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Alzheimers Disease

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Alzheimer found - shrunken brain - unique microscopic deposits. Quick Facts. One out of Seven 71 has dementia. 70% of dementia is Alzheimer's. 5 million Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alzheimers Disease


1
Alzheimers Disease
2
Discovery
  • 1901
  • Dr. Alois Alzheimer
  • Auguste Frau (died in 1906)
  • Alzheimer found
  • - shrunken brain
  • - unique microscopic
    deposits

3
Quick Facts
  • One out of Seven 71 has dementia
  • 70 of dementia is Alzheimers
  • 5 million Americans
  • 20 million worldwide
  • Direct and indirect costs of dementia 148
    billion annually
  • No cure
  • Average life expectancy is 8 years past onset of
    AD

4
Seven Stages of AD
  • Normal function
  • Very mild cognitive decline
  • Mild cognitive decline
  • Moderate cognitive decline
  • Moderately severe cognitive decline
  • Severe cognitive decline
  • Very severe cognitive decline

5
Diagnosing AD
  • No concrete diagnostic tool
  • Main symptom is deteriorating short term memory
  • Accurate 90 of the time
  • - physical exams
  • - blood and urine samples
  • - PET scans
  • - structured interviews

6
Changes in the Brain
  • Decrease in size and activity
  • Build up of plaques
  • Masses of neurofibrillary tangles

7
Changes in Size and Activity
  • Dramatically smaller brain
  • Much less brain activity
  • Hippocampus severely deteriorated

8
Plaques
  • Amyloid plaques
  • Collection of Aß peptide
  • Cleaved from Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)
  • ß-secretase cleaves at the N-terminus ? APPsb and
    c99
  • C99 cleaved by ?-secretase ? Aß peptide and a p3
    peptide

9
Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFT)
  • Built by paired helical filaments (PHF)
  • Tau is the main protein in PHF
  • Abnormally phosphorylated in AD patients
  • Tau protein kinases I and II phosphorylate tau
  • Abnormal tau collects as NFT

10
Other AD Factors
  • Amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs)
  • Free-radicals
  • Chronic inflammation

11
Treatment
  • No cure
  • Acetylcholineasterase inhibitors
  • - Donepezil
  • - Rivastigmine
  • - Glantamine
  • - Increase the amount of neurotransmitters in
    the synaptic cleft
  • Memantine inhibits the NMDA receptor for clearer
    thinking

12
The search for a cure
  • Prevent the toxic intermediates from forming
    during amyloid aggregation
  • Inhibit Aß peptide metabolism.
  • Find an effective means of reducing oxidative
    stress and inflammation
  • Treat the plaques and NFT

13
In Conclusion
  • This is a terrible disease
  • Current treatment plans are not nearly effective
    enough
  • It is a problem that will continue to grow

14
Sources
  • http//www.drugdevelopment-technology.com/projects
    /flurizan/flurizan5.html
  • http//www.bioscience.org/news/scientis/alzheim1.h
    tm
  • http//www.photonics.com/content/news/2007/April/4
    /87093.aspx
  • http//www.smh.com.au/news/health/pills-in-poop-is
    -the-scoop/2007/11/14/1194766740042.html
  • www.alz.org
  • http//www.templateswise.com/detail/link-56.html
  • www.robertocampus.com
  • www.northwestern.edu
  • http//abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id1831398
    page1
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