-presents antigen to
  • T-cell to mount an immune response.
  • T-Cell
  • Mediates immune response.

5 Main Types of Cancer Vaccines
  • Tumor cell vaccines
  • -Autologous vs. Allogenic
  • Dendritic cell vaccines
  • Antigen vaccines
  • Anti-Idiotype vaccines
  • DNA vaccines

Tumor Cell Vaccines
  • Utilizes whole tumor cells rendered safe by
  • Specific immune response initiated when injected
    into body.
  • Body attacks similar cells that remain in body.
  • Autologous-removed tumor cells from patients own
  • Allogenic-removed tumor cells from someone other
    than the patient.
  • Many different epitopes are recognized.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    melanoma, colorectal, kidney, ovarian, breast,
    lung, and leukemia.

Dendritic Cell Vaccines
  • Dendritic cells can be generated outside of the
  • Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing
    antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen.
  • Dendritic cells injected into the individual
    stimulating an immune response.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    prostate, melanoma, breast, lung, colorectal,
    kidney, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Antigen Vaccines
  • This includes peptide vaccines only one
    specific epitope is injected.
  • Vast amounts of antigen can be created in
  • Some antigens are specific for a certain type of
    cancer others may induce an immune response in
    several cancers.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    include kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer,
    melanoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate
    cancer, and colorectal cancer.

Anti-Idiotype Vaccines
  • Based on the idea that antibodies can also act as
    antigens triggering an immune response.
  • This idea would be used to create a vaccine in
    which the antibodies (which resemble the cancer
    cells) would be injected into the cancer patient
    eliciting an immune response.
  • Primary target is lymphoma.

DNA vaccines
  • Introduction of tumor genes instead of tumor
    antigen itself.
  • Cells in the body take up the injected DNA.
    Specific antigens would then be made on a
    continuous basis.
  • The idea of these vaccines is that the body would
    be provided with a constant supply of antigens to
    allow the immune response to continue against the
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma, and head and
    neck cancer.

OncoVAX by Intracel
  • Autologous vaccine for Stage II colon cancer.
  • Received fast-track status from FDA in 2006.
  • Used in an adjuvant setting.
  • Study 254 patients received either OncoVAX or
  • Improves 5-year survival and recurrence-free
  • 57.1 relative risk reduction.

Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) by Dendreon
  • Dendritic cell vaccine for treatment of
    asymptomatic Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer
  • Received fast-track status by FDA in 2005.
  • Target-prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is
    found in 95 of prostate cancers.
  • Study of Provenge vs. Placebo.
  • 98 men with AIPC.
  • 3.3 month or 21 improvement in median
  • survival.
  • 3-year follow-up 32 of men that received
    Provenge alive compared to 21 placebo.
  • 52 increase in survival rate.

Lung Cancer Vaccine at UK
  • Dendritic cell vaccine.
  • Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Study Patients with Stage IA to IIIB were given
  • Patients treated prior with surgery,
    chemoradiation, or multimodality therapy.
  • Results published for 16 patients.
  • 5/16 no clear immunologic response.
  • 5/16 antigen-independent response.
  • 6/16 response may have been tumor specific.
  • response shown in various stages of NSCLC.

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  • Clear that the immune system displays a highly
    developed response against cancer.
  • May be more effective in cancers that are not
  • Majority will probably be used as adjuvants.
  • Clinically not yet at our fingertips.
  • Much progress has been made in this area of
  • More research still needs to be done including
    larger studies.
  • Researchers are actively trying to overcome
    hurdles in the making of these vaccines.
  • Could make a big impact on our approach to
  • Most importantly these vaccines could mean better
    quality of life and longer survival for our

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