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OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Training

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Title: OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Training


1
OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Training
  • Washington College

2
Introduction
  • OSHA training for Resident Hall Advisors
  • Developed by
  • Dawn Nordhoff, CRNP
  • Director, Health Services

3
Topics of Discussion
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • HIV
  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Hepatitis B Vaccination
  • Exposure Determination
  • Standard Precautions
  • Engineering and Work Practice Controls
  • Clean-up
  • Exposure Emergencies

4
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • A bloodborne pathogen is a microorganism that is
    carried, replicated and/or transmitted in blood
    or blood products and is capable of causing
    disease.
  • All human blood and potentially infectious body
    fluids should be treated as infected.
  • Some bloodborne pathogens include HIV, Hepatitis
    B and C, Syphilis, Malaria, Babesiosis,
    Brucellosis, and Creutzfedlt-Jakob disease.

5
How are bloodborne pathogens spread?
  • By injection, cuts or sticks from contaminated
    sharps and needles or sharing of needles during
    drug use
  • Contact between blood and pre-existing skin
    lesions
  • Contact with infectious body fluids through the
    eyes, nose, and mouth including sharing of straws
    to snort drugs
  • Sexual Contact
  • Mother to Baby during pregnancy or during breast
    feeding

6
Contaminated
  • All body fluids containing visible blood and
    certain other body fluids such as saliva during
    dental procedures, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal
    fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal and pericardial
    fluid and amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal
    fluids are considered contaminated.

7
Not contaminated
  • Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears,
    urine, saliva, breast milk, and vomitus are not
    considered contagious unless blood is present.

8
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Is the virus known as HIV and the one that causes
    AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
  • HIV attacks the bodys immune system, weakening
    it so that it can not fight other infections.

9
HIV
  • Approximately 45,000 people are infected with HIV
    in the United States every year.
  • There are approximately 1 million people living
    with AIDS in the U.S.
  • These numbers could be much higher as many people
    who are infected are completely unaware of it.

10
HIV
  • Unlike the Hepatitis B virus, HIV is very fragile
    and will not survive long outside the human body.
  • The chances of contracting HIV in the workplace
    are only 0.4.
  • However, because it is such a devastating
    disease, all precautions must be taken to avoid
    exposure.

11
Symptoms of HIV Infection
  • Initially, the person infected with HIV may show
    few or no symptoms. There may be cold or flu
    like symptoms initially that are ignored.
  • Later symptoms may include weakness, fever, sore
    throat, nausea, headache, diarrhea, white coating
    on the tongue, weight loss and swollen lymph
    nodes.

12
Symptoms of HIV
  • Eventually the immune system becomes so depressed
    that the person becomes ill with other diseases
    and infections resulting in death.

13
Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis is a general term for inflammation of
    the liver. There are several causes including
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • Illicit drug use
  • Prescription or OTC drug interactions
  • Immune Response
  • Viral infections including mono

14
Hepatitis
  • There are several different type of viruses that
    infect the liver.
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis D
  • Many more have been identified

15
Hepatitis B and C
  • Hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily
    through blood and body fluids.

16
Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis C is a type of viral infection that
    affects the liver.
  • 60-70 of patients have no symptoms
  • 75-85 of patients become chronic carriers
  • Anti-HCV can usually be detected within 12 weeks
    of exposure

17
Hepatitis C
  • The leading cause of chronic liver disease and
    the number one indication for liver
    transplantation in the U.S.
  • Approximately 4 million people in the U.S. are
    positive for Hepatitis C

18
Complications
  • Complications of Hepatitis C include
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cirrhosis
  • Chronic Liver Disease
  • Death

19
Treatment
  • Peginterferon alfa 2a or 2b is the newest
    treatment
  • Liver Transplant

20
Hepatitis C
  • You can be re-infected with other strains of
    Hepatitis C
  • The HCV antibody remains positive for life but
    does not protect you from future infections
  • There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C
  • Re-infection after transplant is common because
    it is difficult to filter it from the blood

21
Hepatitis B (HBV)
  • Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver and
    causes inflammation.
  • Causes swelling, soreness, and loss of normal
    liver functions
  • It can also lead to more serious conditions such
    as cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer

22
  • Hepatitis B is transmitted primarily through
    blood to blood contact.
  • There is no specific treatment for HBV.

23
Hepatitis B
  • The Hepatitis B virus is very hardy and can
    survive in dried blood for many days.

24
Symptoms of HBV
  • Initially there will be Flu like symptoms such
    as
  • Fatigue
  • Stomach Pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Fever

25
HBV Symptoms
  • As the disease continues to develop jaundice or
    yellowing of the skin will occur along with
    darkening of the urine.
  • Sometimes people infected with HBV will not have
    any symptoms or will not develop them for up to 9
    months.

26
  • A person infected with Hepatitis B will usually
    have a positive test for the HBV surface antigen
    within 2-6 weeks from the start of symptoms
  • Approximately 85 of infected persons will
    recover in 6-8 weeks
  • The other 15 become chronic carriers of the
    disease and can transmit it to others

27
Complications of Hepatitis B
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cirrhosis
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Death

28
Treatment of Hepatitis B
  • Symptomatic (rest, fluids)
  • Interferon A
  • Liver transplant
  • Post exposure treatment of
  • HBIG and HBV vaccine

29
Good News
  • There is a way to prevent Hepatitis B infection.
  • There is a vaccine for Hepatitis B. It is given
    in a series of 3 shots. The second shot is given
    one month after the first shot and the third shot
    is given 5 months after the second shot.
  • This vaccine is free to RAs and it is available
    at the Health Center

30
Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • The vaccine is contraindicated in people with a
    severe yeast allergy.
  • It may cause some side effects such as
    discomfort, bruising or swelling at the injection
    site, headache, fatigue, weakness, malaise, and a
    slight fever. When these sympoms occur they do
    not last long and most people do not have any
    symptoms.

31
Should I get the vaccine?
  • RAs should have the Hepatitis B vaccine!

32
Exposure Determination
  • As a RA you have been determined to be in the
    risk category that may occasionally cause you to
    be in a situation that would put you at risk for
    exposure

33
Real Life
  • You may be the first person to respond to a
    students call for help if they are injured and
    bleeding or you may go to check on someone in
    your hall and find that they have cut wrists and
    are in a pool of blood. You cant get to them
    without coming in contact with the blood.

34
If you find yourself in this kind of situation
please stop and protect yourself as much as
possible. Use Standard Precautions and Work
Practice Controls.
35
Standard Precautions
  • Standard precautions means covering areas of your
    body to prevent contact with potentially
    contaminated blood or body fluids.
  • Even if you have had the Hepatitis B vaccine you
    are still at risk for HIV and Hepatitis C as well
    as other bloodborne pathogens

36
  • Put on protective gloves, gowns, goggles and face
    shields as the situation indicates.
  • If you come in contact with any possible
    contaminated fluids, wash your hands and other
    exposed areas ASAP with an antibacterial soap and
    water or a gel cleaner.

37
Work Practice ControlsUsing protective
equipment such as gloves and gowns is considered
a work practice control.
38
Other controls include
  • Use of safer sharps such as disposable needles
    that do not require recapping
  • Proper handling and disposal of sharps
  • Prevention plan and Post exposure policy

39
Prevention
  • In addition to avoiding contact with blood and
    body fluids you can also protect yourself and
    others by reporting sharps that are not disposed
    of in a puncture proof container.
  • Educating students regarding proper disposal of
    sharps and use of personal protective equipment
    when possible exposure exists.

40
Proper clean up
  • Finally, if there is blood or body fluids to
    clean up, wear protective equipment and use the
    kit on your hall. A diluted bleach solution of
    110 should be used to clean all surfaces
    affected after the debris has been cleaned.
    Leave the solution on and let the area air dry.
  • Always use a brush and dust pan to clean up glass
    or other sharp objects to prevent injury and
    contamination.

41
Exposure Emergencies
  • If someone must be cared for immediately and this
    results in a possible exposure please follow
    these guidelines.
  • 1. Remove clothing that is contaminated.
  • 2. Thoroughly wash contaminated area with soap
    and running water.
  • 3. Then GO IMMEDIATELY TO THE EMERGENCY
    DEPARTMENT AT CHESTER RIVER HOSPITAL CENTER FOR
    AN EXPOSURE EVALUATION

42
Post exposure prophylaxis
  • If it is determined that you had a true exposure
    and may be at risk for contracting a bloodborne
    illness you will have blood drawn and be offered
    several medications that may reduce your risk for
    HIV. You may also be given shots to reduce your
    risk of Hepatitis B and C.
  • These medications should be given within the
    first 2 hours after exposure.
  • It is critical that you go to the Emergency
    Department immediately if exposed.

43
Report the incident to college officials
  • As soon as possible report the incident to the
    Director of Health Services and the Director of
    Residential Life.
  • We will help you with follow up and all the
    required paper work.

44
Questions???
45
A copy of the Bloodborne Pathogens Compliance
Plan for Washington College can be found in the
following offices Health Services, Public
Safety, Student Affairs and Human Resources
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