The Mali Empire From A.D. 700 to 1600 the ancient empires of Ghana 7001100, Mali 8001550 and Songhay - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Mali Empire From A.D. 700 to 1600 the ancient empires of Ghana 7001100, Mali 8001550 and Songhay

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Light brown: Ghana Empire ... Ghana's preeminence faded toward the end of the eleventh century, when its power ... Ghana subsequently fell to the expanding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Mali Empire From A.D. 700 to 1600 the ancient empires of Ghana 7001100, Mali 8001550 and Songhay


1
The Mali EmpireFrom A.D. 700 to 1600 the ancient
empires of Ghana (700-1100), Mali (800-1550) and
Songhay (1300-1600) controlled vast areas of West
Africa (see map and time line). Although each
empire rose to assert its power, they coexisted
independently for centuries. At its peak
(1200-1300), the Mali Empire covered an area that
encompasses significant portions of the
present-day country of Mali, southern and western
Mauritania and Senegal. Note that the old
kingdoms of Mali and Ghana are not the
present-day countries of Mali and Ghana.
2
 Green Mali EmpireRed  Songhai EmpireLight
brown Ghana Empire
3
The Mali Empire began when a small Malinke
kingdom within the Ghana Empire grew ever more
powerful.Mali began as a small Malinke kingdom
around the upper areas of the Niger River. It
became an important empire after 1235 when
Sundjata organized Malinke resistance against a
branch of the southern Soninke, who made up the
center of the older kingdom of Ghana.  The empire
developed around its capital of Niani.
4
Ghana Empire
Ghana (Wagadu), the earliest known empire of the
western Sudan, first entered the historical
consciousness of North Africa near the end of the
eighth century but probably originated long
before. The king of the Soninke people who
founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but
good relations with Muslim traders were fostered.
Ghana's preeminence faded toward the end of the
eleventh century, when its power was broken by a
long struggle with the Almoravids led by Abdullah
ibn Yasin. Ghana subsequently fell to the
expanding
The shaded portion indicates the greatest extent
of the Ghana empire ca. mid-eleventh century.
5
Songhai Empire
It was from one of Mali's former conquests, the
kingdom of Gao, that the last major empire of the
western Sudan emerged. Although the city of Gao
had been occupied by a Songhai dynasty prior to
being conquered by Mansa Musa's forces in 1325,
it was not until much later that the Songhai
empire emerged. It began to rise in 1464 when
Sonni cAli Ber came to power. Sonni cAli
conquered much of the weakening Mali empire's
territory as well as Timbuktu, famous for its
Islamic universities and the pivotal trading city
of Djenne.
The shaded portion indicates the greatest extent
of the Songhai empire, ca. sixteenth century.
6
The Empires of Mali disolved intoseveral
different small Kingdoms
v     Kaartha v     Kenedougou v     Bambara v
     Macina
v     Bobo
7
The fragmentation of the Empires of Mali into
multiple small kingdoms favored French invasion.
French colonization lasted from 1883 to 1960.
Mali gained independence 22 September 1960. The
country was then ruled for 8 years by an elected
socialist governement. A military coup detat
brought a dictatorship to power for 23 years
which ended in a mainstream revolution in 1991.
Democracy began in 1992 Malians are now (April
2007) democratically electing their President for
the fourth time.
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