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Vitamins

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... fat soluble ... form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins


1
Vitamins
  • Konecná Sona a Vavrysová Alena

2
Vitamins
  • A vitamin is an organic molecule required by a
    living organism in minute amounts for proper
    health. An organism deprived of all sources of a
    particular vitamin will eventually suffer from
    disease symptoms specific to that vitamin.
  • Vitamins can be classified as either water
    soluble, which means they dissolve easily in
    water, or fat soluble, which means they are
    absorbed through the intestinal tract with the
    help of lipids.
  • In general, an organism must obtain vitamins or
    their metabolic precursors from outside the body,
    most often from the organism's diet.
  • The word vitamin was coined by the Polish
    biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912. Vita in Latin is
    life and the -amin suffix is short for amine at
    the time it was thought that all vitamins were
    amines. Though this is now known to be incorrect,
    the name has stuck.
  • Proper rádný
  • Deprived zbavený
  • Suffer - trpet

3
Human vitaminsIn humans, there are thirteen
vitamins, divided into two groups, the four fat
soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and the nine
water soluble vitamins (eight B vitamins and
vitamin C).
4
Vitamins fat solubleVitamin A
  • Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a
    fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in
    vision and bone growth. It belongs to the family
    of chemical compounds known as retinoids.
  • Retinol is ingested in a precursor form animal
    sources (milk and eggs) contain retinyl esters,
    whereas plants (carrots, spinach) contain
    pro-vitamin A carotenoids.
  • Ingested prijatý (potrava)
  • Precursor - predchudce
  • Vitamin A is used in the production of rhodopsin,
    the visual pigment used in low light levels
  • Vitamin A is essential for the correct
    functioning of epithelial cells. In Vitamin A
    deficiency, muscus-secreting cells are replaced
    by keratin producing cells, leading to xerosis.
  • Vitamin A may be needed for normal haemopoiesis
    deficiency causes abnormalities in iron
    metobolism.
  • Vitamin A affects the production of human growth
    hormone.

5
Retinol and Chemical structures of some
biologically active retinoids
6
Vitamin E
  • Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble
    vitamin in eight forms that is an important
    antioxidant.
  • Antioxidants such as vitamin E act to protect
    cells against the effects of free radicals, which
    are potentially damaging by-products of the
    body's metabolism. Free radicals can cause cell
    damage that may contribute to the development of
    cardiovascular disease and cancer
  • Protect chránit
  • Damaging nicení
  • Suppressors tlumice
  • Due to v dusledku
  • Vitamin C and other anti-oxidants recycle vitamin
    E end-products back into effective suppressors of
    free radicals.
  • Vegetable oils, nuts, wheat germ and green leafy
    vegetables are the main dietary sources of
    vitamin E.
  • A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized
    by neurological problems due to poor(bad) nerve
    conduction.

7
(No Transcript)
8
Vitamin K
  • Vitamin K denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquin
    one derivatives. They are human vitamins,
    lipophilic (i.e., soluble in lipids) and
    therefore hydrophobic (i.e., insoluble in water).
    They are needed for the posttranslational
    modification of certain proteins, mostly required
    for blood coagulation.
  • Normally it is produced by bacteria in the
    intestines, and dietary deficiency is extremely
    rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged.
  • Denote znacit
  • Intestines streva
  • Rare vzácný
  • Unless jestlie ne

9
Vitamins watter soluble
  • Vitamin B complex of a several vitamins
  • B1 Thiamin
  • colorless compound, insoluble in alcohol
  • Discovered by Umetaro Suzuki
  • Important function in the metabolism of
    carbohydrates, while transketolase functions in
    the penthose phosphate to synthesize NADPH and
    the pentose sugars deoxyribose and ribose.

10
b) B2 Riboflavin
  • easily absorbed, water soluble micronutrient
  • Is reguired for red cells formations,
    respirations, reproduction, essential for healthy
    skin, nails
  • sources milk, cheese, liver, almond and soybeans
  • Micronutrient stopový prvek
  • Reguired potrebný
  • Sources - zdroje

11
c) B3 Niacin
  • Also known as nicotinic acid
  • Derivates (NADH) has essential roles in the
    energy metabolism
  • Is used in nutritional treatments of alcoholism,
    cancer, shizophrenia and other mental ilnesses
  • Sources liver, chicken, milk, eggs, nuts,
    mushrooms, broccoli, carrots
  • Derivates deriváty
  • Nutritional výivný
  • Cancer - rakovina

12
d) B5 Pantotheic acid
  • Is an antioxidant
  • Is needed to break down carbohydrates, proteins
    and fats
  • Is used in natural medicine
  • Sources whole grain cereals, legumes, eggs,
    meat, royal jelly
  • Legumes luskoviny
  • Royal jelly materí kaicka

13
II) Vitamin C Ascorbic acid
  • Nutrient essential for life, its a weak acid and
  • strong antioxidant
  • Its used for many purpose
  • important for production of collagen in the
    connective tissues
  • Its required for syntesis of dopamin,
    noradrenalin and adrenalin in the nervous systém
  • Purpose úcel
  • Tissues - tkáne

14
III) Vitamin H Biotin
  • Also known as a B7
  • Its important in the catalysis, in
    gluconeogenesis and to metabolize leucin
  • It plays role in the Crebs cycle, in which is
    energy released from food
  • Its used in the cosmetics ( healthy hair and
    nails,)
  • Released - uvolnený

15
Vitamins are one of the most important nutrients,
which are necessary for human body.
16
Thank you for your attention
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