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Meet the Main Group Elements

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Groups Can Be a Family Affair... There are also other, less specific, ... baseball bats. Your body heat. will melt Gallium. Carbon Group. Four electrons in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Meet the Main Group Elements


1
Meet the Main Group Elements!
  • Or Who are the Elements in Your Neighborhood?
  • http//members.tripod.com/Tiny_Dancer/peopleinyour
    neighborhood.mp3

2
What Are All The Groups?
3
Groups Can Be a Family Affair
  • There are also other, less specific, groups of
    elements. These groups are all over the table.
  • Scientists group these families of elements by
    their chemical properties. Each family reacts a
    different way with the outside world.
  • Sometimes families align with the columns or
    groups, sometimes they dont. Only tests will
    tell for sure!

4
Alkali Metals
  • One electron in their outer (valence) electronic
    shell
  • Tend to lose a single electron to form a 1
    charged positive ions
  • Highly reactive!
  • Combine with negatively charged ions to form
    salts
  • Soft and easily cut
  • Low densities melt at low temperatures.

Because they are so reactive,alkali metals are
alwaysfound in compounds.
5
Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Two electrons in outer shell
  • Tend to lose two electrons to form 2 positive
    ions
  • Also very reactive
  • Sometimes they bond with two halogen atoms (BeF2)
    and sometimes they form one double bond (CaO)
  • Called alkaline because they are likely to form
    solutions with a pH greater than 7 (bases).

Alkaline earth metals are a major part of seas
shells andmagnesium (mag) wheels.
6
Boron Group
  • Three electrons in outer shell
  • Tend to lose three electrons to form 3 positive
    ions
  • Boron is a metalloid. Others in group are metals.
  • Boron and Aluminum have widespread commercial
    applications

Aluminum is used to makebaseball bats. Your body
heatwill melt Gallium.
7
Carbon Group
  • Four electrons in outer (valence) shell
  • Tend to share these four electrons to form
    covalent compounds
  • Carbon can form an unlimited number of compounds.
  • Most compounds in living things contain carbon.

Carbon makes up graphite,an excellent lubricant.
Siliconis a major part of many minerals.
8
Nitrogen Group
  • Five electrons in their outer (valence) shell
  • Tend to gain three electrons to form 3- charged
    negative ions
  • 80 of our air is Nitrogen (living things need
    Nitrogen to make proteins).

Phosphorus is used to makematches. Liquid
Nitrogen willinstantly freeze a rose.
9
Oxygen Group
  • Six electrons in outer (valence) shell
  • Tend to gain two electrons to form 2- negative
    ions
  • Oxygen is the most important and most abundant
    element on Earth!
  • Plants produce oxygen during photosynthesis

Astronauts rely on oxygentanks to breathe.
Sulfur is ayellowish non-metal solid.
10
Halogens
  • Chemically reactive!
  • Not all halogens react with the same intensity.
    Fluorine is the most reactive and combines all of
    the time. As you move down the column, reactivity
    decreases.
  • When a halogen combines with another element, the
    resulting compound is called a halide.

Salt and plastics bothcontain halogen
compoundsor halides.
11
Noble Gases
  • Eight electrons in their outer (valence) shell
  • They are chemically inert and do not combine with
    other elements
  • They do not lose, gain, or share electrons
  • All Noble Gases exist in the earths atmosphere

Helium makes blimps floatand other gases create
thecolors in Neon lights.
12
Transition Metals
  • Numbers of electrons lost or gained varies
  • Much less reactive than alkali and alkaline earth
    metals
  • Often found in ores (minerals)
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

Transition metals make up most metal objects.
Some form colorfulcompounds.
13
Rare-Earth Metals
  • Also called Lanthanides
  • Except for Promethium, all Lanthanides occur in
    nature
  • Pure Lanthanides look like steel and have
    steel-like properties
  • Tiny amounts of pure Lanthanides are used in
    Lasers

Rare earth metals have properties that make them
useful in certain special devices.
14
Actinides
  • Most are synthetic and are made in laboratories.
    Only Actinium, Thorium, Protactinium Uranium
    occur naturally
  • All isotopes of all the actinides are radioactive
  • Actinide metals tarnish readily in air
  • React with boiling water or dilute acid to
    release hydrogen gas

All isotopes of actinides are radioactive. Most
are synthetic.
Learn more http//www.ucc.ie/ucc/depts/chem/dolch
em/html/elem/group.html
15
Class Project We are going to create a Periodic
Table of you!
  • Step One Complete the survey to help identify
    your main characteristics
  • Step Two Group like students into families
  • Step Three Create a giant PT with each student!

http//www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/pertable_
fla.htm
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