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Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer

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Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer. Cancer Statistics. Cancer still remains a major cause of death worldwide despite many therapies and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cancer Vaccines: A novel approach to cancer


1
Cancer Vaccines A novel approach to cancer
2
Cancer Statistics
  • Cancer still remains a major cause of death
    worldwide despite many therapies and treatment
    modalities available.
  • ACS predicted in 2006 565,000 Americans would
    die of cancer and approximately 1.4 million would
    be diagnosed.

3
Immunotherapy New class of cancer treatment
  • Considered by many to be the fourth modality of
    cancer treatment after chemotherapy, radiation,
    and surgery.
  • Based on utilizing the patients immune system to
    fight the cancer.
  • Cancer vaccines fall under this category of
    treatment.

4
Cancer Vaccines
  • Majority used for treatment not prevention.
  • May offer method that can enhance the immune
    response against cancer.
  • Cancer Vaccines Different than HPV vaccine and
    traditional prophylactic vaccines.
  • HPV Vaccine Immunity to the virus, which causes
    cervical cancer.
  • Traditional prophylactic vaccines As with the
    HPV vaccine, provide immunity to a particular
    disease.
  • At this time, cancer vaccines are only available
    in clinical trials.

5
Science behind Cancer Vaccines
  • Key players
  • Dendritic Cell
  • Remarkable ability to capture and process
    antigen.
  • Antigen presenting cell-presents antigen to
  • T-cell to mount an immune response.
  • T-Cell
  • Mediates immune response.

6
5 Main Types of Cancer Vaccines
  • Tumor cell vaccines
  • -Autologous vs. Allogenic
  • Dendritic cell vaccines
  • Antigen vaccines
  • Anti-Idiotype vaccines
  • DNA vaccines

7
Tumor Cell Vaccines
  • Utilizes whole tumor cells rendered safe by
    irradiation.
  • Specific immune response initiated when injected
    into body.
  • Body attacks similar cells that remain in body.
  • Autologous-removed tumor cells from patients own
    body.
  • Allogenic-removed tumor cells from someone other
    than the patient.
  • Many different epitopes are recognized.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    melanoma, colorectal, kidney, ovarian, breast,
    lung, and leukemia.

8
Dendritic Cell Vaccines
  • Dendritic cells can be generated outside of the
    body.
  • Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing
    antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen.
  • Dendritic cells injected into the individual
    stimulating an immune response.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    prostate, melanoma, breast, lung, colorectal,
    kidney, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

9
Antigen Vaccines
  • This includes peptide vaccines only one
    specific epitope is injected.
  • Vast amounts of antigen can be created in
    laboratories.
  • Some antigens are specific for a certain type of
    cancer others may induce an immune response in
    several cancers.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    include kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer,
    melanoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate
    cancer, and colorectal cancer.

10
Anti-Idiotype Vaccines
  • Based on the idea that antibodies can also act as
    antigens triggering an immune response.
  • This idea would be used to create a vaccine in
    which the antibodies (which resemble the cancer
    cells) would be injected into the cancer patient
    eliciting an immune response.
  • Primary target is lymphoma.

11
DNA vaccines
  • Introduction of tumor genes instead of tumor
    antigen itself.
  • Cells in the body take up the injected DNA.
    Specific antigens would then be made on a
    continuous basis.
  • The idea of these vaccines is that the body would
    be provided with a constant supply of antigens to
    allow the immune response to continue against the
    cancer.
  • Cancers these vaccines are being studied in
    prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma, and head and
    neck cancer.

12
OncoVAX by Intracel
  • Autologous vaccine for Stage II colon cancer.
  • Received fast-track status from FDA in 2006.
  • Used in an adjuvant setting.
  • Study 254 patients received either OncoVAX or
    placebo.
  • Improves 5-year survival and recurrence-free
    interval.
  • 57.1 relative risk reduction.

13
Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) by Dendreon
  • Dendritic cell vaccine for treatment of
    asymptomatic Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer
    (AIPC).
  • Received fast-track status by FDA in 2005.
  • Target-prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is
    found in 95 of prostate cancers.
  • Study of Provenge vs. Placebo.
  • 98 men with AIPC.
  • 3.3 month or 21 improvement in median
  • survival.
  • 3-year follow-up 32 of men that received
    Provenge alive compared to 21 placebo.
  • 52 increase in survival rate.

14
Lung Cancer Vaccine at UK
  • Dendritic cell vaccine.
  • Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Study Patients with Stage IA to IIIB were given
    vaccine.
  • Patients treated prior with surgery,
    chemoradiation, or multimodality therapy.
  • Results published for 16 patients.
  • 5/16 no clear immunologic response.
  • 5/16 antigen-independent response.
  • 6/16 response may have been tumor specific.
  • response shown in various stages of NSCLC.

15
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16
Conclusion
  • Clear that the immune system displays a highly
    developed response against cancer.
  • May be more effective in cancers that are not
    advanced.
  • Majority will probably be used as adjuvants.
  • Clinically not yet at our fingertips.
  • Much progress has been made in this area of
    research.
  • More research still needs to be done including
    larger studies.
  • Researchers are actively trying to overcome
    hurdles in the making of these vaccines.
  • Could make a big impact on our approach to
    cancer.
  • Most importantly these vaccines could mean better
    quality of life and longer survival for our
    patients!!

17
References
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    immunity for cancer. British Medical Journal.
    20013231289-1293. PMID 11731394.
  • Armstrong ACb, Hawkins RE. Vaccines in oncology
    background and clinical potential. The British
    Journal of Radiology. 200174 991-1002. PMID
    11709463.
  • Berzofsky JA, Terabe M, Oh S, Belyakov IM, Ahlers
    JD, Janik JE, et al. Progess on new vaccine
    strategies for the immunotherapy and prevention
    of cancer. J. Clin. Interest. 2004
    1131515-1525. PMID 15173875.
  • Blattman JN., Greenberg PD. Cancer
    immunotherapy A treatment for the masses.
    Science. 2004305200-205. PMID 15247469.
  • Brand TC, Tolcher AW. Management of high risk
    metastatic prostate cancer the case for novel
    therapies. The Journal of Urology. 2006176
    S76-S80. PMID 17084174.
  • Cancer.org. homepage on the Internet.
    Atlanta American Cancer Society, Inc. c2006.
    revised 2005 April 11. Available from
    http//www.cancer.org/
  • Dendreon.com homepage on the Internet.
    Seattle Dendreon Corporation c2006.
  • Available from http//www.dendreon.com/
  • Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and
    Molecular Genetics Faculty Listing. Yannelli JR.
    University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center
    c2004. Available from http//www.mc.uky.edu/micro
    biology/yannelli.asp
  • Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA, Kuby Janis.
    Immunology. Fifth Ed. New York W.H. Freeman
    and Company 2003.
  • Groot CA, Vermorken JB, Hanna Jr MG, Verboom P,
    Groot MT, GJ Bonsel, et al. Immunotherapy with
    autologous tumor cell-BCG vaccine in patients
    with colon cancer a prospective study of
    medical and economic benefits. ScienceDirect.
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  • Hirschowitz EA, Foody T, Krysico R, Dickson L,
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    2808-2815.
  • Intracel.com. homepage on the Internet
    Frederick Intracel Corporation c2006.
    Available from http//www.intracel.com/
  • Tabi Z a, Mann S. Challenges for cancer vaccine
    development. Science Direct. Advanced Drug
    Delivery Reviews. In press 2006.
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  • Tarassoff CP, Arlen PM, Gulley JL. Therapeutic
    vaccines for prostate cancer. The Oncologist.
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