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Microbiology: An introduction

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Biochemistry to study physiology. Microscope for morphology. Different types of microorganisms ... Nutritional requirements. Biochemical activities. Sources of energy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbiology: An introduction


1
Chapter 1
  • Microbiology An introduction

2
  • What are some things that we know about the
    history of microbiology and infectious diseases?
  • How are things similar or different today?

3
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4
  • Invention of the microscope to genomics
  • Sequencing of the genome of different organisms
  • Molecular biology
  • Different infectious diseases
  • Early 1900s, pneumonia, TB and gastroenteritis
    were the leading causes of death
  • Bubonic plague, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Measles,
    Small Pox, Polio
  • SARS, Anthrax, Lyme disease, AIDS, Syphillis

5
How are bacteria different from other organisms?
  • The ability of microorganisms to exist
    independently in nature
  • Other organisms cannot live an independent
    existence
  • They need interactions with their environment
  • In general, microorganisms are too small to be
    seen with the naked eye

6
What is microbiology?
  • Benefits and negative features of microbes
  • Infectious diseases
  • Microbes as cells
  • How microbes live
  • History
  • Modern microbiology

7
What are microbes?
  • Mostly single cell organisms
  • How do we study something too small to be seen?
  • Molecular strategies DNA, RNA and protein
  • Cannot study a single cell look at populations
  • Biochemistry to study physiology
  • Microscope for morphology

8
Different types of microorganisms
  • Bacteria (Bacteriology)
  • Archae
  • Fungi (Mycology)
  • Protozoa (Parasitology)
  • Algae (Phycology)
  • Viruses (Virology)
  • Helminths (Parasitology)

9
Bacteria will be the first organism that we
study different sizes and shapes
  • Cocci Spheres
  • Bacilli Rods
  • Spirochettes Curved or spiral

10
Bacteria often appear in aggregates
  • Pairs
  • Chains
  • Tetrads
  • Clusters
  • Microscopic appearance is valuable in
    classification and diagnosis

11
Bacteria Also different staining patterns
Gram vs. gram -
12
Bacteria differ in many ways
  • Shape
  • Chemical composition staining patterns
  • Nutritional requirements
  • Biochemical activities
  • Sources of energy
  • Sunlight or chemical compounds
  • (look at handout)

13
Importance of microorganisms
  • Most microorganisms are not harmful
  • Normal flora
  • Very rarely harmful, mostly they help us
  • Compete with the harmful biota we come in contact
    with
  • For women, treat urinary infections with
    antibiotics
  • May then develop a yeast infection

14
Importance of microorganisms
  • Agriculture
  • Energy/environment
  • Disease
  • Food
  • Biotechnology

15
  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria produce usable nitrogen
    for plants to use for growth
  • In cattle and sheep, microorganisms carry out the
    digestion of cellulose

16
Microorganisms are important in energy production
  • Natural gas (methane) is a product of bacterial
    activity
  • Waste materials can be converted to biofuels by
    microorganisms
  • Microorganisms can detoxify unwanted wastes in
    the environment

17
E. Coli is an important microorganism for genetic
engineering
18
Microorganisms can have both positive and
negative effects on food
  • Food can become contaminated by microorganisms
  • Food spoilage and diseases
  • Food can benefit from microoganisms
  • Cheese
  • Yogurt

19
Cells fundamental unit of living matter
  • What is life?
  • Metabolism
  • Reproduction
  • Differentiation
  • Communication
  • Movement
  • Evolution

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27
Are viruses alive?
28
How do microorganisms exist?
  • Microorganisms exist in nature in populations
    that interact with other populations in microbial
    communities.
  • Most of the biomass on Earth is microbial.

29
Heirarchal organization
  • Individual cell
  • Make up tissues in a multicellular organism
  • In a unicellular organism, the cell is the entire
    organism
  • Population
  • Interacting group of individuals of one species
  • Community
  • All the organisms inhabiting an ecosystem
  • Ecosystem
  • All the organisms living within a particular area
    and the nonliving, physical components of the
    environment in which the organisms interact

30
Individual cell
31
Microbial ecology
  • Population
  • A group of related cells derived from a parent
    cell
  • Microbial community
  • Many different populations of microorganisms
  • occupying the same habitat
  • Ecosystem
  • Communities of organisms and their natural
    environment

32
How to best study microorganisms
  • Pure culture
  • A population of cells that all come from a single
    cell
  • Broth or agar
  • Laboratory population
  • Need proper nutrient media and environmental
    conditions
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