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HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus


... through everyday contact as in coughing, shaking hands or insect bites. ... HIV Virus Anatomy. Image from Process. Fear as Awareness ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Tyler Hinkle
  • Petia Zamfirova
  • Anita Zarska
  • Heather Ours
  • Sara Webster

White Blood Cells
  • Provide the body with its principle line of
    defense against disease.
  • Many types including
  • NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilesMonocytesHelp
    er T cellsCytotoxic T cells Memory T cells
    Suppressor T cells

  • Cannot reproduce on their own
  • Reproduce by using the cells of other humans or
    animals as hosts
  • Don't have cell walls or a nucleus and are made
    up of genetic information wrapped inside a
    protective shell
  • Can only replicate within the cell
  • Retroviruses, as is HIV, are RNA viruses that in
    order to replicate need to make a DNA copy of
    their RNA which allows the virus to replicate by
    incorporating this DNA into the host cells genes

Transfer of HIV
  • Cannot be transferred through everyday contact as
    in coughing, shaking hands or insect bites.
  • Through direct contact with bodily fluids
  • Unprotected intercourse heterosexually or
    homosexually through vaginal fluids and semen
  • Shared needles
  • In saliva in low concentrations
  • Can be transmitted through oral sex
  • Blood transfusions
  • Vertical Transmission (Mother to fetus during
    pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breast

What does HIV do?
  • Attacks Immune System, specifically, Helper
    T-cells, making it difficult for the body to
    fight infection.
  • These cells, CD4 T-cells are crucial to the
    normal function of the human immune system and
    without them, all other cells in the immune
    system are prevented from operating. No reaction
    against an invader can me made.
  • The HIV virus eventually makes Helper T-cells an
    HIV producing factory.
  • The immune system eventually becomes so
    deteriorated that it is susceptible to all
    diseases that even a common cold can potentially
    kill the AIDS infected individual. (Nobody
    actually dies from HIV or AIDS)

HIV Virus Anatomy
  • Image from

Fear as Awareness
Education programs use fear as awareness and
prevention PRIMARY FACT A person can carry and
transmit the HIV virus for many years before any
symptoms show themselves. A person can be
contagious for a decade or more before any
visible signs of disease become apparent
  • Infections
  • Dry Cough
  • Rapid Weight Loss
  • Night Sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Swollen Lymph Glands
  • Sores
  • Altered Taste
  • Herpes
  • Difficulty Swallowing
  • Headaches
  • Change in Vision
  • Fatigue
  • Receding Gums
  • Fevers
  • Bruising
  • Bleeding

FDA Approved Treatments
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a
combination of three of more medications in a
  • Nucleoside Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • A nucleoside analog that targets the enzyme
    reverse transcriptase to inhibit HIV replication.
  • AZT (zidovudine)
  • Protease inhibitors
  • (Pis)
  • Compounds that target the protease enzyme to
    inhibit viral replication.
  • IDV (Indinavir)

FDA Approved Treatments Cont.
  • Non-nucleoside Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Targets structure of reverse transcriptase to
    inhibit enzyme activity, preventing the virus
    from reproducing.
  • NVP (nevirapine)
  • Very potent but resistance develops quickly
  • Entry (Fusion) Inhibitors
  • (EIs)
  • Blocks the viral fusion process and HIV
  • ENF (enfuvirtide)

Shortcomings and Side Effects
  • Not a cure for HIV
  • Resistance to drug therapy
  • Treatment does not prevent the virus from
  • Not always able to increase CD4 cell count
  • Heath issues - Liver problems, diabetes, abnormal
    fat distribution (lypodystropy syndrome), high
    cholesterol, increases bleeding in hemophiliacs,
    decreased bone density, skin rash, pancreatitis,
    nerve problems (peripheral neuropathy),
    hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia

Clinical Research
  • Coreceptor Inhibitor targets the HIV-1 envelope
    and inhibits CD4 receptor binding.
  • Activation of viral reservoirs used in
    combination with HAART to eliminate latent viral
    reservoirs in cells by stimulating virus
  • RNA-based therapeutic approach makes use of
    short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which bind to
    destroy HIV (only synthetic RNA has worked on
    target cells).

Clinical Research Cont.
  • Vaccines stimulate anti-HIV immune response.
  • Subunit Vaccines genetically engineered
    individual proteins and peptides
  • DNA Vaccines DNA containing HIV genes is
    injected into the body to produce HIV proteins
  • Recombinant Vector Vaccines Harmless levels of
    viruses or bacteria are injected into the body to
    produce proteins from the HIV gene

  • New 20 Minute Test

Positive Negative
Global Statistics 2003
  • HIV infection global total 42 million
  • Total number of deaths between 1981 and 2003 20
  • More than 6000 become infected with HIV everyday
  • 3 million die every year
  • Women more vulnerable than men

U.S. Statistics
  • HIV Infections 1.3-1.4 million
  • AIDS 816,000
  • Deaths 468,000
  • HIV Unaware 250,000
  • May lay dormant for years or decades before
    symptoms occur
  • In the US, 1 in 1000 chance of contracting HIV in
    any sexual encounter
  • Philadelphia ranked 8th in AIDS cases in U.S.
  • As of 2001

Statistics Cont.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa - 29.4 million
  • South and Southeast Asia - 6 million
  • Latin America - 1.5 million
  • North America - 980,000
  • Eastern Europe/Central Asia - 1.2 million

History of HIV/AIDS
  • 1926-46 - HIV possibly spreads from primates to
    humans. No one knows for sure.
  • 1959 - A man dies in Congo in what many
    researchers say is the first proven AIDS death.
  • 1981 - The Centers for Disease Control and
    Prevention (CDC) notices high rate of otherwise
    rare cancer
  • 1982 - The term AIDS is used for the first time,
    and CDC defines it.
  • 1983/84 - American and French scientists each
    claim discovery of the virus that will later be
    called HIV.
  • 1985 - The FDA approves the first HIV antibody
    test for blood supplies.
  • 1987 - AZT is the first anti-HIV drug approved by
    the FDA.
  • 1991 - Basketball star Magic Johnson announces
    that he is HIV-positive.
  • 1996 - FDA approves first protease inhibitors.
  • 1999 - An estimated 650,000 to 900,000 Americans
    living with HIV/AIDS.
  • 2002 - AIDS global death toll reaches nearly 28.1