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From ISS to the Moon, Mars and Beyond

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Title: From ISS to the Moon, Mars and Beyond


1
From ISS to the Moon, Mars and Beyond Applying
Lessons Learned
Dr. Merri Sanchez, NASA Johnson Space Center
2
ISS Multi-dimensional challenges
3
46 Flights to ISS (11/98-3/05)
16 shuttle flights
30 Russian flights
STS 88 2A U.S. Node STS 96 2A.1 Logistics
STS101 2a.2a Logistics STS106/ 2B.2B
Logistics STS 92/3A Z-1 Truss STS 97 P6 Solar
Array STS 98/5A (Destiny Lab) STS 102/5A.1 (MPLM,
Expedition 2) STS 100/6A (CanadArm2) STS 104/7A
(U.S. Airlock) STS 105/7A.1 (MPLM, Expedition
3) STS 108/UF1 (Expedition 4) STS110 8A (S0
Truss) STS 111/ UF2 (Science and Expedition
5) STS112 /9A ( S1 Starboard Truss) STS 113/ 11A
(P1 Port Truss)
2 Proton, (FGB, Service Module) 17 Progress 10
Manned Soyuz 1 Unmanned Soyuz, (Docking
Compartment)
4
15 Major Elements Assembled
In 2001 and 2002, 160,000 lbs of hardware was
lifted to the International Space Station,
building mainly the backbone Truss structure.
395,000 lbs to orbit
Over 100 people have visited the ISS so far, 17
for the second time.
5
ISS Assembly History
2A
Zarya/FGB Unity Node 1
4A
Zvezda Service Module Z-1 Truss w/Early Comm
3A
P6 Truss w/Solar Array
Destiny Lab CanadArm2 Quest Airlock
P-1 truss Current Configuration
Pirs Airlock S-0 Truss S-1 Truss
6
After Columbia
  • Reduction to two crew members due to limited
    consumables
  • Evaluation of hazards associated with only having
    2 crew members, e.g. performing EVAs with no crew
    member remaining inside ISS
  • Resupply only via Russian vehicles
  • Negotiations on manifest requirements with Russia
  • Without accelerating Progress flights there is
    little to no margin for non-critical consumables
    and hardware
  • Defining station demanning criteria
  • Hardware failures versus resupply
  • Consumables resupply
  • Lighted landing opportunities

7
ISS Future Assembly
2A
4A
P3/4 Truss w/Solar Array
3A
Current Configuration
P6 Truss Roll Up In Prep to Move Power Systems
Reconfigured
P6 Truss Moved Outboard S6 Truss w/Solar Array
S3/4 TrussW/Solar Array
8
Hardware Design

9
Philosophy and Trades
  • Current ISS systems are not robust enough for
    exploration
  • Design philosophies
  • Russian heritage, simple, robust, mechanical,
    frequent crew interaction for maintenance and
    operation, regular change out of components
  • U.S. high degree of automation, ground control,
    requires computer to operate, change out system
    instead of components
  • Single system design with spares for like
    redundancy Dual system designs for unlike
    redundancy
  • On-orbit maintenance and repair of components
    replacement of components
  • Operational environment
  • Trades complexity, automation, reliability,
    repair, replacement, crew training, stowage,
    logistics, cost

10
Life Support
ISS Life Support is open loop and currently
provided by Service Module
Regenerative Environmental Control and Life
Support System
URINE PROCESSING
Urine
CREW CABIN
Vapor Compression Distillation
Distillate
Wastewater
H2O PROCESSING
  • Gas Separation
  • Filtration
  • Volatile Removal

Water
Potable water
CO2 REDUCTION
Sabatier Reactor CO2(g) 4H2(g) 2H2O(l)
CH4(g)
OXYGEN GENERATION
Hydrogen
Solid Polymer Electrolysis
Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
overboard
11
ISS Electrical Power Subsystem
U.S. Solar Array P6 generates 26 kW of power
4 U.S. Solar Arrays will provide 110 kW of power
for systems use. 46 kW of continuous electric
power will be left over for science.
During the shadow phase the space station relies
on banks of nickel-hydrogen rechargeable
batteries to provide a continuous power source
12
Thermal Control Subsystem
The Station's outstretched radiators are made of
honey-comb aluminum panels. There are 14 panels,
each measuring 6 by 10 feet for a total of 1680
square feet of ammonia-tubing-filled heat
exchange area.
The Radiator system was tested at NASA Glenn
Space Power Test Facility.
13
Guidance, Navigation, Control, Propulsion
Electrical Propulsion provided by U.S. Control
Moment Gyros. Service Module jets also use fuel
brought by Progress to boost station. Shuttle
also boosts station.
Z1 Truss STS-92 October 11, 2000
14
Communication Tracking
The station has S band and KU Band communications
systems. Ham radio is also used.
15
Command Data Handling
Currently, 2.8 million lines of software code run
through the stations on-board laptops and main
computers keeping all major systems functioning
and elements integrated. The software demand
will double in the future.
16
Structure Mechanisms
The US-designed Common Berthing Mechanism (or
CBM) links together the modules. To ensure a good
seal, the CBM has an automatic latching mechanism
that pulls the two modules together and tightens
16 connecting bolts with a force of 19,000 pounds
each!
Layers of Kevlar and other impact- resistant
materials reduce the chance that small debris
could penetrate the modules' walls and endanger
the crew.
17
Resupply

18
Primary NASA Logistics and Re-supply
A fleet of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules
(MPLMs), built by ASI for NASA, bring tons of
equipment and supplies to the station.
19
Logistics and Re-supply Today
Russian Progress Re-fuel Re-supply ships bring
propellant to assist keeping station in orbit,
and dry cargo.
20
Logistics and Re-supply in the Future
Europe is building an Automated Transfer Vehicle
(ATV) for logistics and re-supply
Japan is building the HII Launcher Transfer
Vehicle, (HTV) that can perform additional
logistics and re-supply
21
ISS Manifest Optimization
  • Reduced upmass and downmass until Shuttle return
    to flight
  • Negotiations to reduce US and Russian manifests
    to minimum requirements and prioritize critical
    hardware
  • Performed on-orbit audits to collect data on what
    supplies remain on orbit
  • Extensive negotiations between specialists to
    identify minimum usage rates on critical
    consumables and crew provisions
  • Techniques for on-orbit conservation of supplies
    developed and incorporated
  • Reducing number of spares and replacement
    hardware to be flown
  • Extending on-orbit life of hardware
  • Operating functional but degraded hardware as
    necessary
  • Additional risk of hardware failures

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23
Resupply Philosophy and Trades
  • Continually supply new soft goods or provide
    laundry capability
  • Supply all food or grow some
  • Dispose of items in trash or recycle
  • Supply enough water or closed loop regenerative
    system
  • Inventory management system
  • Launch with all supplies meet cargo ship
    enroute

24
EVA and Robotics

25
A U.S. and Russian Door to Space
U.S. Quest Airlock
Russian Pirs Docking Compartment
26
Different Suits
25 Shuttle based 31 ISS based EVAs to date
(338 hrs)

27
Robotics
CanadArm2 represents next-generation robotics.
By flipping end-over-end between anchor points
it can move around the ISS like an inchworm.
With its seven joints, CanadArm2 is more
maneuverable than its predecessor on the shuttle
and even more agile than a human arm.
28
Robotics in the future
Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator
29
The human and the robot are both needed
30
EVA Robotics Philosophy and Trades
  • One suit design with spares for like redundancy
    multiple suit designs for unlike redundancy
  • Affects training and stowage
  • Level of maintenance performable on orbit
  • Training to task training to skills

31
Daily Operations

32
NASA and International Partner Control Centers
Columbus Control Center Oberfafenhoffen, Germany
MSS Control St. Hubert, Canada
ISS Mission Control Moscow, Russia
Shuttle Launch Control KSC, Florida
POIC Huntsville, AL
JEM/HTV Control Center Tsukuba, Japan
ATV Control Center Toulouse, France
H-IIA Launch Control Tanegashima, Japan
Soyuz Launch Control Baikonur, Kazakstan
ISS Mission Control Houston, TX
Ariane Launch Control Kourou, French Guiana
33
Operations Considerations
  • Crew
  • Autonomy
  • Workload and schedule
  • Normal patterns of work, sleep, recreation, etc
  • Work priorities
  • Ground controllers
  • Planning cycle
  • Shift work 24/7
  • Time zone crew is on
  • Time zone of other control centers

34
Humans in the Loop

35
Life in Space
36
Considerations
  • Crew Compatibility
  • Training
  • Psychological Support
  • Food
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Health Maintenance
  • Sleep Shifting
  • Workload
  • Habitability
  • Value of the Human

37
Stowage must be considered
38
International Partnerships

39
One Spacecraft,
One Vision,
One Partnership,
Many Reasons Why
40
ISS Launch Vehicles now and in the future
Ariane ATV
Proton
Soyuz
Shuttle
HIIA HTV
41
Integrated Engineering in Space
Elements are invented around the world and come
together in space with hairline tolerance
42
International Partnership Considerations
  • Language
  • Design Philosophy
  • Operations Philosophy
  • Negotiations process
  • Who is in Charge?
  • Need single senior partner with authority to make
    binding decisions
  • Need single lead integrator
  • Need single lead control center
  • Need agreed to mission requirements and
    guidelines
  • Need single certification and safety standards
  • Do not perform segmented operations

43
The Future…
44
Presidents Space Exploration Vision Januar
y 14, 2004

45
Space Exploration Vision
  • On January 14, 2004 the President announced a new
    vision for NASA
  • Implement a sustained and affordable human and
    robotic program to explore the solar system and
    beyond
  • Extend human presence across the solar system,
    starting with a human return to the Moon by the
    year 2020, in preparation for human exploration
    of Mars and other destinations
  • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge,
    and infrastructures both to explore and to
    support decisions about the destinations for
    human exploration and
  • Promote international and commercial
    participation in exploration to further U.S.
    scientific, security, and economic interests.
  • The vision affirms the nations commitment to
    space exploration and provides a clear direction
    for the civil space program

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