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STRESS IS A PERSONS PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO CHANGE'

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Title: STRESS IS A PERSONS PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO CHANGE'


1
STRESS IS A PERSONS PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL
RESPONSE TO CHANGE.
2
CLASSIFICATION OF STRESS
  • POSITIVE STRESS
  • NEGATIVE STRESS
  • ACUTE STRESS
  • CHRONIC STRESS

3
WHAT CAUSES STRESS ?
  • LIFE EVENTS SUCH AS DIVORCE OR SEPARATION, DEATH
    OF A LOVED ONE, THE BIRTH OF A CHILD, MOVING, A
    MAJOR FINANCIAL SETBACK, EMPLOYMENT CHANGES OR
    BECOMING THE VICTIM OF A CRIME OR NATURAL
    DISASTER
  • DAILY EVENTS SUCH AS TRAFFIC CONGESTION, LONG
    COMMUTES, WORKING OVERTIME, DEADLINES, PERSONAL
    CONFLICTS, CAR TROUBLE, JOB STRESS, AND JUGGLING
    HOUSEHOLD CHORES AND CHILDCARE
  • ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS SUCH AS POLLUTION,
    WEATHER EXTREMES OR EXCESSIVE NOISE
  • PHYSICAL STRESSORS SUCH AS PHYSICAL INJURY,
    CHRONIC PAIN, TIRING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (SUCH AS
    TRAVELING), AND UNSATISFIED PHYSICAL NEEDS SUCH
    AS HUNGER, THIRST OR LACK OF SLEEP


  • Continued.

4
1. DEATH OF A SPOUSE 2. DIVORCE 3. MARITAL
SEPARATION 4. IMPRISONMENT 5. DEATH OF A
CLOSE RELATIVE 6. PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS
7. MARRIAGE 8. FIRED FROM A JOB 9. MARITAL
RECONCILIATION 10. RETIREMENT 11. ILLNESS OF A
RELATIVE 12. PREGNANCY 13. SEXUAL PROBLEMS 14.
BIRTH OR ADOPTION 15. BUSINESS READJUSTMENT

Continued

5
16. Change in financial status 17. Death of a
close friend 18. Change to different work 19.
Increased arguments with spouse 20. Mortgage or
loan for major purchase 21. Foreclosure on
mortgage or loan 22. Change in job
responsibilities 23. Child leaving home 24.
Problems with in-laws 25. Outstanding personal
achievement 26. Spouse begins or stops work 27.
Begin or end school 28. Change in living
conditions 29. Changing personal habits 30.
Problems with your boss
Continued

6
31. CHANGE IN WORK 32. HOURS/CONDITIONS 33.
CHANGE IN RESIDENCE OR SCHOOL
RECREATION 34. CHURCH OR SOCIAL ACTIVITIES 35.
MORTGAGE OR LOAN 36. CHANGE IN SLEEPING
HABITS 37. CHANGE IN FAMILY GATHERINGS 38. CHANGE
IN EATING HABITS 39. VACATION 40. ANY
FESTIVALS 41. MINOR LAW VIOLATION

7
PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR STRESS
  • GENETIC FACTORS
  • INABILITY TO ADAPT
  • INADEQUATE RELAXATION RESPONSE
  • RESPONSE ACTIVITY VARIATIONS
  • AGE
  • PERSONALITY
  • ISOLATION
  • Environment

8
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS
  • Behavioral symptoms
  • Physical symptoms

9
BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS
  • TOO MUCH SLEEP (HYPERSOMNIA) OR TOO LITTLE SLEEP
    (INSOMNIA)
  • NIGHTMARES
  • NERVOUS HABITS LIKE NAIL-BITING OR FOOT-TAPPING
  • DECREASED SEX DRIVE
  • TEETH GRINDING
  • IRRITABILITY OR IMPATIENCE
  • CRYING OVER MINOR INCIDENTS
  • DREADING GOING TO WORK OR OTHER ACTIVITIES

10
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
  • MIGRAINE OR TENSION HEADACHES
  • DIGESTIVE PROBLEMS LIKE HEARTBURN OR DIARRHEA
  • SHALLOW BREATHING OR SIGHING
  • COLD OR SWEATY PALMS
  • JAW PAIN, NECK PAIN,SHOULDER PAIN

11
EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS
  • 1.    Excessive fatigue
  • 2.    Gastric disturbance
  • 3.    Withdraw from social life
  • 4.    Menstrual problems
  • 5.    Speech difficulties
  • 6.    More impatient
  • 7.    Headaches
  • 8.    Infertility
  • 9.    Ulcers
  • 10. Nail biting
  • 11. Grinding teeth
  • 12. Low blood sugar
  • 13. High blood sugar

12
EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-2
  •    14. Need more sleep
  • 15. Tired but can't sleep  
  • 16. Sudden weight loss
  •      17. Sudden weight gain
  •      18. Low blood pressure
  •      19. High blood pressure
  •      20 .Lack of coordination
  •      21. Repeated influenza
  •      22. Repeated colds
  •      23. Muscle aches
  •      24. Hair loss
  • 25. Chest pain

13
EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-3
  • 1.     Forgetfulness
  • 2.     Nervous talking
  • 3.     Lower back pain
  • 4.     Loss of appetite
  • 5.     Increased appetite
  • 6.     High cholesterol
  • 7. High triglycerides

14
Physical signs and symptoms of stress
  • Increased heart rate
  • Pounding heart
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Sweaty palms
  • Tightness of the chest, neck, jaw, and back
    muscles
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Urinary hesitancy
  • Trembling
  • Being easily startled
  • Chronic pain and
  • Dysponea
  • Twitching
  • Stuttering and other speech difficulties
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Fatigue
  • Shallow breathing
  • Dryness of the mouth or throat
  • Susceptibility to minor illness
  • Cold hands
  • Itching

15
Emotional signs and symptoms of stress
  • Irritability
  • Angry outbursts
  • Hostility
  • Depression
  • Jealously
  • Restlessness
  • Withdrawal
  • Decreased perception of positive
  • Experience opportunities
  • Narrowed focus
  • Obsessive rumination
  • Reduced self-esteem
  • emotional response reflexes
  • Weakened positive emotional response reflexes
  • Anxiousness
  • Diminished initiative
  • Feelings of unreality or over-alertness
  • Reduction of personal involvement with others
  • Lack of interest
  • Tendency to cry
  • Being critical of others
  • Self-deprecation
  • Nightmares
  • Impatience
  • Reduced self-esteem
  • Insomnia
  • Changes in eating habits

16
Cognitive/Perceptual Signs and Symptoms of Stress
  • Decreased psychomotor reactivity and coordination
  • Attention deficit
  • Disorganization of thought
  • Negative self-esteem
  • Diminished sense of meaning in life
  • Lack of control/need for too much control
  • Negative self-statements and negative evaluation
    of experience
  • Forgetfulness
  • Preoccupation
  • Blocking
  • Blurred vision
  • Errors in judging distance
  • Diminished or exaggerated fantasy life
  • Reduced creativity
  • Lack of concentration
  • Diminished productivity
  • Lack of attention to detail
  • Orientation to the past

17
Behavioral Signs and Symptoms of Stress
  • Increased smoking
  • Aggressive behaviors (such as driving - road
    rage, etc.)
  • Increased alcohol or drug use
  • Carelessness
  • Under-eating
  • Over-eating
  • Nervous laughter
  • Compulsive behavior
  • Impatience
  • Withdrawal
  • Listlessness
  • Hostility
  • Accident-proneness

18
Signs of Stress in The Workplace
  • Stress Arousal Stage
  • Persistent irritability and anxiety
  • Bruxism and/or Insomnia
  • Occasional forgetfulness and/or inability to
    concentrate
  • Stress Resistance Stage
  • Absenteeism or tardiness for work
  • Tired and fatigued for no reason
  • Procrastination and indecision
  • Social withdrawal with cynicism
  • Resentful, indifferent, defiant
  • Increased use of coffee, alcohol, tobacco, etc.

19
Jobs and stress
  • The TUC identifies four main causes
  • Environmental (noise, overcrowding, open plan
    offices, for child care facilities, for
    instance)
  • Contractual (low pay, shift work, excessive
    overtime, job insecurity)
  • Job designed (boring work, too much/little work,
    lack of job control)
  • Relationships (poor relations with colleagues,
    lack of communication, impersonal treatment).
  • Loss of self-esteem and a lack of control are two
    very common themes.

20
Demands of the task 
  • Excessive workloads are associated with increased
    rates of accidents and health problems (Mackay
    Cox, 1978). The workload for mothers is
    particularly heavy because not only do they work
    outside of the home but also do most of the
    chores at home (Frankenhaeuser, 1991). Repetitive
    jobs that under utilise the workers abilities can
    produce stress. The evaluation of an employee's
    job or performance is also particularly stressful
    for both the supervisor and the employee (Quick
    and Quick, 1984).

21
Responsibility for people's lives
  • People working in the health professions need to
    take many life and death decisions instantly and
    experience appalling things, this leads to
    feelings of emotional exhaustion (Maslach
    Jackson, 1982). The same applies to the police
    and fire fighters.

22
Stress can result from other aspects of jobs
  • The physical environment of the job. Extreme
    levels of noise, temperature, humidity, or
    illumination cause stress (Mackay Cox, 1978).
  • Perceived insufficient control. People experience
    stress when they have little influence over work
    procedures or the pace of the work (Cottington
    House, 1987).

23
Stress can result from other aspects of jobs
  • 3 Poor interpersonal relationships. Stress
    increases when an employee's boss or colleague is
    socially abrasive, being insensitive to the needs
    of others or condescending and overly critical of
    the work other individuals do (Quick and Quick,
    1984).
  • 4 Perceived inadequate recognition or
    advancement. Workers feel stress when they do not
    get the recognition or promotions they believe
    they deserve (Cottington et al, 1986).

24
Stress can result from other aspects of jobs
  • 5 Job loss. The sense of job insecurity is
    stressful, particularly if the employee has
    little prospect of finding another job
    (Cottington et al, 1986). Unemployment is
    associated with stress, such as in people's loss
    of self-esteem and heightened blood pressure
    (Olafsson Svensson, 1986).

25
Retirement
  • Retirement can be stressful because retired
    people have lost opportunities for social
    interaction and an important part of their
    identity. They may miss the power and influence
    they once hand, the structure and routines of a
    job, and the feeling of being useful and
    competent (Bohm Rodin, 1985). In addition
    retired people often live on low incomes, which
    again produces stress.

26
Life transitions
  • Life transitions tend to be stressful (Moos and
    Schaefer, 1986). Changing from one phase to
    another in life is called a transition examples
    include
  • Starting school
  • Moving home
  • Reaching puberty
  • Starting college, especially away from home
  • Starting a career
  • Getting married

27
Langer and Rodin (1976)
  • A study carried out by Langer and Rodin (1976)
    attempted to discover the effects of giving
    people a greater sense of personal control. They
    compared two different wards in a nursing home
    for elderly people in Connecticut, USA. The
    residents in the two wards were of similar age,
    health and socioeconomic status, and they had
    been resident in the home for the same period of
    time on average (residents who were too
    uncommunicative or bedridden to take part were
    excluded from the study).

28
Langer and Rodin (1976)
  • Both groups of residents were given a talk, but
    the issue of personal responsibility was strongly
    stressed with one of them and not the other.
    Furthermore, residents in this first group were
    offered a plant each for their rooms and were
    asked where they wanted it placed. Additionally,
    they were allowed to choose which night to go and
    watch a film. Residents in the other group were
    simply given the plant and told which night to go
    and see the film.

29
Langer and Rodin (1976)
  • Even this fairly minimal manipulation of personal
    control seemed to have a dramatic effect.
    Residents who were given a greater sense of
    personal control were happier, more active, more
    alert and, when the researchers returned after
    eighteen months, were in better health and fewer
    had died. This study implies that having a
    greater sense of personal control actually helps
    to reduce stress.

30
Commentary
  • There are methodological and ethical criticisms
    that can be made of Langer and Rodins study. The
    sample was very limited (elderly Americans
    living in a particular care home). On the other
    hand, Langer and Rodin took care to avoid demand
    characteristics by not informing the residents,
    nurses or research assistants (who collected the
    data) of the purpose of the study. Controlled
    experiments on the damaging effects of stress in
    human beings can be very unethical.

31
Commentary
  • In this case, Langer and Rodin would argue that
    they did not harm anyones health, but actually
    improved it for those residents who were given a
    greater sense of control. On the other hand, when
    the experiment was over, we do not know whether
    the situation reverted to what it had been
    before, and it may be that being given a sense of
    control for three weeks, then having it removed
    again, did more harm than good in the long term.

32
Commentary
  • There are clear implications of this study for
    the way people are treated in residential homes.
    There is also a lesson to be learnt when
    developing therapy to help people suffering from
    extreme stress. If it is true that a low sense of
    personal control (that is, having a very external
    locus of control) can lead to stress, then in
    cases where this applies it may be beneficial for
    therapy to focus on shifting peoples locus of
    control from external to internal.

33
Sources within the person
  • Approach/approach conflict
  • This is the conflict produced when the choice is
    between two good strategies. For example needing
    to follow a diet and wanting to eat a fattening
    cake. These conflicts are easily resolved but the
    more important the decision seems to be, the more
    difficult it is for the person to solve the
    conflict.

34
Sources within the person
  • Avoidance/Avoidance conflict
  • This is the conflict produced when the choice is
    between two bad strategies. For example, the
    choice between two equally harrowing treatments
    for an illness. Patients often delay making a
    choice and might easily change their minds
    repeatedly. Patients might even change their
    doctor in the hope that they will be given an
    easier choice. They might even get somebody else
    to make the decision for them. This conflict is
    difficult to resolve and very stressful.

35
Sources within the person
  • Approach/Avoidance conflict
  • This is when a single goal has good points and
    bad points. For example giving up smoking might
    mean a gain in weight.

36
Sources in the family
  • Interpersonal conflict can arise from financial
    problems, from inconsiderate behaviour, and from
    opposing goals. Overcrowded conditions increases
    conflict over privacy and the use of family
    resources, such as the Bathroom. Major sources of
    stress in the family are the addition of a new
    family member, illness, infirmity, and death in
    the family.

37
An addition to the family
  • Obviously the mother will experience much stress
    during pregnancy and after the birth. But the
    father may also worry over money, or his wife's
    and baby's health, or fear that his relationship
    with his wife may deteriorate.
  • Parents may experience stress from their
    relationship with the baby. Each baby comes into
    the world with certain personality dispositions,
    which are called temperaments (Buss Plomin,
    1975). There are easy babies and difficult ones.
    Babies react differently to feeding, cuddling,
    bathing, and dressing.

38
An addition to the family
  • Difficult babies tend to cry a great deal. They
    resist new foods, routines, and people, and their
    patterns of Sleep, hunger, and bowel movements
    are hard to predict. About 10 of babies are
    classified as difficult displaying most of these
    traits fairly consistently, many others show some
    of these traits occasionally. Longitudinal
    studies have shown that children's temperaments
    are stable across time. Many traits continue for
    many years, although many difficult children show
    changes toward the development of easy traits
    (Carey McDevitt, 1978).

39
An addition to the family
  • The arrival of a new baby can also be stressful
    to other children in the family (Honig, 1987).
    Much stress can be experienced in children aged
    two or three years old who do not want to share
    their parents with the new brother or sister.
    These children often show increased clinging to
    the mother and their sleeping and toileting
    problems also increase. Older children experience
    stress from the changes in the pattern of family
    interaction, such as when the parents introduce
    new rules.

40
Family illness, disability, and death
  • A working mother with a sick child will
    experience much stress. When children have a
    serious chronic illness, their families have to
    cope with stress over a long period. The amount
    of time needed to care for the child conflicts
    with other activities. The family also needs to
    make difficult decisions. They need to learn
    about the illness and how to care for their
    child. There is much expense and other children
    begin to feel left out.

41
Family illness, disability, and death
  • Adult sickness can also produce much stress in
    the family. If a principal breadwinner is ill
    there will be a strain on the family's financial
    resources. The family's time and personal freedom
    are curtailed producing changes in interpersonal
    relationships.
  • If an elderly person who is ill or disabled must
    live with and be careful by relatives, the stress
    for those in the household can be severe,
    especially if the person requires constant care
    and shows mental deterioration (Robinson
    Thurner, 1986).

42
Family illness, disability, and death
  • If a parent dies children under about five years
    of age seem to grieve for the lost parent less
    strongly and for a shorter time than older
    children and adolescents do (Garmezy, 1983).
    Children's concept of death changes between four
    and eight years of age (Lonetto, 1980). Young
    children think death is reversible the person
    will come back eventually.

43
Family illness, disability, and death
  • An adult whose child or spouse dies suffers a
    tremendous loss. Bereaved mothers reported that
    they had lost important hopes and expectations
    for the future (Edelstein, 1984). A mother who
    loses her only child loses her identity and role
    as a mother too. The loss of a spouse is
    especially stressful in early adult (Ball,
    1976-77).

44
Child abuse
  • The stress caused by long-lasting psychological
    effects of sexual abuse in childhood has been
    found to increase the likelihood of certain
    diseases in old age. Women who were assaulted in
    their teens appeared to run greater risk of
    developing arthritis and breast cancer in later
    life, while Male victims are more likely to
    develop diseases of the thyroid than men who were
    not abused as children. 1,300 elderly
    middle-class participants were studied 12 of the
    women and 5 of the men reported unwanted sexual
    contact for childhood.

45
Child abuse
  • Breast cancer and arthritis were relatively
    common amongst participants who had suffered
    sexual abuse the more sustained the abuse the
    higher the risk of developing the diseases.
    However those abused were less likely to suffer
    from hypertension, but this was probably due to
    survivor bias, in other words, people with
    hypertension tend to die younger, so do not
    feature in studies of elderly people. Stein and
    Barrett-Connor (2000).

46
Environmental stress
  • Crowded conditions can be stressful for three
    reasons
  • Lack of control over interpersonal interaction,
    as when other people can overhear your
    conversation.
  • The restricted ability to move about freely or
    reduced access to resources, such as seats.
  • Intrusion into personal space (Sarafino, 1987).

47
Environmental stress
  • People exposed to hazardous substances in their
    environment worry for years about what will
    happen to them (Baum, 1988). 
  • People who lived near the three mile Island power
    plant in Pennsylvania, where a nuclear accident
    had happened suffered more stress more than a
    year after the accident than other residents near
    a similar facility (Fleming et al., 1982). 

48
Stressors and stress response
  • Stressors - produce stressSource of stressors
    can be Family (as when trying to cope with a
    newborn baby or when looking after a sick
    relative), Work or the Environment.
  • Stress response - response to stresssor

49
Stressors and stress response
  • Stressors - external - e.g. heat, crowding,
    noise, difficulties with a loved one or contact
    with a hated one.
  • internal - e.g. pain, thoughts, feelings.
  • But not straightforward - heat can be relaxing
    and crowds can be exciting.Individual
    differences.

50
Other factors
  • Other factors
  • Event
  • negative - Divorce (-ve), Marriage (ve)
  • Controllable or predictable
  • ambiguous - not sure what is happening. e.g.
    stuck on underground train without being
    informed.

51
Lundberg (1976)
  • Using urine samplesCommuters on crowded trains
    more stressed than in empty trains
  • but those that had been on the train since the
    start, showed less stress, even though they had
    been exposed to the crowded condition longer.
  • Being able to choose seat, control the situation,
    reduced the stress.

52
Post - traumatic stress disorder and 'The Herald
of Free Enterprise'.
  • 1) Re-experiencing phenomena.
  • Most of the children reported intrusive thoughts
    and some experienced full-blown flashbacks.
  • 2) Avoidance or numbing reactions.
  • Detached from othersAvoided not only ferry
    travel, but also the sea.Immediate aftermath -
    avoided shower or bath.Cyclical - reappear and
    disappear.Onset can be several months
    later.Just as severe.

53
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54
Ambiguity
  • Ambiguity can cause stress. Two types of
    ambiguity are
  • Role ambiguity
  • Harm ambiguity.

55
Role ambiguity
  • Role ambiguity can occur in the workplace, for
    instance when there are no clear guidelines,
    standards for performance and no clear
    consequences. Role ambiguity is stressful because
    people are uncertain about what actions and
    decisions to make.

56
Harm ambiguity
  • Harm ambiguity occurs when people are not sure
    what to do to avoid harm. Stress will depend upon
    the person's personality, beliefs and general
    experience (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). A person
    who is seriously ill and has no clear information
    might draw hope from this ambiguity, believing
    that they will get well. Another person in the
    same situation may believe that people are
    deliberately giving ambiguous information because
    the prognosis is poor.

57
Controllability
  • Controllability is another factor that will
    affect the perception of stress. People tend to
    appraise uncontrollable events as being more
    stressful than controllable events (Miller,
    1979). There are two types of control
  • Behavioural
  • Cognitive.

58
Controllability
  • Behavioural control means performing some action.
    For example, being unable to take a tablet for a
    headache will make experiencing a headache less
    stressful.
  • In the case of cognitive control, we can affect
    the impact of the events by using some mental
    strategy, such as distraction or by developing a
    plan to overcome the problem.

59
Link between stress and arousal
60
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61
OUR BODYS REACTION TO STRESS (GENERAL ADAPTATION
SYNDROME (GAS))
  • ALARM REACTION
  • RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION
  • EXHAUSTION

62
ALARM REACTION
  • MUSCLES TENSE
  • HEART BEATS FASTER
  • THE BREATHING AND PERSPIRATION INCREASES
  • THE EYES DILATE
  • THE STOMACH MAY CLENCH

63
RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION
  • FATIGUE
  • CONCENTRATION LAPSES
  • IRRITABILITY AND LETHARGY

64
EXHAUSTION
  • DECREASED STRESS TOLERANCE
  • PROGRESSIVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL EXHAUSTION
  • ILLNESS AND COLLAPSE

65
Severe Exhaustion Stage
  • Chronic sadness or depression
  • Chronic mental and physical fatigue
  • Chronic stress related illnesses (headache,
    stomach ache, bowel problems, etc.)
  • Isolation, withdrawal, self-destructive thoughts

66
Figure 9.1 The General Adaptation System
67
Evaluation of GAS
  • A problem for GAS is that some stressors elicit a
    stronger emotional response than others do. The
    theory does not take account of psychosocial
    processes. A sudden increase in temperature, for
    example, would produce more emotion than a
    gradual increase.

68
Evaluation of GAS
  • Another problem for GAS is that cognitive
    appraisal is not taken account of. A study by
    Katherine Tennes and Maria Kreye (1985) found
    that intelligent schoolchildren experienced more
    stress on the day of an exam than unintelligent
    schoolchildren. Cortisol levels were measured in
    urine samples taken on regular school days and on
    days when tests were given. Intelligence test
    scores were obtained from school records. The
    results suggest that brighter children are more
    concerned about academic achievement.

69
Evaluation of GAS
  • To summarise, the GAS incorrectly assumes that
    all stressors produce the same physiological
    reactions and fails to take account of
    psychosocial factors in stress. Even so the GAS
    is basically a valid model of stress.

70
Lazaruss Cognitive Theory
Stressor
Lazarus proposed that a mental process determines
whether stress occurs.
Selye assumed that stress depended only on the
intensity of the stressor.
Appraisal
G. A. S.
Healthy Adaptation or Illness
71
Lazarus and Folkmans Theory
Stressor
Primary Appraisal Is Stressor Negative?
Can be negative if it involves harm or loss,
threat, or challenge (chance to grow).
No Stress
Yes
No
Secondary Appraisal Can I Control the
Situation?
If coping resources are adequate, then consider
options problem-focused or emotion-focused
coping strategies.
72
Lazarus and Folkmans Theory
The Stress Response
  • Physiological component Arousal, hormone
    secretion.
  • Emotional Component Anxiety, fear, grief,
    resentment, excitement (if stress is from
    challenge).
  • Behavioral Component Coping strategies (both
    behavioral and mental)problem focused and/or
    emotion-focused.
  • The level of stress we experience depends
    mainly on the adequacy of our resources for
    coping and how much they will be drained by the
    stressful situation.

73
Cognitive appraisal
  • Lazarus and Folkman (1984) propose a model that
    emphases the transactional nature of stress. 
    Stress is a two way process the environment
    produces stressors and the individual finds ways
    to deal with these.
  • Cognitive appraisal is a mental process by which
    people assessed two factors
  • Whether a demand threatens their well being
  • Whether a person considers that they have the
    resources to meet the demand of the stressor

74
Cognitive appraisal
  • There are two types of appraisal
  • Primary
  • Secondary.

75
Primary appraisal
  • During the primary appraisal stage a person will
    be seeking answers as to the meaning of the
    situation with regard to their well being. One of
    three types of appraisals could be made
  • It is irrelevant
  • It is good (benign-positive)
  • It is stressful.

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Primary appraisal
  • Imagine there was a snow blizzard. You might
    consider that the blizzard would not affect you,
    as you do not have to go to work the following
    day. You might consider the blizzard a blessing
    because this means that your college exam would
    be postponed or you can go skiing! The situation
    could be stressful because you have few supplies
    and you need to get to the shops and driving
    would be hazardous.

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Primary appraisal
  • Further appraisal is made with regard to 3
    implications
  • Harm-loss
  • Threat
  • Challenge.

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Harm-loss
  • Harm-loss refers to the amount of damage that has
    already occurred. There may have been an injury.
    The seriousness of this injury could be
    exaggerated producing a lot of stress.

79
Threat
  • Threat is the expectation of future harm, for
    example the fear of losing one's job and income.
    Much stress depends on appraisals that involve
    harm-loss and threat.

80
Challenge
  • Challenge is a way of viewing the stress in a
    positive way. The stress of a higher-level job
    could be seen as an opportunity to expand skills,
    demonstrate ability, and make more money.

81
Primary appraisal
  • The stress transaction can be vicarious.
    Empathising with others who are in stress. An
    example of vicarious stress is a study, which
    involved showing college-student subjects a film,
    called "Sub-incision" (Speisman et al, 1964). The
    film showed a right of passage for young
    adolescent boys in a primitive society in which
    the underside of the penis is cut deeply from the
    tip to the scrotum using a sharp stone.

82
Primary appraisal
  • The subjects were divided into four groups. One
    group saw the film with no sound. Another group
    heard a soundtrack with a "trauma" narrative
    emphasising the pain, danger, and primitiveness
    of the operation. A third group heard a "denial"
    narration that denied the pain and potential harm
    to the boys, describing them as willing
    participants in a joyful occasion who "look
    forward to the happy conclusion of the ceremony."

83
Primary appraisal
  • The fourth group heard a " scientific" narration
    that encouraged viewers to watch in a detached
    manner-for example, the narrator commented, "as
    you can see, the operation is formal and the
    surgical technique, while crude, is very
    carefully followed." Physiological and
    self-report measures of stress were taken. The
    physiological measure was of the heart rate
    during the viewing of the film. The self-report
    measures were questionnaires that evaluated
    feelings of stress immediately after the film was
    shown.

84
Primary appraisal
  • Those who heard the trauma narration reacted with
    more stress than the control group (no sound)
    those who heard the denial and scientific
    narrations reacted with less stress than the
    control group.
  • Male Circumcision (Africa)

85
Secondary appraisal
  • Secondary appraisals occur at the same time as
    primary appraisals. A secondary appraisal can
    actually cause a primary appraisal. Secondary
    appraisals include feelings of not being able to
    deal with the problem such as
  • I can't do it-I know I'll fail
  • I will try, but my chances are slim
  • I can do it if I get help
  • If this method fails, I can try a few others.
  • I can do it if I work hard.
  • No problem-I can do it.

86
Secondary appraisal
  • Stress can occur without appraisal such as when
    your car is involved in an accident and you
    haven't had time to think about what has
    happened. Accidents can often cause a person to
    be in shock. It is difficult for people to make
    appraisals whilst in shock as their cognitive
    functioning is impaired.

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Eustress and Distress
  • Eustress
  • The pleasurable stress that accompanies positive
    events. For example, a person may receive a
    10,000 bonus and experience stress in deciding
    how to spend the money.
  • Distress
  • The unpleasant stress that accompanies negative
    events.

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Individual Differences and Stress
  • Hardiness
  • Is a persons ability to cope with stress.
  • People with hardy personalities have an internal
    locus of control, are strongly committed to the
    activities in their lives, and view change as an
    opportunity for advancement and growth.
  • Optimism
  • Is the extent to which a person sees life in
    relatively positive terms.
  • Is the glass half empty or half full?
  • In general, optimistic people tend to handle
    stress better than pessimistic people.

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Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • Type a
  • Competitive, achievements orientation.
    Self-critical. No joy in accomplishments.
  • Time urgency. Impatient. Always on the go. Do
    several things at once.
  • Anger/hostility easily aroused to anger, which
    may be overt or covert.

90
Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • Type b
  • Low levels of competitiveness, time urgency and
    hostility. Easy going -philosophical.

91
Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • An experiment by Glass et al (1980) had
    participants playing a computer game against a
    confederate. The game was rigged so that it could
    not be won. A prize was offered. A structured
    interview determined whether participants were
    type a or type b.

92
Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • Half of each type were harassed by the
    confederate the other half played with that the
    confederate in silence. Several physiological
    measures were taken. Both type a and type b
    participants showed increases in stress. In the
    harassment condition type a showed more stress
    than type b.

93
Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • Factors that play a part in producing type a
    behaviour are
  • Intrapersonal. Behaviour is produced as a result
    of controlling personal stress.
  • Interpersonal. They are more competitive and when
    insulted are more likely to be aggressive.

94
Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974)
  • 3 Institutional. The is limited opportunity for
    promotion and therefore more competition. A
    demanding boss or teacher.
  • 4 Cultural. The work ethic. The importance of
    having expensive status symbols.

95
Suzanne Kobasa (1979)
  • People who can handle stress possess
    'hardiness'.There are three components
  • Control - can you control events? (See Locus of
    control)
  • Commitment - Sense of purpose, involvement.
  • Challenge - problems seen as an opportunity for
    personal growth.

96
Suzanne Kobasa (1979)
  • Kobasa (1979) - High stress executives2 groups -
    high illness Vs low illness.Using questionnaire,
    the low illness group had more hardiness.

97
Suzanne Kobasa (1979)
  • Problems
  • People vary with their personality. Unlikely to
    be one type of person all of the time.
  • Only looked at white professional American men -
    may not be true of other groups.
  • Hardiness and social support correlate so what is
    attributed to hardiness could really be the
    effect of social support (Blaney Ganellen,
    1990).

98
Figure 9.2 Causes and Consequences of Stress
99
Common Causes of Stress Organizational Stressors
  • Task Demands
  • Stressors associated with the specific job a
    person performs. Some occupations are by nature
    more stressful than others.
  • Physical Demands
  • Stressors associated with the jobs physical
    setting, such as the adequacy of temperature and
    lighting.

100
Figure 9.3 Workload, Stress, and Performance
101
Common Causes of Stress Organizational Stressors
  • Role Demands
  • Stressors associated with the role a person is
    expected to play.
  • Role ambiguity arises when a role is unclear.
  • Role conflict occurs when the messages and cues
    constituting a role are clear but contradictory
    or mutually exclusive.
  • Role overload occurs when expectations for the
    role exceed the individuals capacity.
  • Interpersonal Demands
  • Stressors associated with group pressures,
    leadership, and personality conflicts.

102
Consequences of Stress Individual Consequences
  • Behavioral Consequences
  • The behavioral consequences of stress, such as
    alcohol abuse, may harm the person under stress
    or others.
  • Psychological Consequences
  • Psychological consequences relate to a persons
    mental health and well-being.
  • Medical Consequences
  • Medical consequences affect a persons physical
    well-being.
  • Heart disease and stroke, among other illnesses,
    have been linked to stress.

103
Consequences of Stress Organizational
Consequences
  • Performance
  • One clear organizational consequence of too much
    stress is a decline in performance.
  • Withdrawal
  • The most significant forms of withdrawal behavior
    are absenteeism and quitting.
  • Attitudes
  • Stress can have a negative effect on job
    satisfaction, morale, organizational commitment,
    and motivation to perform at high levels.

104
Consequences of Stress Burnout
  • Burnout
  • Is the general feeling of exhaustion that
    develops when an individual simultaneously
    experiences too much pressure and has too few
    sources of satisfaction.

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