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Dysfunctional Foods: How the Contemporary American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies, Minds and

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Sugars (sweeteners and refined carbohydrates) have a drug effect on the brain ... Remove Sugars slowly remove overt' and covert' sweeteners. Steps Toward Stability ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dysfunctional Foods: How the Contemporary American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies, Minds and


1
Dysfunctional FoodsHow the Contemporary
American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies,
Minds and Behaviors
  • Margaret Adamek, University of MN
  • Class of 1989
  • February 9, 2005

2
(No Transcript)
3
How many of you know someone
  • Who has struggled with alcoholism?
  • Who suffers from depression or anxiety?
  • Who has chronic issues with their weight or
    struggles with eating disorders?
  • Who has a child with hyperactivity or attention
    deficit issues?
  • Who has been diagnosed with diabetes?
  • Who has a family with one or more of these issues?

4
solving weight issues
  • Standard Approach Individual Responsibility
  • Cut calories
  • Increase activity
  • Reduce soft drink and fast food consumption
  • Reduce time spent watching television and playing
    video games

5
Why doesnt this work?
  • Sugars (sweeteners and refined carbohydrates)
    have a drug effect on the brain
  • Sugars cause the body to release its own opiates
    (beta endorphin)
  • Sugars act on the same neurotransmitter system as
    alcohol, morphine and heroin
  • You have a population in a constant state of
    withdrawal, craving and relapse

6
from branches to roots the effects of diet on
people
7
..the unraveling web
caffeine
sugar amphetamine
8
neurochemical roots of the problem
  • Volatile blood sugar
  • Low serotonin
  • Low beta endorphin
  • Low dopamine

Glucose molecule
9
Volatile blood sugar
  • Tired all the time for little reason
  • Restless and edgy
  • Confused/foggy/spacey
  • Irritable and easily frustrated
  • Cranky
  • Short-fused

10
Low serotonin
  • Depressed
  • Impulsive
  • Short attention span
  • Scattered
  • Aggressive
  • Reactive
  • Craving sweets and carbohydrates

Serotonin peptide
11
Low beta endorphin
  • Low pain tolerance
  • Low self-esteem and feels inadequate
  • Tearful
  • Sensitive to criticism
  • Feels isolated
  • Seeks crisis
  • Feels victimized
  • Craves sugar and fat

Beta endorphin peptide
12
Low dopamine
  • Correlated with unhappiness
  • Linked to aggressive behavior and violence
  • Lack of positive emotionality
  • Protein intake positively influences dopamine
    production

dopamine peptide
13
Restoring health, land and food
  • Dietary change is very difficult, even when more
    healthful options are available
  • The addicted body must be stabilized to assist
    in the rejection of the contemporary diet
  • As the land and diet are brought into balance, so
    too must the body

14
Theory of Sugar SensitivityKathleen DesMaisons,
Ph.D
  • DBA/C57 mice inherited suite of biochemical
    deficits that give rise to a set of emotional and
    physical symptoms
  • Individuals who suffer from this profile seek out
    foods or substances that elevate these deficits
  • Sugar, fat, alcohol and other drugs cause the
    brain to produce opiates

C57
DBA
15
Sugar Sensitive Eating Habits
  • Skip breakfast
  • Low protein intake
  • Erratic mealtimes
  • High intake of refined carbohydrates and sugars
  • Frequent meal skipping
  • High consumption of caffeine
  • True of alcoholics and of C57 sugar sensitive
    types

16
Research Base
  • Sugar and alcohol evokes beta endorphin
    (Gianoulakis 1994, 1996 Blass 1991, 1995)
  • Low serotonin, carbohydrate craving, obesity and
    depression (Wurtman 1986, 1995)
  • Fat consumption and beta endorphin release
    (Drewnoski 1983, 1987, 1992)
  • Serotonin, and relationship to fat and sugar
    intake (Fernstrom 1971, 1986, 1987, 1995)

17
More Research
  • Sugar induces physical dependency (Colantuoni and
    Hoebel 2002)
  • Sugar is a gateway substance that increases
    likelihood of addiction to other substances, e.g.
    amphetamines (Hoebel 2003)
  • Sugar creates endogenous beta endorphin response
    (Schoenbaum 1989)
  • Sugar and fat together create significantly
    increased consumption behavior (Kelley 2003)

18
More research
  • Palatability/sweet taste alone will evoke opiate
    response (Hoebel)
  • High fructose corn syrup does not metabolize in
    ways that other sugars do, creating biochemical
    reactions that alter metabolism (Bray 2003)

19
Further research.
  • Too much fructose alters metabolism (Teff, 2004)
  • One serving of soft drink per day increases a
    womens chances of Type II diabetes by 85
    (Schulze, 2004)

20
and yet more!!
  • Addiction mechanism in the rat is similar to
    humans (Deroche-Gamonet et al., 2004)
  • Areas in brain activated in food craving are also
    activated in drug craving (Raglund et al 2004)

21
what do you get?
22
Steps toward StabilityKathleen DesMaisons, Ph.D.
  • Eat breakfast everyday within one hour of
    waking adequate protein complex carbohydrates
  • 2. Journal what and when you eat/how you
    physically and emotionally feel

23
Steps toward StabilityKathleen DesMaisons, Ph.D.
  • Eat three meals a day spaced 5 6 hours apart
    adequate protein, complex carbohydrates and
    vegetables move sugar consumption to meals
  • 4. Vitamins and Nightly Potato vitamin C (free
    radical scavenger) B-complex aids in
    detoxification and restoration zinc omega 3
    fatty acids//potato for serotonin synthesis

24
Steps toward Stability
  • 5. Whites to Browns slowly move refined grains
    to whole grains
  • 6. Remove Sugars slowly remove overt and
    covert sweeteners

25
Steps Toward Stability
  • 7. Stabilize beta endorphin receptor increase
    and stabilization explore food allergy issues
    adequate fatty acids consumption increase
    insulin receptor sites to heal insulin resistance

26
Effects of diet
  • Regulates blood sugar no dips and spikes
  • No sleepies less irritability not moody
  • Elevates serotonin
  • Able to say no and no impulsive behavior
  • Increases beta endorphin
  • Secure sense of self strong self-esteem and
    self-acceptance
  • Increases dopamine
  • Less aggressive, diminished violence and anger

27
How do you feel?
  • Consistent, steady energy without fits of fatigue
    or drowsiness
  • Happy, upbeat, not feeling done to
  • Secure and relaxed not anxious
  • Productive and able to concentrate
  • Compassionate and patient
  • Good at self-care

28
Beta endorphin
  • Activating Opiates
  • Skipping meals
  • Binge sugar dose
  • Super Size Me sugar and fat
  • Compulsive exercise
  • Stabilizing Opiates
  • Regular mealtimes
  • Adequate food for blood sugar
  • Removal of excessive refined carbs
  • No sugar on an empty stomach!
  • Exercise fun!

29
What are we seeing?
  • 92 long term success rate with alcoholism
    recovery
  • Drastic improvement in depression, ADHD, OCD,
    ODD, anxiety, weight, self-esteem, diabetes
  • Improved triglycerides, lipids, blood glucose
    levels, cholesterol

30
Connecting the body to community
  • How we produce food
  • What we produce
  • How we process food
  • How we consume food
  • What are the economic, ecological, cultural and
    health impacts?
  • Healing the sacred web of life

31
Obesity Where are we today?
  • 64 of U.S. adults are estimated obese or
    overweight (NHANES 1999-2000)
  • 31 of Americans are estimated obese - (NHANES
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    19992000)
  • 106 increase in obesity nationwide since 1981
    (French et al. 2001)
  • 5 7 increase in obesity each year (CDC)
  • All but one state has 15 or greater rate of
    population as overweight (CDC)
  • 58 of Minnesotans are overweight or obese (CDC)

32
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991-2002
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
2002
No Data lt10 1014
1519 2024 25
33
Diabetes where are we now?
  • 70 of diagnosed Type II diabetes is attributable
    to obesity (NIDDK NIH)
  • 6.3 of American population is diabetic
    (NIDDK-NIH)
  • 6 increase in diabetes per year (NIDDK-NIH)
  • Between 1990 -1998, prevalence of diagnosed
    diabetes increased 33 (CDC 2002)

34
Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Trends Among
Adults in the U.S., BRFSS 1990, 1995 and 2000
1990
1995
2000
Source Mokdad et al., Diabetes Care
2000231278-83 J Am Med Assoc 2001286(10).
35
Depression anxiety today
  • 9.5 of American adults suffers from depression
    each year (National Institutes of Mental Health -
    NIH Publication No. 01-4584 )
  • 13.3 of American adults suffer from anxiety
    disorders (National Institutes of Mental Health -
    NIH Publication No. 01-4584 )

36
Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
  • 7.5 of children exhibit this disorder 3 times
    as many boys as girls (data taken from Minnesota
    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
    2002)
  • 80 of prescriptions for amphetamines are written
    for children diagnosed with ADHD (DEA
    Congressional Testimony, 2000)
  • Administration of amphetamines to children has
    risen 3000 in the last ten years (DEA
    Congressional Testimony, 2000)

37
Alcoholism
  • More than 50 of American adults have a close
    relative who has/had a drinking problem (Dawson
    1998)
  • 7.4 of American adults are dependent or abuse
    alcohol in 2000 (Grant 1994)
  • 20 of individuals seeking primary healthcare are
    alcoholic (Bellas, Rand Corporation, 2000)
  • 6.3 of adult Minnesotans report chronic drinking
    (NIAAA 1984-2002)
  • 90 of alcoholics are likely to experience at
    least one relapse during the four years after
    treatment (NIAAA 1989)

38
Economic Impact - Obesity
  • 78.5 billion in healthcare costs for obesity
    (National Health Accounts, CDC)
  • 7 of US healthcare costs are obesity-related
    (French, 2003)
  • 1.307 billion in healthcare costs for Minnesota
    (CDC)
  • Obesity-related disability claims up 130 between
    1984 and 1996 for ages 30 49 (Rand Corporation)
  • By 2020, 20 of healthcare expenditures would be
    for obesity-related issues.

39
Economic Impact - Obesity
  • Obesity is associated with a 36 increase in
    inpatient and outpatient spending
  • Obesity is associated with a 77 increase in
    medications (Sturm 2002

40
Economic impact depression/anxiety/alcoholism
  • Cost of depression is 83.1 billion (Greenberg et
    al. 2003)
  • For diabetes.98 billion per year (premature
    mortality, disability, healthcare costs,
    workloss)
  • For alcoholism, estimated productivity loss is
    134.2 billion (NIAAA 2001)
  • Alcohol-related illness costs 87.6 billion
    premature death 36.5 billion (NIAAA 2001)
  • For alcoholism, estimated cost of alcohol abuse
    is 185 billion for 1998 (NIAAA 2001)

41
impact on our children
  • 27 of children are overweight (Centers for
    Disease Control)
  • Obesity rates among children have doubled in the
    last ten years and tripled for adolescents
    (Troiano, 1998)
  • Children born in the year 2000 have a 33 chance
    of becoming diabetic if theyre boys 39 if
    theyre girls (Venkat Narayan et al, 2004)
  • Childhood tantrums are positively correlated with
    obesity (Agras et al. 2004)

42
How do these public health issues relate to diet?
Public Health Crisis
43
Change in Carbohydrate Consumption
  • Increase of 50 in refined carbohydrates from
    1970 (USDA Economic Research Service)
  • Americans consume less than one serving per day
    of whole grains (USDA Economic Research Service)
  • 4000 increase in consumption per annum per
    person of high fructose corn syrup (USDA Economic
    Research Service)
  • Additional average 300 daily calories consumed
    attributed to increase in carbohydrate
    consumption (CDC 2004)

44
U.S. Sugar Intake
  • Sugar intake rose 30 percent between 1983 and
    1999 and was at 158 pounds per person/year
    (Center for Science in Public Interest
    222.cspinet.org/new/sugar_limit.html)

45
Candy and Other Confectionary Products US Per
Capita Consumption, 1966 2000, Pounds/ Year
46
(No Transcript)
47
US Per Capita High Fructose Corn Syrup
Disappearance 1967 2000, Pounds / Year
48
Introduction of new, larger portions, 19701999.
Number of Large-Size Portions Introduced
Year
Young Nestle 2002
49
Portion sizes
  • Energy dense, nutrient poor foods comprise 27 of
    diet ( 4 alcohol) (Kant 2000)
  • Standard portion size for factory-made cookies
    exceeds USDA standards by 700 muffins by 333,
    and bagels by 195
  • French fries, hamburgers and sodas increased 2
    5 times since 1970
  • 7-11 Big Gulp contains the caloric equivalent of
    more than one third the energy requirement of
    large segments of American population
  • (Young and Nestle 2002)

50
Media Attention
  • The Sunday Telegraph UK Food Industry has
    known for years that foods high in fat and sugar
    impact consumption (August 2003)
  • Atlanta Constitution Sugar Nation Series
    (November 2002)
  • New York Times Sunday Magazine What if Its
    All Been a Big, Fat Lie? (July 2002)
  • World Health Organization Diet, Nutrition and
    the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (February
    2003)

51
Our love affair with fast food
  • One in four adults eats fast food everyday in the
    United States
  • One in three children eats fast food everyday in
    the United States
  • Soft drink consumption up 135 since 1977
  • Average number of soft drink servings per day
    climbed from 1.96 in 1977 to 2.39 in 2001

52
Policy Attention
  • Soda machines and fast food removed from schools
  • Federal funding for fresh fruits and vegetables
    in school lunches
  • Support for physical and nutrition education in
    school and community contexts

53
Political Pressure
  • Suppression of WHO information and federal
    recommendations on reduction of refined
    carbohydrates
  • Congressional movement to ban litigation against
    fast food corporations

54
A complex system of addiction
55
with complex consequences
56
The Sugar Project
  • Healing culture from the molecular to the social
  • Mending the sacred web of life
  • Generating wellness creation, NOT wealth creation

culture
57
Sugar Project Mission
  • to restore individual, community, ecological and
    social wellbeing through health-creating diets

58
Sugar Project Approach
  • Ecologically restorative food production
  • Economic development through enterprises related
    to healing (new food products, etc.) that
    encourage strong, local economies
  • Low cost dietary intervention that improves
    public health outcomes

59
a complex system of change
  • Economic development
  • Healthcare Policy
  • Child and Youth Nutrition
  • Ecological renewal
  • Agricultural Policy
  • Re-emergence of local food systems and economies
  • Restoration of community health

60
Outcome
  • Healthy Ecologies
  • Healthy Economies
  • Communities that thrive
  • People who feel well
  • Wellness from the inside out!

61
Sugar Project Priorities
  • Children school hot breakfast lunch
    academics/behavior
  • Indian Country food sovereignty through
    addiction recovery and prevention
  • Research controlled studies on addicts,
    children and in Native American communities
  • Education development of materials, training
    curricula for various audiences
  • Media/Public Policy use of popular media to
    develop and influence policy agenda

62
Partner Efforts
  • New cropping system in Upper Midwest
  • Economic development to encourage local food
    systems
  • University research on brain biochemistry, diet,
    addiction and public health
  • Generating new collaborations with entities as we
    move forward

63
amphetamine
drug-free
sugar caffeine
mending the web of life
64
What can I do right now?
  • Personally.
  • Read DesMaisons material and start the process
  • Try eating breakfast with protein carbs for a
    few days to notice the difference
  • Potato Experiment
  • Transition away from corn syrup
  • Politically.
  • Explore opportunities for changing food options
    in dining service
  • Explore ways to change school hot breakfast and
    lunch options in Northfield
  • Identify different research questions tied to
    these issues

65
For further information
  • www.radiantrecovery.com or radiantkd_at_mindspring.co
    m
  • Sugar Addicts Recovery Program, by Kathleen
    DesMaisons
  • The Sugar Project, Maggi Adamek
  • University of Minnesota
  • madamek_at_umn.edu
  • 612-624-7451

66
Sources
  • Obesity and related healthcare costs statistics
    http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/economic_c
    onsequences.htmNational20Estimated20Cost20of2
    0Obesity
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9043/
  • http//nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa010503
    a.htm
  • Troiano, Richard P., Flegal, Katherine M. (1998,
    March). Overweight children and adolescents
    description, epidemiology, and demographics.
    Pediatrics, 101, 497-504.
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001,
    unpublished data. National Center for Health
    Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and
    Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human
    Services.

67
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statisti
    cs/index.htm
  • http//www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statob
    es.htm
  • http//www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statisti
    cs/index.htm
  • http//www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statob
    es.htm

68
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.ajc.com/living/content/living/special/s
    ugar/18sugarsouth.html
  • http//www.who.int/nut/documents/trs_916.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/issues/greenberg.pdf
  • http//www.ers.usda.gov/publications/FoodReview/DE
    C2002/frvol25i3a.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/abdep2.htm
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1280/mr1280.
    ch2.pdf

69
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.nyu.edu/education/nutrition/PDFS/young-
    nestle.pdf
  • http//www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • Grant B.F., et al. Prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol
    abuse and dependence United States, 1992.
    Alcohol Health Research World 18(3)243-248,
    1994.
  • Dawson, D.A., Grant, B.F. Family history of
    alcoholism and gender Their combined effects on
    DSM-IV alcohol dependence and major depression.
    Journal of Studies on Alcohol 59(1)97-106, 1998.
  • Harwood, H., et al. The Economic Costs of Alcohol
    and Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992.
    Rockville, MD National Institute on Drug Abuse,
    1998. http//www.naaso.org/news/19980902.asp
  • Sturm, R. 2002. The effects of obesity, smoking,
    and drinking on medical problems and costs.
    Health Affairs.
  • Centers for Disease Control (2002). Major
    increase in diabetes among adults occurred
    nationwide between 1990 and 1998.
    http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/press/archive/diab
    etes_increase.htm

70
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.ajc.com/living/content/living/special/s
    ugar/18sugarsouth.html
  • http//www.who.int/nut/documents/trs_916.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/issues/greenberg.pdf
  • http//www.ers.usda.gov/publications/FoodReview/DE
    C2002/frvol25i3a.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/abdep2.htm
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1280/mr1280.
    ch2.pdf

71
Sources (contd)
  • NIAAA (2001). Economic perspectives in alcoholism
    research. Alcohol Alert. http//wwww.niaaa.nih.gov
    /publications/aa51-text.htm
  • NIAAA (1989). Relapse and craving. Alcohol Alert.
    http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa06.htm
  • Kant, A. (2000) Consumption of energy-dense,
    nutrient-poor foods by adult Americans
    nutritional and health implications. The third
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,
    1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct72(4)929-36.
  • Young, L. and Nestle, M. (2002) The contribution
    of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity
    epidemic. American Journal of Public Health.
    February 92(2)246-249.
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