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Archives, Digital Archives and Encoded Archival Description

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Title: Archives, Digital Archives and Encoded Archival Description


1
Archives, Digital Archives and Encoded Archival
Description
  • Chris Prom
  • Assistant University Archivist
  • University of Illinois
  • Mortenson Visiting Scholars Tech Training
  • April 19, 2006

2
Intro
  • Overview of Archives, Arrangement and Description
  • Review Standards and Tools related to Archival
    Description
  • Review Standards and Tools for providing access
    to digital archival materials
  • Lots of interaction

3
Archives Background
  • Archives Organized non-current records
    generated by institutions
  • Manuscripts non-current papers generated by
    individuals or families
  • Preserved because of enduring value
  • Not necessarily permanent value
  • Both generally referred to as collections

4
The Archival Mission
  • Identify, preserve, make available records and
    papers

From Gregory Hunter, Developing and Maintaining
Practical Archives
5
Based on chart in Hunter, Developing. . . p. 7
6
Archival Appraisal 101
  • Process of determining value
  • Done over aggregates not items
  • Primary operational, legal, fiscal,
    administrative
  • Secondary Historical or archival value
  • Types of archival value
  • Evidential documents organization and
    functioning of organization
  • Informational sheds light on people, events,
    things aside from organization

Credit Hunter, p. 51
7
Archival Arrangement 101
  • Provenance
  • Records from one creator must not be intermingled
    with those from another
  • NOT by subject
  • Original order
  • Maintain records in order placed by creator
  • Five levels of arrangement
  • Repository
  • Record group/subgroup (organizationally related
    group)
  • Record series (set of files or documents
    maintained as a unit)
  • File (folder, binder, packs for convenient use)
  • Item (one document, letter, etc)

8
Levels of Arrangement Examples
9
Arrangement of Papers
  • The mixed repository model
  • Term series in papers often refers to internal
    divisions in a collection.
  • Thurgood Marshall Papers
  • The collection is arranged in five series
  • United States Court of Appeals File, 1957-1965,
    n.d.
  • United States Solicitor General File, 1965-1967,
    n.d.
  • Supreme Court File, 1967-1991, n.d.
  • Miscellany, 1949-1963
  • Oversize, 1967, 1991

10
Description of Archives
  • Establish administrative control over archival
    materials
  • Locate collections
  • Identify their source, creators (chain of
    custody)
  • Outline contents
  • Establish intellectual control
  • General nature of repository
  • General contents of collection
  • Detailed information on specific collections
  • Summarize information across several collections
  • Important for both authentication and access
  • Internal vs. Public finding aids

11
Principles of Description
  • Multilevel Description
  • Proceed from general to specific
  • Provide information relevent to the level of
    description
  • Link each level of description to next higher
    unit of description
  • Do not repeat information, provide it only at
    highest appropriate level

Summarized from ISAD(G) General International
Standard Archival Description
12
Finding Aid
  • Basic Access Tool is the Finding Aid also known
    as inventory or register.
  • Prefatory material
  • Introduction
  • Biographical sketch/agency history
  • Scope and content note
  • Series description (organization)
  • Container Listing
  • Index (less used now with electronic finding aids)

13
Elements of Description
  • 26 in ISAD (G) (www.ica.org/biblio/cds/isad_g_2e.p
    df)
  • Identity
  • Reference code, title, dates, level of
    description
  • Context
  • Name of creator, biographical or admin history,
    source of materials
  • Content/Structure
  • Scope/content, appraisal information, arrangement
  • Conditions of Access/Use
  • Allied Materials (copies, originals, related)
  • Notes
  • Description Control (author of description,
    revisions)

14
Finding Aid Examples
  • Reston Papers and Third Armored Division Assn
    (bring along)
  • American Crystal Sugar Co.
  • Thurgood Marshall Papers

15
Questions?
  • Next
  • Overview of standards and tools for description
    of paper and electronic materials, and tools for
    access to electronic collections.

16
Establishing a good descriptive system
  • Takes planning, awareness of resources
  • Deciding on platform or computers should be
    LAST step
  • Better to describe all materials at high level
    than put all effort into one collection
  • Beware tendency to do lower levels of description
    before higher levels
  • Inventory MUST be the key
  • Use a content standard

17
Describing Archives A Content Standard
  • Provides rules/advice about the quality and
    structure of informational content
  • 8 principles
  • What to put in the 26 elements recommended by
    ISAD (G)
  • Rules for describing creators and forms of names
  • Complement to AACR2
  • Provides mapping to appropriate data structure
    standards

18
MARC21
  • Advantages Can use regular library software,
    provides integrated access with non-archival
    materials
  • Disadvantages Can undermine provenance,
    relationship to other materials may be lost
  • Recommendation USE MARC Cataloging as first step
    in PUBLIC finding aids

19
Cataloging Archival Materials
20
MARC 21 Sample
21
Typical Fields for Cataloging Archival Materials
22
Word-Processed Finding Aids
  • Advantages Easy to create, maintain
  • Disadvantages Not in standard format, cannot
    exchange with others, lack of coded fields
  • Recommendation Very useful for most
    institutions. Can be published to Internet via
    PDF

23
Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
  • Data structure standards for descriptions of
    manuscripts or archives--gtfinding aids
  • At any level of granularity
  • Typically collection level
  • sgml and xml versions of DTD
  • ltdaogt tag for linking to archival surrogates

24
EAD
  • Advantages Best interoperability and data
    exchange, easier to implement with others
    (consortia)
  • Disadvantages Tool development still weak, steep
    learning curve.
  • Recommendation If you have good technical
    skills, and a basic archival program is in place,
    and resources are available, implement it

25
EAD Samples
  • Static
  • http//web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/ua/1505023/150
    5023f.html
  • http//www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.ht
    m
  • Conversion on server http//www.amphilsoc.org/lib
    rary/mole/e/edwards.xml
  • PDF http//www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwar
    ds.pdf
  • In digital library software
  • http//www.umich.edu/bhl/EAD/index.html
  • http//www.oac.cdlib.org/
  • Other implementations
  • Cheshire http//www.archiveshub.ac.uk/

26
EAD Structure 1
  • XML perfect way to implement principles of
    multi-level description
  • many elements optional
  • most repeatable at any level, nesting can vary
  • Normalization possible, but not common for most
    finding aids

27
EAD Structure 2
  • lteadheadergt (information about EAD File)
  • lteadidgt unique id
  • ltfiledescgt
  • lttitlestmtgt
  • ltpublicationstmtgt
  • ltnotestmtgt
  • ltprofiledescgt
  • ltcreationgt
  • ltlangusagegt
  • ltrevisiondescgt
  • ltfrontmattergt (deprecated element, repeats info
    for display)
  • ltarchdescgt (information about materials being
    described)

28
Common Top-Level ltarchdescgt Elements
ltdidgt (descriptive id) ltoriginationgt
ltunitititlegt ltunitdategt ltphysdescgt
ltabstractgt ltrepositorygt
ltunitidgt ltbioghistgt ltscopecontentgt ltarrangementgt lt
controlaccessgt ltaccessrestrictgt
Other elements include ltaccrualsgt, ltacqinfogt,
ltaltformatavailgt, ltappraisalgt, ltcustodhistgt,
ltprefercitegt, ltprocessinfogt, ltuserestrictgt,
ltrelatedencodinggt, ltseparatedmaterialgt,
ltotherfindaidgt, ltbibliographygt, ltoddgt Linking
elements some based on XLink spec, suite of
linking elements includes ltarchrefgt ,ltextrefgt,
ltdaogrpgt All of above elements are repeatable
for components of the collection, at any level in
the ltdscgt (description of subordinate components)
29
Description of Subordinate Components
  • nested components (i.e. ltcgt unnumbered or
    ltc01gt, ltc02gt, etc. numbered) represent
    intellectual structure of materials being
    described
  • ltcontainergt elements (within each level)
    represent physical arrangement
  • Maximum depth of 12 levels (not a good idea to
    use all of them)
  • All elements available in archdesc top level also
    available in any component (typically not used)

30
A raw EAD File
  • http//web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/xml/2620016.xm
    l

31
EAD Tools Creation
  • Current options
  • Text editors (cheap, no built in validation,
    transformation or unicode support)
  • Notetab
  • Word Processors
  • XML editors (graphical view, built in validation,
    transformation, unicode support, FOP tend to be
    buggy)
  • XML Spy
  • oXygen
  • XMetal (not recommended)
  • EAD Cookbook highly recommended, templates for
    Notetab, oXygen

32
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33
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34
EAD Tools Display
  • Most common to transform to HTML
  • Static via xsl stylesheet on command line or in
    authoring software, then upload files to server
  • Client-side via link to css or xsl (dicey)
  • Server side transform engine (saxon, msxml,
    xalan, etc) via servlets
  • Dynamic (searchable)
  • dlxs findaid class

35
XML Transformations
XSL PARSER
HTML1
XSLT1
XSLT2
HTML2
XML
HTML3
XSLT3
HTML4
XSLT4
PDF
XSL-FO
36
Typical XSL file
37
Collection Management Tools
  • Advantages Software tailored for Archives, easy
    data entry
  • Disadvantages Few options currently exist. May
    be difficult to migrate forward at a future
    point. Also not automatically online

38
CMT Examples
  • Past Perfect http//www.museumsoftware.com/
  • Archivist Toolkit http//www.archiviststoolkit.org
    /
  • UIUC Archival Information System

39
AIS Demo
  • www.chrisprom.com/ais/admin
  • Login guest
  • Password guest

40
Break for Questions
  • Next Digital Archives Standards and Tools

41
Digital Libraries or Archives?
42
The on a horse problem
  • Best systems mix archival and library approaches
  • Complete item description AND
  • Full context AND
  • Link to complete collection (including
    description of off line items)

43
Sample of Digital Library/Archive Projects
  • http//memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html
  • http//www.oac.cdlib.org/
  • http//www.ohiomemory.org/index.html
  • http//www.library.yale.edu/mssa/
  • http//www.marquette.edu/library/MUDC/
  • http//www.library.uiuc.edu/archives/coll/dl/bot/b
    ot.html

44
Digital Library/Archive Standards
  • Background on Metadata
  • For images Dublin Core
  • For texts TEI
  • For information exchange METS, OAI
  • For Digital Preservation OAIS Reference Model

45
Archivists and Metadata
  • Structured data about an information resource
  • Metadata by itself doesnt do anything.
  • Metadata schemas provide buckets for
    information about resources.
  • Metadata needs to be interpreted by a system or
    user.
  • Metadata provides context to help machines (and
    more importantly people) interpret content
  • People usually talk about applying metadata to
    digital materials, but. . . . . .

46
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47
These are metadata fields
This is Metadata
48
same thing electronically
Metadata Fields
The metadata itself
49
Now as xml metadata
Descriptive and administrative
50
This is Not Metadata
This is!
51
Metadata is about context and relationships
  • This is metadata, but. . .
  • Incomplete
  • Embedded in object
  • Not self- explaining

52
  • More complete
  • Not embedded
  • Relational
  • Not self-explaining

53
  • Metadata and
  • Code and
  • human user beginning to do something with
    metadata
  • But. . .
  • Not self-explaining
  • Cant be exchanged

54
now as xml metadata
  • Non-embedded
  • Self-explaining
  • But relationships lost

55
Dublin Core
  • Developed in 1995 for authors to describe own web
    resources
  • Very simple, only 15 broad categories in the
    simple version
  • Advantages commonly held set of elements is easy
    to understand, built into many current tools
  • Disadvantages loss of specificity

56
The 15 elements
  • Content
  • Coverage
  • Description
  • Title
  • Type
  • Relation
  • Source
  • Subject
  • Audience
  • Intellectual Prop
  • Contributor
  • Creator
  • Publisher
  • Rights
  • Instantiation
  • Date
  • Format
  • Identifier
  • Language

57
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58
Dublin Core Resources
  • http//dublincore.org/
  • http//www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/dcdot/

59
Text Encoding Initiative
  • Encode any text with structural markup, deep
    semantic markup, or any combination of the two
  • Section for metadata in ltteiHeadergt
  • http//www.tei-c.org/
  • Typically need xml editor to create, software
    such as DLXS to display
  • http//media.library.uiuc.edu/projects/bot/xml/ind
    ex.htm

60
OAIS Reference Model
  • Based on Archival Principles
  • Three parties involved with digital information
  • Producers SIP Submission Information Packet
  • Managers AIP Archival Information Packet
  • Consumers (Users) DIP Dissemination Information
    Packet
  • http//www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/f
    oundation/oais/index.html

61
Simple OAIS Model
62
METS
  • Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
  • Standard for encoding descriptive,
    administrative, and structural metadata regarding
    objects within a digital library
  • Outgrowth of Making of American II project
  • Provides metadata for compound text and
    image-based works
  • Need purpose-built software to display and
    navigate.

63
METS Why bother?
  • Based on the OAIS Reference Model. It Includes
    support for
  • Submission Information Packet
  • Archival Information Packet
  • Dissemination Information Packet
  • Not only for transfer and archival management,
    but for giving access to, navigating an object
  • It plays well with other systems (EAD, MARC,
    TEI, VRA etc)
  • Software will be coming (support in Archivist
    Toolkit, NDIIPP projects)
  • BUT. . . . It is currently very complex.

64
OAI-PMH
  • Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata
    Harvesting
  • Not cross-database searching
  • metadata harvesting
  • Data Providers (expose collections in a common
    syntax)
  • Service Providers (use metadata harvested via the
    OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added
    services)

65
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66
OAI Example
  • OAIster http//oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/

67
Tools for Digital Library/Archive Projects
  • CONTENTdm http//www.dimema.com/
  • Very good, support for dublin core, OAI
  • Con expensive
  • Recommendation Skip it
  • Greenstone http//www.greenstone.org/cgi-bin/libra
    ry
  • Pros Free, (relatively) easy to configure, low
    hardware requirements, can run on internet or
    publish to CD, supported by UNESCO, targeted at
    developing nations
  • Con tends to be item-centric, difficult to
    aggregate materials
  • Recommendation Use it, but as part of large
    descriptive system

68
Thanks!!!!
  • This powerpoint online at
  • http//web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/workpap
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