Principles of Nutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Principles of Nutrition PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 4d7d8-YzcxN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Principles of Nutrition

Description:

Principles of Nutrition. Quiz. List the six essential nutrients. ... The food label was revised in 1994 (FDA, 1994) to clarify the labels so the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:246
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 50
Provided by: asu100
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Principles of Nutrition


1
Principles of Nutrition
2
Quiz
  • List the six essential nutrients.
  • Which is the most essential nutrient?
  • Which builds and repairs tissue?
  • List two the body uses for energy.
  • Are supplements needed for healthy people?

3
Essential Nutrients
  • Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

4
Energy Content
  • Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram
  • Fats 9 calories per gram
  • Proteins 4 calories per gram

5
Recommended Intake
  • Carbohydrates
  • 58-60 of total calories
  • 48 complex
  • 10 simple sugars

6
Recommended Intake 2
  • Protein
  • 12-15 of calories should come from protein
  • Slightly higher if very active

7
Recommended Intake 3
  • Fats
  • 30 of calories should come from fat
  • 10 saturated
  • 10 monounsaturated
  • 10 poly unsaturated
  • 20 or lt20 if goal is weight loss or lowering
    cholesterol

8
Carbohydrates
  • Primary source of energy for the body
  • High octane fuel
  • Source of fiber

9
Carbohydrates
10
Simple Carbohydrates
11
Complex CarbohydratesStarch is the storage form
of glucoseDextrins are formed from the
breakdown of starch molecules exposed to dry
heatGlycogen is an animal polysaccaride
senthesixed from glocose.
12
Carbohydrates Source Of Fiber
  • Fiber is also a form of Carbohydrate.
  • Fiber is present mainly in leaves, skins, roots,
    and seeds.
  • Adequate fiber intake may lower the risk of
    coronary heart disease.

13
Dietary Fiber
  • Found only in plant foods
  • Complex carbohydrate
  • May assist in the prevention and treatment of
    diabetes, CV disease, colon cancer, and
    hemorrhoids.
  • Chinese foods are high in fiber.

14
Recommended Fiber Intake
  • 25 to 35 g/day (most consume 10-15g)
  • Sudden increases may cause gas, diarrhea, and
    bloating
  • 1 cup pinto beans 12g
  • 1 apple 4g
  • 1 cup bran flakes 6g

15
Fats
  • Required for normal bodily functions
  • D,A, K, and E are fat soluble
  • Overall Fat Intake
  • 30 of calories from the diet for person with
    normal weight and cholesterol levels
  • 20 or less if lowering cholesterol or involved
    in weight loss

16
Dietary Fat
  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated
  • Polyunsaturated
  • Monounsaturated

17
Fat - Diagram
18
Fats, Saturated vs. Unsaturated
  • Saturated fats tend to raise cholesterol levels
  • Unsaturated fats lower cholesterol but need to be
    examined in relation to each other.
  • Monounsaturated fats tend to lower the bad, but
    not the good, cholesterol.
  • Polyunsaturated fats tend to lower both the
    good and bad cholesterol.

19
Saturated Fat
  • Source animal products such as beef, butter,
    cheese, whole milk
  • Vegetable Sources
  • Coconut oil
  • Palm oil
  • Cocoa butter
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Contributes significantly to high cholesterol
    levels

20
Unsaturated Fats
  • Liquid at room temperature
  • Vegetable oils
  • Canola is a good choice
  • Polyunsaturated
  • Lowers both LDL and HDL
  • Monounsaturated (associated with lower
    cholesterol levels)
  • Lowers LDL but not HDL

21
Fish Oils
  • Omega -3 fatty Acid
  • Source Cold water fish
  • Appear to have positive effects on blood lipids
    and cholesterol
  • Three meals per week recommended

22
Hydrogenation
  • Read this term as saturated fat
  • Unsaturated fats may be put through a process
    called hydrogenation which is the adding of
    hydrogen the unsaturated fat. This process
    creates a product that closely resembles
    saturated fat.

23
Cholesterol
  • Normal Levels should be ???
  • ______________________

Less than 200
24
Olestra (Olean / WOW)
  • 25 years and 250 million dollars (PLUS) in the
    making
  • Fat molecules are so large that they pass through
    the bowel, unabsorbed.
  • May cause loss of vitamins, D,A,K, and E
  • Gastrointestinal problems
  • Potential CV problems, stroke, seizures, perhaps
    cancer.

25
Proteins
  • Proteins are the main substances the body uses to
    build and repair tissues. These tissues include
  • Muscles
  • Blood
  • Internal Organs
  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nails
  • Bones

26
Proteins
  • Proteins are Composed of amino acids found in
    plant and animal products
  • The human body is composed of 20 amino acids
  • Nine of these amino acids are called essential
    amino acids because the body cannot produce
    them.
  • The other 11 amino acids are called nonessential
    amino acids and can be manufactured in the body

27
Recommended Protein Intake
  • 12 - 15 of total calories
  • Two servings daily of 3-6 ounces
  • Each serving about the size of a deck of cards
  • Increased amounts may be required during growth,
    certain disease states, pregnancy, and lactation.
  • 0.8 g/kg of body weight

28
Amino Acid Supplementation
  • Excesses of some amino acid may prevent
    absorption of other amino acids. This can be
    dangerous.
  • Is not required to develop greater muscle mass
    (contrary to belief)
  • Consuming Meat or fish provides amino acids, as
    well as iron, niacin,and thiamin while an amino
    acid supplement provides no additional nutrition

29
Vitamins
  • There are thirteen vitamins
  • Essential for life and cannot be manufactured by
    the body

30
Vitamins Function
  • Regulators of body processes
  • Have no caloric value
  • Are destroyed by heat
  • Overuse is not advisable may lead to liver and
    kidney damage (2-3 times the RDA is acceptable)

31
Vitamins
  • Fat soluble vitamins
  • A, D, E, and K
  • Stored in the body(bind with
  • fat molecules and are absorbed
  • into the small intestine)
  • Excessive amounts can be toxic
  • Water soluble
  • C and B complex
  • Not stored in the body(must be supplied daily)
  • Excess amounts are excreted
  • Vitamin conservation when cooking???

32
Antioxidants
  • When oxygen is utilized during metabolism, a
    small amount ends up in an unstable form referred
    to as oxygen free radicals
  • A free radical molecule steals an electron from
    another molecule, turning the other molecule into
    a free radical.

33
Antioxidants 2
  • Free radicals attack and damage proteins, cells
    and DNA which contributes to CVD, cancer,
    emphysema, etc.
  • Vitamins C, E, beta carotene (precursor to
    vitamin A) and the mineral, selenium offer
    protection by absorbing free radicals before
    damage occurs.
  • Examples include Carrots, dark green leafy
    vegetables, yellow and red fruits

34
Minerals
  • There are about 25 minerals
  • Minerals have no caloric value
  • Essential to body processes
  • Minerals are stored in the liver and bones
  • Specific minerals are discussed due to their
    importance to physical activity

35
Iron
  • The mineral most important in helping with oxygen
    transport.
  • Insufficient consumption leads to anemia, which
    is a condition where ones blood volume is below
    normal.
  • Fatigue is a classic symptom of anemia.
  • Best source red meat
  • Only 10 of iron consumed is absorbed
  • Iron conservation when cooking???

36
Calcium
  • Most abundant mineral in the body
  • Necessary for the formation of bones and teeth,
    blood clotting and muscular contraction
  • The body cant manufacture calcium
  • Milk is the most reliable source
  • Low levels of calcium intake may cause the body
    to reabsorb calcium from the bones which leads to
    osteoporosis(a deficiency disease)

37
Calcium 2
  • Average recommended amounts 1000 to 1500mg daily
  • One cup of milk has about 300mg
  • Essential for the prevention of osteoporosis
    (along with proper estrogen levels and weight
    bearing exercise)

38
Calcium 3
  • 60 of post menopausal women develop osteoporosis
  • Supplementation is recommended
  • Recommended amounts essential during childhood
    and adolescence

39
Fluids (Water)
  • Most essential nutrient of the body
  • 8 glasses recommended daily
  • Represents approximately 70 of total body weight

40
Food Pyramid
41
Supplements
  • For healthy people are supplements necessary?
  • The body processes food much better than it
    processes pills.
  • The use of a daily vitamin or mineral will not
    cause problems if it yields less than two times
    the RDA.
  • There is no evidence that an excess(mega-doses)
    of vitamin C is beneficial.

42
Supplements 2
  • There seems to be valid information supporting
    Vitamin E as well as Calcium supplementation.
  • Does supplementation improve an athletes
    performance?
  • United States Olympic Committee on Sports
    Medicine
  • There is no scientific evidence that intakes
    of vitamins and minerals greater than the
    recommended amounts will enhance performance

43
Supplements 3
  • Examples
  • Vitamin E recommended for heavy exercisers,
    recommended as a prevention for heart disease
  • Folic Acid prevention of heart problems, birth
    defects
  • Calcium osteoporosis

44
Herbal Supplementation
  • 4.8 billion spent annually
  • FDA does not control these products
  • All natural does not always mean good

45
Food For Performance
  • Carbohydrate loading
  • If exercising gt 1 hour per day, 70 of calories
    should come from complex carbohydrates
  • Re-supply system with carbohydrates within an
    hour of prolonged activity

46
Understanding the food label
  • The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
    (NLEA) requires nutrition labeling for most
    foods.
  • Meat and poultry are exceptions, which are
    regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
    (USDA).
  • The food label was revised in 1994 (FDA, 1994) to
    clarify the labels so the consumer could better
    make informed decisions on food purchases.

47
Aspartame
  • Research indicates that a 132 pound person can
    safely consume 80 packs of Equal per day (15 soft
    drinks)
  • May affect short term memory
  • New studies suggest increase in the development
    of brain tumors

48
Cyclamate
  • Banned in the US
  • Allowed in Canada
  • Never proven to cause cancer

49
Saccharin
  • Causes cancer in laboratory rats
  • Banned in Canada
  • Allowed in US
About PowerShow.com