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Writing ITS REAL

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I felt as safe as a baby. ... What about the effects of the spice trade? Strong Assignment. The spice trade routes played an important part in the Age of Exploration. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Writing ITS REAL


1
Writing ITS REAL
  • Phyllis Hostmeyer
  • Madison County ROE

2
Reading Versus Writing
  • Reading input
  • Reading feeds the mind
  • Writing output
  • Writing feeds the soul, organizing the mind
  • Writing has been called the kinesthetic form of
    reading
  • Students are often more reluctant to write
  • Writing involves a greater risk on the part of
    the student

3
Read like a Writer
  • After students have read a text several times for
    content, read it a few times to notice the craft
    of writing.
  • Pay special attention to the openings and
    closings found in books.
  • Students will begin to imitate these openings
    which will help them earn focus points.

4
I learned how to write from writers. I didnt
know any personally, but I read. Cynthia Rylant.
Just read for about four years before you even
start. Read everything you can get your hands
on. Gary Paulsen
5
Why teach writing
  • Writing is a route to reading.
  • Students make a connection between speaking and
    writing.
  • They see writing as functional it has a
    purpose.
  • It builds skills in communication.

6
4 Problems for Writers
  • Lack of motivation
  • Lack of content knowledge
  • Automaticity
  • Writing is not talking

7
4 Ways to Revise
  • Add
  • Subtract
  • Rearrange
  • Combine

8
Writing Process
  • Prewriting
  • research
  • gathering information
  • discussions
  • Writing
  • Revision
  • the craft of writing
  • Editing
  • the rules of writing

Inquiry!
9
Descriptive vs. Prescriptive
  • Teach the craft of writing.
  • Use inquiry to teach good writing.
  • Throw away those lists of rules, rules and more
    rules.
  • Make writing a celebration of language not a
    drudgery of grammar.
  • Keep the teaching of writing grounded in writing,
    not in a grammar book.

10
ISAT RUBRIC FOCUS 6 POINTS ORGANIZATION 6
POINTS SUPPORT 6 POINTS MECHANICS 2
POINTS INTEGRATION 6 POINTS x 2 TOTAL 32
POINTS
11
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12
FOCUS
  • Effective Opening
  • Strong Closing
  • Stay on Topic

The opening provides an opportunity for the
writer to help the reader to make connections.
13
Topic vs. Focus
14
Topic vs. Focus
15
FOCUS
  • Powerful openings
  • Effective Closings

16
Title
Support Sentences
17
Title Sky
Support Sentences
18
Title Dessert
Support Sentences
19
Title Cars
Support Sentences
20
Title Baseball
Support Sentences
21
Title Special Buildings (weak support)
Support Sentences
22
Title Special Buildings
Support Sentences
23
Title Dr. Seuss
Support Sentences
24
Title Dr. Seuss
Support Sentences
25
Title Baseball
Support Sentences
26
Baseball I like to play baseball. I like to be
the catcher. I get to wear a face mask. I make
signs to the pitcher. Sometimes I tag players at
the plate. I like to bat. I swing the bat as
hard as I can. Then I take off and run the bases.
Baseball is fun.
27
Title Cars
Support Sentences
28
Cars Cars help us to go places. We drive cars
to the stores. We take our car to the grocery
store. If we want a video at night, we drive our
car to the store. We also drive our car to
school. When it rains, my grandma takes us to
school in her car. Sometimes I oversleep and then
Grandma takes me to school in her car. Cars take
us many places.
29
Statement of Fact Some trees are over 4000 years
old. They are the oldest living things on earth.
That means that trees have been helping people
for a lot of years. They can help us to breathe.
Trees also help us by giving us medicines.
30
Figurative Language - Metaphor
A huge oak tree stands guard outside my bedroom
window. Sometimes, I imagine that it is a
soldier that protects me from harm. Imagine my
surprise when I recently learned that trees
really do protect and help us. I learned that
they give us oxygen to help us breathe and they
even give us medicine to keep us healthy.
31
Figurative Language - Simile
Trees can sway like a ballerina when the wind
blows through their leaves. When the wind blows
hard, trees can shake their branches like an
angry person. But the best thing trees can do is
to help us by giving us oxygen and medicines.
32
Figurative Language - Simile
  • The oak tree in our backyard is as tall as a
    giant. I realize that these giants help us every
    day. They give us oxygen to breathe. They give
    us medicines to keep us from getting sick.

33
Figurative Language - Onomatopoeia Crack! Crash!
I watched my dad cut down the huge oak tree that
had been damaged by the storm. It made me sad to
see the tree die because I know how much trees
help us. I know that trees provide oxygen for us
to breathe and they give us medicines.
34
Figurative Language - Personification The old
oak tree in our backyard cradled me in its arms.
I felt as safe as a baby. I sat there and
thought about the many ways that trees make all
of our lives better. Trees help us to breathe.
Trees also help us by giving us medicines.
35
Alliteration
  • We climbed to the clubhouse constructed in the
    branches of the oak tree. My friends and I have
    lots of fun in that clubhouse. But trees give us
    lots more than just a place to have fun. Trees
    give us oxygen to help us breathe, and they give
    us medicines to keep us healthy.

36
Open with a Bold Statement People should think
twice before ever cutting down a tree. They need
to think because trees help us every day. First,
trees help us to breathe. Trees also help us by
giving us medicines.
37
Open with a Definition Webster defines a tree as
a woody perennial plant having a single long stem
with few or no branches on the lower part. I
define a tree as something that helps us. Trees
help us to breathe. Trees also help us by giving
us medicines.
38
Open with a Personal Definition In the fall when
we rake leaves, my dad defines a tree as a plant
that creates lots of work for us. I define a
tree as a plant that gives us lots of help. Trees
help us to breathe. Trees give us oxygen and
medicine to keep us healthy.
39
Definition Format My dad defines a ________ as
a _______________ . I define a _______________
as ________________________ .
40
Open with a Question Have you ever wondered
about how much trees help us? Did you know that
trees help us to breathe better? Ill bet you
didnt know that trees also help us by giving us
medicines.
41
Open with a Quote Joyce Kilmer wrote, I think
that I shall never see a poem lovely as a tree.
I like looking at the trees too, and this year I
learned that trees give us a lot of help. First,
they help us to breathe. Second, they give us
medicine.
42
Open with a Personal Quote My aunt says that
trees make a house beautiful. I agree, trees do
make a house beautiful, but they also make our
home healthy. Every day trees give us oxygen to
breathe. They also give us medicines to keep us
healthy.
43
Open with a Setting
  • As we sat around the picnic table, we laughed
    as falling leaves drifted onto our sandwiches and
    salads. As I enjoyed the fall colors, I thought
    about how much trees give to us. I know that
    trees give us oxygen to breathe, but I recently
    learned that they also give us medicines.

44
When should your students write these strong
openings?
45
After the first rough draft
46
It's your turn
Statement of Fact Bold statement Metaphor Def
inition Simile Question Onomatopoeia Quot
e Personification Personal Quote
Alliteration Setting
47
Bulletin Board Display
48
Changing the Closings
49
Repeated closing
  • Opening I like Six Flags for two reasons.
    First, they have great rides that flip me upside
    down. I also like Six Flags because they have
    the yummiest food.
  • Closing I like Six Flags for two reasons.
    First, they have great rides that flip me upside
    down. I also like Six Flags because they have
    the yummiest food.

50
Restated closing
  • Opening I like Six Flags for two reasons.
    First, they have great rides that flip me upside
    down. I also like Six Flags because they have
    the yummiest food.
  • Closing I cant wait for out next trip to Six
    Flags. I hope their wild rides dont upset my
    stomach when I find myself looking at the world
    upside down. Because besides enjoying the rides,
    I plan on enjoying bunches of snacks and goodies.
    Six Flags is a great vacation day.

51
Reminder Statements
  • Be sure to take care of your trees. Give
    them water and fertilizer when they need it. If
    you take good care of them, those trees will give
    you lots of good things in return.

52
Reminder Statement
  • Remember, we all admire the colors of the
    trees in the fall and the cool shade they give us
    in the summer. So lets make sure we do
    everything we can to keep trees healthy and
    strong.

53
Final Statement - Eventuality
  • You can do one last thing if you want to
    learn more about trees. You can visit
    www.arborday.com to see pictures of trees and
    read about them. You can even buy trees to make
    your yard nicer. Trees are our friends.

54
Closing with a Quote I never knew why my grandpa
always said, If a tree dies, plant another in
its place. Now I know how much trees help us. I
think I will follow Grandpas good advice.
55
Authors Feelings
  • I feel strongly about protecting trees and
    keeping them strong. Every day they give us so
    much to keep us healthy. I like trees and want
    everyone else to like them too.

56
Closing with a Personal Comment We need to
plant lots of trees so that we can enjoy clean
air. Trees help keep us healthy by helping us
fight colds and headaches. Trees are our
friends.
57
Prediction
  • Ill bet now that you know how important
    trees are, you will rush out to plant more of
    them in your yard. From now on you will look as
    trees as close personal friends.

58
Closing with a Question Wouldnt you like to
make your life healthier? Why not look around
your yard and find some places to plant a few
more trees?
59
Summary Closing Because of trees, we lead
healthier lives. Clean air and medicines to make
us feel better are just two of the many gifts we
get from trees.
60
It's your turn
Repeated closing Restated closing Reminder
statements Final statement Closing with a
quote Authors feelings Closing with a personal
comment Prediction Closing with a
question Summary Closing
61
Support/Elaboration
  • Word choice enhances specificity
  • Second order support of ideas

Determine Importance
Determine Importance Visualize Vocabulary
62
PATRIOTISM
63
  • ORGANIZATION
  • Sentence Variety
  • Appropriate Transitions
  • Coherence
  • Cohesion

Graphic organizers and structures of text will
help the students to develop good organization
skills.
64
Sentence Patterns
65
Comparison Organizer
Signal Words on one hand, similarly, but, then,
either or
66
Sequence Organizer
Signal Words now, then, first, second, next,
finally, while
67
Topic Description Organizer
Signal Words generally, most important, in
fact, specifically, for instance, for example
68
Cycle Organizer
Signal Words now, then, next, finally, while,
first, second
69
Problem/Solution Organizer
Signal Words since, as a result, this led to,
because, so, if . . . then
70
Signal Words because, since, therefore,
consequently, hence
71
Transitions in Retells
72
TRANSITIONS in TEXT
  • Read a text
  • Highlight the transitions
  • look for phrases, not just words
  • look for repetitions
  • look for transition paragraphs (winkers)

Modern Hygienes Dirty Trick
73
Formal Assignments
74
Typical Writing Assignment
  • Write a 3 page report on one of the following
    topics. You must have at least 3 resources in
    your bibliography.
  • Cloning
  • Hurricane Proof Buildings
  • Stabilization of heat-labile vaccines
  • Microbiology

75
Aspects of Assignments
  • Length (depth and breadth)
  • Focus (controlling idea)
  • Task (key action word)
  • Detail (specifics)
  • Tone (language and style)
  • Terms (word bank)

76
Writing Task
  • What problem am I asking students to solve?
  • What questions am I asking students to answer?
  • What connections am I asking students to make?
  • What causes and effects am I asking them to find?
  • What conclusions and implications am I asking
    them to draw?

77
Length of Assignment
  • Do not ask for a specific number of words or
    pages students will stretch and repeat
  • Ask for density of information
  • Require a certain number of paragraphs developed
    with facts, reasons, analysis, examples, causes,
    specific information
  • Ask for details and insights

78
Task Key Words
  • Use Blooms Taxonomy
  • Describe the types of respiratory structures
    found in arthropods
  • Explain the relationship between an arthropods
    respiratory structure and survival
  • Analyze which respiratory structures are best
    suited for land and which are best suited for
    water

79
Task
  • Offer opportunities for synthesis with other
    content areas
  • Can new knowledge be created
  • This reminds me of
  • I feel (make a moral judgment)
  • Put the topic into a historical context when
    needed

80
Details
  • Include numbers in the assignment give 2
    reasons, identify 4 types, explain 3 ways
  • Use proper nouns names, dates, places, technical
    terms, statistics,
  • If the concept is abstract use a picture or vivid
    language to help students visualize

81
Tone
  • Will this be a formal piece of writing or
    something more casual?
  • Diary
  • Journal
  • Essay
  • Letter to editor
  • Readers Theater
  • Poetry
  • Directions

82
Terminology
  • Provide the students with a word bank of 10 20
    words that are specific to the topic

83
Weak Assignment
  • Write a two page report describing the spice
    routes and their influence on the Age of
    Exploration. Use 2 sources.
  • Students could just draw a map
  • Does not ask why spices were important
  • Is the focus on Europe or international?
  • What about the effects of the spice trade?

84
Strong Assignment
  • The spice trade routes played an important part
    in the Age of Exploration. Copy a map of the
    routes and explain at least two of them with a
    well-developed paragraph for each route.
    Explanation should include 4 geographic features
    and how those features influenced travelers. Why
    were spices important in the 15th century? Give
    specific examples of 2 spices and their uses.
  • Challenge Consider the unexpected dangers that
    lay in wait on these routes.

85
Weak Assignment
  • Write a 10 page research paper on cloning.
    Describe the process and make a prediction Will
    humans ever be cloned? What would be the
    advantages and disadvantages of cloning humans?

86
Strong Assignment
  • Write a research paper of 25 paragraphs
    discussing the process and ethical dilemmas of
    cloning. Four five paragraphs should deal with
    the process background information. In the
    remaining paragraphs pose 3 specific cases in
    which cloning would be acceptable or unacceptable
    to you. Examples should be realistic,
    well-developed, and vexing. Avoid the obviously
    objectionable cloning people in order to
    harvest body parts to sell.
  • Challenge What role will economics play in the
    moral dilemma of cloning?

87
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