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Inquiry in Context

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Goudvis & Harvey 2000. Text-to-World ... Goudvis & Harvey 2000. Beavers by Helen H. Moore. Read ... Want Milk? Get Goats (Mother Earth News June/July 2002) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Inquiry in Context


1
Inquiry and
Reading in the Content Areas
2
Modeling the Inquiry Methods Buy a car? Senior
going to college? Sick relative? Travel in your
future?
  • Encountering the Issue
  • Task Analysis
  • Investigating Information
  • Reasoning with Information
  • Acting on Decisions

3
Modeling the Inquiry Methods Buy a car? Senior
going to college? Sick relative? Travel in your
future?
  • Encountering the Issue

I need a new car because
  • Task Analysis

My car has to have
  • Investigating Information

I need information so I will...
  • Reasoning with Information

This one or that one?
  • Acting on Decisions

4
What strategies do we use to comprehend text?
Read Reflect
5
(No Transcript)
6
Seven Comprehension Strategies
Making Connections
Asking Questions
Determining Importance
Visualizing
Inferring
Synthesizing
Repairing Comprehension fix-up strategies
7
Why is it important to read nonfiction text?
8
It is estimated that
___ of direct instruction
is provided for reading nonfiction materials in
the primary grades
6
9
while ____ of
the time spent reading and
writing as adults is nonfiction.
90
10
The strategies are the same.
Students arent as interested in nonfiction as
they are in fiction.
  • Lets learn about beavers!
  • from table of contents and index
  • from labels and captions
  • from pictues

Non-fiction text is too difficult for struggling
readers.
11
Explicit Strategy Instruction
  • Teacher Modeling
  • Guided Practice
  • Independent Practice
  • Application of the Strategy in Real Reading
    Situations

12
Comprehension Strategies
  • MakingConnections
  • Asking Questions

Drawing Inferences
  • Determining Importance

Synthesizing
13
  • The questions that p________ face as they raise
    ch______ from in________ to adult life are not
    easy to an__________. Both fa______ and m_______
    can become concerned when health problems such as
    co___________ arise any time after the
    e___________ stage to later life. Experts
    recommend that young ch_________ should have
    plenty of s_______ and nutritious food for
    healthy growth. B______ and g______ should not
    share the same b________ or even sleep in the
    same r_____. They may be afraid of the d_____.

14
  • The questions that poultrymen face as they
    raise chickens from incubation to adult life are
    not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants
    can become concerned when health problems such as
    coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to
    later life. Experts recommend that young chicks
    should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious
    food for healthy growth. Banties and geese
    should not share the same barnyard or even sleep
    in the same roost. They may be afraid of the
    dark.

15
Open Word Sort
krill web flippers fluke
tentacles meat plankton wings insects
trees ocean seals molars rainforest
16
(No Transcript)
17
Illinois School Park Forest, Illinois Dear
Second Grade Students, Lions and tigers and
bears, oh my! Those are some of the animals we
will see on our trip to the zoo. But what do we
know about these animals? Where do they live
when they are not in a zoo? Do we have lions and
tigers in the United States? Could parrots live
in our backyards? Some animals are endangered and
only live in zoo habitats. What is happening to
their homes? Before we go to the zoo I would
like you to find out about these animals and
create guide books for us to use on our trip.
Please include information about the way animals
look and behave in their natural environment. We
also need information about the animals
survival, conservation, and importance. After
we have learned about animals and visited them in
the zoo the third graders will organize an
election to choose a school mascot. A school
mascot is a very important symbol. We need to
choose a school mascot that is worthy of our
attention and promotes school spirit! Most people
choose a mascot because of the way it looks.
Because you will know so much about animals I
want you to nominate ten animals that could be
our school mascot. The animals should represent
all five classes - mammals, insects, reptiles,
amphibians, and birds. Then well have a school
election to choose the best mascot for us. Be
sure to include information about how these
animals adapt and survive. We dont want students
choosing a mascot only because of the way it
looks! I look forward to your nominations and to
our trip to the zoo. Sincerely, Dr. Joyce
Carmine, Principal Illinois School
18
Semantic Features Chart
19
Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information
  • to reach conclusions (author and you)
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

20
(No Transcript)
21
Making Connections
Through Inquiry
22
Webbing
23
Getting Started What is important in this unit?
benchmark
benchmark
Your topic
benchmark
benchmark
24
(No Transcript)
25
Know and apply concepts that explain how living
things function, adapt and change.
Know and apply concepts that describe how living
things interact with their environment
Read The Log Hotel By Anne Schreiber
26
Dear Students, I live in the Caring First
Nursing Home just a few miles from your school.
I like living here but, like many people who live
here, I miss my pet. Before moving here I had a
pet kitten my roommate had a little dog. We
have decided that we would like to buy a bird for
our nursing home. A bird could bring a lot of
joy and provide hours of entertainment for us.
Some of the residents think we should buy a
parakeet. One wants to buy a robin another
wants a goldfinch. One man even suggested buying
a buzzard. Can you imagine that! That is why I
am writing to you. Would you have time to study
birds and help us decide what type of bird would
make a good pet for a nursing home? We will need
to know some very specific things about these
birds. In order to provide a good home, we need
to know about the different types of birds and
their characteristics, what their homes are like,
and how long they live. With your help, I think
we will be able to find a bird that will be happy
living here and that we will all enjoy. I hope
that you will be able to visit us to share the
information you have learned. Perhaps you could
make a photo album with pictures and written
information about each bird. Sincerely
, Frank Huelsmann Resident of Caring
First
27
Know and apply concepts that explain how living
things function, adapt and change.
Illinois School Park Forest, Illinois Dear
Second Grade Students, Lions and tigers and
bears, oh my! Those are some of the animals we
will see on our trip to the zoo. But what do we
know about these animals? Where do they live
when they are not in a zoo? Do we have lions and
tigers in the United States? Could parrots live
in our backyards? What would they eat? Some
animals are endangered and only live in zoo
habitats. What is happening to their
homes? Before we go to the zoo I would like you
to find out about these animals and create guide
books for us to use on our trip. Please include
information about the way animals look and behave
in their natural environment. We also need
information about the animals survival,
conservation, and importance. After we have
learned about animals and visited them in the zoo
the third graders will organize an election to
choose a school mascot. A school mascot is a
very important symbol. We need to choose a school
mascot that is worthy of our attention and
promotes school spirit! Most people choose a
mascot because of the way it looks. Because you
will know so much about animals I want you to
nominate ten animals that could be our school
mascot. The animals should represent all five
classes - mammals, insects, reptiles, amphibians,
and birds. Then well have a school election to
choose the best mascot for us. Be sure to include
information about how these animals adapt and
survive. We dont want students choosing a mascot
only because of the way it looks! I look forward
to your nominations and to our trip to the
zoo. Sincerely, Dr. Joyce Carmine,
Principal Illinois School
Know and apply concepts that describe how living
things interact with their environment.
28
Making Connections
Self, Text, World
29
Text-to-Self
  • Connections that readers make between the text
    and their past experiences or background
    knowledge.
  • Goudvis Harvey 2000

30
Text-to-World
  • Connections that readers make between the text
    and the bigger issues, events, or concerns of
    society and the world at large.
  • Goudvis Harvey 2000

31
Text-to-Text
Connections that readers make between the text
they are reading and another text. Goudvis
Harvey 2000
32
Beavers by Helen H. Moore
  • Read about beaver features, p. 24-27
  • Use post it notes and write

t/s text to self
t/w text to world
t/t text to text
T/W
T/T
T/S
33
Making Connections
  • What do you do when the connections students
    make arent very helpful?

34
Anticipation Guides
Making Connections
Me Text
Mosquitoes eat plant nectar and pollinate plants.
Mosquitoes make great food for fish.
Honeydew is a favorite food of the male mosquito.
The larvae do not breed successfully in water
that has fish or frogs.
Mosquitoes are the most dangerous Animal in the
world.
35
Text to Text Connections
  • Text to self
  • Text to world
  • Text to text...

Independent Practice
36
Making Connections with Words
Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important
factor contributing to reading comprehension. J.
G. Laflamme, The effect of the Multiple Exposure
Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading Writing
Strategy on Test Scores. 1997
37
Aspects of Content Area Vocabulary
Content vocabulary is rarely associated with
words that students already know.
p r e d a t o r
It consists of major concepts that undergrid a
lesson or a unit of study.
camouflage
adaptation
co2
o x y g e n
photosynthesis
nutrients
38
Aspects of Content Area Vocabulary
Here is my shuttle with the astronaut crew that
Ill STASH with my cars. (The Bag Im Taking
to Grandmas House) What synonym can you give for
stash?
Here is the book I want to read, PROPPED on my
pillow What synonym can you give for propped?
Colonies
Honeycomb
Pollen
39
Aspects of Content Area Vocabulary Terms are
often semantically related.
Armbruster and Nagy, Vocabulary in content area
lessons. 1992
cirrus
cumulus
stratus
40
Aesops Fable The Fox The Sick Lion
pounced
lair
semantically unrelated
morsel
grumbled
obviously
41
Three properties of successful vocab instruction
  • Integration (relating words to previous
    experiences)
  • Repetition
  • Meaningful use

42
Making Connections With Words
Open and Closed Word Sorts Connecting to
Vocabulary
43
Open Word Sort
krill web flippers fluke
tentacles meat plankton wings insects
trees ocean seals molars rainforest
44
Closed Word Sort
krill web flippers fluke
tentacles meat plankton wings insects
trees ocean seals molars rainforest
  • Categories
  • Animal habitats
  • Animal features
  • Food for animals
  • no clue

45
Closed Word Sort
ocean rainforest web trees
meat krill insects plankton
  • animal habitats

food for animals
flippers fluke tentacles wing molars
  • Categories
  • Animal habitats
  • Animal features
  • Food for animals
  • no clue


animal features
46
1
3
2
5
4
6
9
7
8
10
11
14
13
12
47
Group 1
Birds Zoo Animals Farm Animals
Group 3
Group 2
48
Making Connections With Words
Connect Two
whales cub dens herbivore fur lodges
kit beavers waste omnivore droppings fins
and
are connected because
49
Making Connections With Words
Word Splash
More About Beavers, Page 28, 29
cheeks
ticks
first grader
excrete
nibbling
50
Anticipation Guides
Making Connections
Me Text
Mosquitoes eat plant nectar and pollinate plants.
Mosquitoes make great food for fish.
Honeydew is a favorite food of the male mosquito.
The larvae do not breed successfully in water
that has fish or frogs.
Mosquitoes are the most dangerous animal in the
world.
51
Mini Lessons for Making Connections
  • Engaging the Learner (jigsaw and letter)
  • Power of Post-its (T/S, T/W, T/T)
  • Open Sort/Closed Sort
  • Connect Two
  • Word Splash
  • Anticipation Guides

52
Guided Practice
  • Write the letter
  • Select jigsaw materials and organizer
  • Choose book for modeling Text to Text connections
  • Select vocabulary strategy and create student
    handouts
  • Create anticipation guide

53
Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections

Asking Questions
  • Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
54
  • A sap-sucking insect may hold the key to a
    whole new class of antibacterial drugs, say
    scientists who have been looking at how these
    creatures combat infection.

55
Comprehension Strategies
Asking Questions
  • Itsy Bitsy Spider
  • The itsy bitsy spider went up the water spout.
  • Down came the rain and washed the spider out.
  • Out came the sun and dried up all the rain,
  • And the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout
    again.
  • Questions
  • Who climbed up on the water spout?
  • What happened after the rain washed the spider
    out?
  • Why do you think the spider decided to climb back
    up the water spout?
  • Have you ever tried and failed at something once,
    yet still had the courage to try again?

56
Readers ask questions to
  • Find specific information
  • Clarify confusion
  • Construct meaning
  • Discover new information

57
Ask me about the opera Lucia.
58
Types of Questions
  • There are how many types of bees?
  • How many eggs does the queen lay?
  • What does the drone do?
  • Where does a colony live?
  • What do worker bees do for the colony?
  • What do bees do with pollen?
  • Where do bees live?

59
Question/Answer Relationship (QAR)
  • IN MY HEAD
  • Author and You answer not in text must think
    about what is known, what text is saying and how
    it fits together
  • IN THE BOOK
  • Right There answer in text,
    easy to find words used in question and used in
    answer are in same sentence
  • Think and Search
  • words and answers
  • come from different
  • parts of text (or
  • books)
  • On My Own
  • using experiences
  • to answer question

60
Half of the QAR
In Your Head (Inference)
In the Book (Investigation Information)
Right There Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day.
Right There Drones mate with the queen bee.
  • Worker Bees
  • Make wax
  • Feed the larvae
  • Collect pollen
  • Store pollen
  • Make honey
  • Guard the hive

61
The Other Half of the QAR
In the Book (Gathering Information
In Your Head (Inference)
Author and You (Inference) Which bee is the
busiest? Why is it necessary for the queen to lay
so many eggs?
Right There Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day.
Right There Drones mate with the queen bee.
  • Worker Bees
  • Make wax
  • Feed the larvae
  • Collect pollen
  • Store pollen
  • Make honey
  • Guard the hive

On Your Own Do you know someone who works as
hard as the bee?
62
  • Responsible Dog Ownership
  • What percentage of dogs in animal shelters are
    mixed breeds?
  • What are some genetic considerations that should
    influence people when adopting a dog from a
    shelter?
  • If there are young children in the family how
    would the dogs coat and dominant behavior affect
    family life?
  • Why do most communities have leash laws?

63
The Other Half of the QAR
In the Book (Gathering Information
In Your Head (Inference)
Author and You (Inference) If there are young
children in the family how would the dogs coat
and dominant behavior affect family life?
Right There
About 75 percent
Think and Search
  • Genetic considerations
  • coats that need to be brushed and combed
  • dominant breeds that need firmness
  • submissive breeds that need extra patience
  • and confidence-boosting
  • genetically unfit mixed breed dog will have
  • unhealthy puppies

On Your Own Why do most communities have leash
laws?
64
Write Team Questions
  • Want Milk? Get Goats
  • (Mother Earth News June/July 2002)
  • Students write questions based on their reading
    of a text (one Right There and one Think and
    Search)
  • Student reads one question to a group
  • Student calls on a volunteer
  • Volunteer answers and now reads one of his/her
    own questions
  • Continue until everyone has asked and answered
    once

65
  • I wonder...
  • what horses eat?
  • where horses live?
  • how horses help people?

66
  • I wonder?
  • Choose a book, turn the pages and WONDER
  • Write I wonder (about animals)?
  • Wonder and Wander in the books!

67
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions

68
(No Transcript)
69
Mini Lessons for Asking Questions
  • Question and Answer Relationships (QAR)
  • Developing In the Book Questions (Right There,
    Think and Search)
  • Wonder and Wander

70
Guided Practice
  • Select book and create In the Book questions
  • Create hotlist or Webquest and guiding questions
  • Design activities for teaching the QAR
  • Kindergarten develop Wonder and Wander strategies

71
Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions

Determining Importance
Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
72
The Biggest Animal Ever
What are the three most important facts in this
book?
73
The Biggest Animal Ever
How does a whales body help it survive?
74
Illinois School Park Forest, Illinois Dear
Students, Our first Spirit Day is fast
approaching. I am really looking forward to
honoring the outstanding work of our students and
teachers. We have planned the assembly, the
treats, and the presentations -- but theres one
thing we forgot A SCHOOL MASCOT! A school
mascot is a very important symbol. We need to
choose a school mascot that is worthy of our
attention and promotes school spirit! Most people
choose a mascot because of the way it looks. I
think we should consider the way it looks and
behaves in its environment. When we make our
decision, we need to think about the animals
survival, conservation, and importance. I
understand that you are studying animals this
year. Would you be willing to nominate ten
animals to be our school mascot? The animals
should represent all five classes - mammals,
insects, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Then
well have a school election to choose the best
mascot for us. Be sure to include information
about how these animals adapt and survive. We
dont want students choosing a mascot only
because of the way it looks! I look forward to
your nominations. Sincerely, Dr. Joyce Carmine,
Principal Illinois School
75
Finding Important Information
The context puts the
into finding important information.
important
76
Beavers by Helen H. Moore
  • What did the author think was important for the
    reader to know about beavers?
  • Read the book using only features as clues for
    determining importance.

77
Using The Features of Nonfiction Text to
Determine Importance
  • Table of Contents
  • Index
  • Titles, Headings
  • Font Size
  • Font Style
  • Tables, Graphs, Charts, Diagrams, Labels,
    Captions
  • Features of Websites

78
Cutting Up With Facts
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when
if it eats something bad.
Baboons live together in troups.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
79
Cutting Up With Facts
Features
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body if
it eats something bad.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
Baboons live together in troups.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
Behaviors
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
80
The Features of Nonfiction Text
  • Table of Contents
  • Index
  • Titles, Headings
  • Font Size
  • Font Style
  • Tables, Graphs, Charts, Diagrams, Labels, Captions

81
Nonfiction Text Structures
  • Cause-Effect
  • Problem-Solution
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Description
  • Chronological Sequence
  • Episodic
  • Definition

82
Nonfiction Text Structures
  • Ironically, a big contributor to high gasoline
    prices has been good environmental intentions. A
    web of regional clean-air regulations require
    that up to a third of all gas sold in the U.S. be
    blended in complex ways for cleaner emissions.
    The regulations are strictest in California,
    where, not surprisingly, gasoline is most
    expensive. Blending costs an extra nickel per
    gallon in the Golden State and .3 in smog zones
    in other parts of the country. Because there are
    more than a dozen types of reformulated
    gasolines, every refinery faces added costs.

83
Nonfiction Text Structures
Clean-air regulations
1/3 of all gas is blended
Blended costs .5 in California
More than a dozen types reformulated
Every refinery faces added costs resulting in
higher gasoline prices
84
Nonfiction Text Structures
Melted metal makes up part of Earths core.
Describe the aurora borealis
Moving metal creates a magnetic field around the
planet.
The field pulls and pushes metals.
Read Northern Lights
The field traps fast moving particles from the
Sun.
The particles make Earths gases glow.
The glowing gases make colorful bands of light
called auroras.
85
Visualize...
86
Nonfiction Text Structures
High gas prices. Environmental mandates.
Emissions regulations sparked interest in
all-electric vehicles.
Sexy Fuel Sippers, Discover, April 2000
Battery-powered cars run out of juice quickly,
take long time to recharge, energy packs
expensive.
Hybrid cars the biggest automobile innovation
in a century.
Consists of small gas engine linked to a compact,
direct-current electric motor. A computer directs
their interaction.
Hard driving uses both systems at cruising
speeds, gas goes it alone. While slowing or
rolling downhill electricity is sent to battery.
87
(No Transcript)
88
Text Structures Compare/Contrast
Topic _________________
Economy
North
South
Alike
Different
labor
goods services
working conditions
resources
89
Text Structures Description
90
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91
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92
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93
(No Transcript)
94
Using Graphic Organizers to Determine Importance
  • Semantic Features Charts
  • Change Over Time

95
Semantic Features Chart
96
Change Over Time Life Cycle of a Tree
97
Change Over Time Life Cycle of a Tree
98
Investigating Information
99
Investigating Information
  • Inquiry
  • After seeking information by conducting
    experiments
  • Students use graphic organizers to organize

100
Organizers for Note-taking
  • The power of post-its
  • Cutting up with facts
  • Creating organizers for concepts (mapping the way)

101
Summer is fun.
You can go swimming.
You can sleep in.
You can catch fireflies.
102
You can go swimming.
You can sleep in.
You can catch fireflies.
Summer is fun.
Facts Lead to
Big Ideas
103
Finding Important Information Vocabulary
Words And Concepts (WAC) A B C D
E F G H I J
K L M N O P
Q R S T U V W
X Y Z Reading Strategy
Determining Importance
104
Category What is it?
Properties Describe it.
ANIMAL
Compare/Contrast What is it like?
HAS WINGS
BAT

MOUSE
MAMMAL
FRUIT
USES RADAR
INSECT-EATING
VAMPIRE
Illustrations What are some examples?
105
A bat is an animal similarto a mouse. It is a
mammal, has wings and uses radar to locate prey.
Some examples are fruit, vampire and insect
eating bats.
106
Category What is it?
Properties Describe it.
Compare/Contrast What is it like?

tree
Illustrations What are some examples?
107
The Frayer Model
108
The Frayer Model
109
Mini Lessons for Determining Importance
  • The Features of Nonfiction Text
  • Key Points and Supporting Details
  • Graphic Organizers, Note Taking
  • IWAC, The Frayer Model, Concept Definition

110
Guided Practice for Determining Importance
  • Select books for teaching features
  • Create note taking format
  • Create graphic organizer(s) for whole group
    summaries and comparisons
  • Use Frayer Model and define a selected word

111
Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions
  • Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
112
  • Inferential thinking occurs when text clues
    merge with the readers prior knowledge and
    questions to point toward . . . a conclusion in
    the text.
  • Goudvis Harvey, 2000

113
Jealous
114
The Other Half of the QAR
In the Book (Gathering Information
In Your Head (Inference)
Author and You (Inference) Which bee is the
busiest? Why is it necessary for the queen to lay
so many eggs?
Right There Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day.
Right There Drones mate with the queen bee.
  • Worker Bees
  • Make wax
  • Feed the larvae
  • Collect pollen
  • Store pollen
  • Make honey
  • Guard the hive

On Your Own Do you know someone who works as
hard as the bee?
115
The Other Half of the QAR
  • David
  • Right There
  • What did David do as soon as he saw the clock?
  • What type of shirt did David put on?
  • Think and Search
  • What did David look for before he left the house?
  • What steps did David take to get ready to leave
    the house?
  • Author and Me
  • Where was David headed that morning?
  • What time of day was David getting ready to go?
  • On My Own
  • Should parents wake their children up for school?

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Cutting Up With Facts
Features
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when
if it eats something bad.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
Baboons live together in troops.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
Behaviors
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
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What can we infer?
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when
if it eats something bad.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
The cheeta has a spotted coat.
Animal features
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What can we infer?
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
Baboons live together in troops.
Animal behaviors
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Inferential Thinking
ABCs of Inferring A B C D E
F G H I J
K L M N O P Q
R S T U V W X
Y Z Reading Strategy Inferential
Thinking
Animal Survival
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Mini Lessons for Drawing Inferences
  • Inferring Feelings
  • Inferring from the Cover, Illustrations, and Text
  • Inferring in Nonfiction
  • Facts, Inferences, New Ideas

121
Guided Practice
  • Plan to teach inferences
  • Inferring meaning using Author and Me questions
    (create questions)
  • Inferring meaning from text clues (words,
    pictures, notes)

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Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions

Drawing Inferences
Determining Importance
Synthesizing
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Synthesis at the highest level goes beyond
merely taking stock of meaning as one reads. A
true synthesis is achieved when a new perspective
or thought is born out of the reading. Goudvis
Harvey, 2000
124
Reasoning with Information evaluating,
creating, judging, inferring, visualizing,
making decisions
  • You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are
    changing color for the first time. Tell what you
    see and how you feel. What would you say?
  • I feel imbarrist because all the trees around me
    are pine trees and their leaves dont change
    color. Im scared because I wonder if somethings
    wrong. I dont like it because I liked it when
    my leaves were green. Im asking the pine trees
    if something is wrong but they dont know because
    they have not dad it happen to them. I dont see
    any other trees to ask so I dont know what will
    happen next
  • Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling
    to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you
    see? What would you say?
  • Im starting to wonder if Im goinjg to die. I
    dont know if this is something that should
    happen. Im glad I got throught the other thing
    but this is even worse. This is worse than
    having a kid climb you. This is terrible. I
    hate it. I like green way better than
    brown. 2nd grade

125
Response to writing prompt at the conclusion of
the unit
  • You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are
    changing color for the first time. Tell what you
    see and how you feel. What would you say?
  • I look so pretty but I wish they were nice fresh
    green. The colors are so pretty but I wish it
    never happens. I will just haft to stay like
    this for a long time. At least I am alive. I do
    not like fall because it makes my leave turn
    different colors.
  • Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling
    to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you
    see? What would you say?
  • I look so bad and my leaves are falling off. The
    brown is werse than last time. I rather have
    colored leaves than brown. At least they will
    turn green again nest summer. I wish I was a
    needle leaf and not a broad leaf. 2nd grade

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Final Product Organizer
1
1
2
1
3
4
6
5
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Supporting Students with Synthesis
  • Writing Experiences
  • Effectively Using Technology to Communicate
  • Completing the Final Product
  • Trees, Planets

129
The End
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Emily Alford (847) 397-1665 ealford_at_ncisc.org
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