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Nile River Valley

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Yearly floods were welcome as land was soaked with rich ... The tomb of Tutankhamen (King Tut) was unearthed in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nile River Valley


1
Nile River Valley
  • Black Land is rich, irrigated and no more than
    10 miles wide.
  • Red Land is the sun-baked desert.
  • Yearly floods were welcome as land was soaked
    with rich silt, or soil.
  • People built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation
    ditches to control the rising river and store
    water for the dry season.

2
  • (3100 BCE) Menes, the king of Upper Egypt, united
    his land with Lower Egypt.
  • The Nile flowed north and helped to make Egypt
    the worlds first unified state.
  • The Nile was also a trade route as merchants
    traveled up and down in sailboats and barges.

3
  • In the Old Kingdom, power passed from one
    dynasty, or ruling family, to another.
  • Pharaohs claimed divine support for their rule.
    Egyptians believed the pharaoh was a god.
  • Pharaohs depended on a vizier, or chief minister,
    to supervise the business of govt.
  • The vizier looked after tax collection, farming
    and the irrigation system.

4
Powerful Pharaohs
  • Hatshepsut (hat SHEHP soot), was a queen who took
    the bold step of declaring herself pharaoh.
  • She won the support of key officials and is known
    for extensive trading with other peoples.
  • Because Egyptians thought of their rulers as
    male, she wore a false beard.
  • In her funeral temple, she left behind a record
    of her 20-year reign

5
Powerful Pharaohs
  • Ramses II was the most powerful pharaoh of the
    New Kingdom.
  • He spread his kingdom north by conquering others.
  • The first peace treaty that survived history was
    between Egypt and the Hittites.
  • After Ramses II, Egyptian power declined.
  • His body was found but the tomb was empty. His
    body was probably moved to combat tomb raiders.

6
More Pharaohs
  • The tomb of Tutankhamen (King Tut) was unearthed
    in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter.
  • The body of the 18 year old was found in a solid
    gold coffin.
  • The objects found in his tomb include chariots,
    weapons, furniture, jewelry, toys, games, and
    food.
  • He was only a minor king. We can only imagine
    what treasures Ramses II must have left.
  • Video

7
Egyptian Society
  • Egypt had its own class system
  • Pharaoh - King
  • High priests and priestesses- served the gods and
    goddesses
  • Nobles- fought the pharaohs wars
  • Merchants- traders
  • Peasants- farmers. Many were slaves. In the
    off-season, men labored to build palaces,
    temples, and tombs.

Pharaohs
Priests
Nobles
Merchants
Peasants
8
Egyptian Women
  • Egyptian women enjoyed a high status.
  • Ramses II declared, The foot of an Egyptian
    woman may walk where it pleases her and no one
    may deny her.
  • Women could inherit property, enter business
    deals, buy and sell goods, go to court, and
    obtain a divorce.
  • They manufactured perfumes and clothes, managed
    farming estates, served as doctors, and could
    enter the priesthood.
  • Few women learned to read and write and were
    discouraged from holding govt. jobs.
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