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Digital Libraries: Extending and Applying Library and Information Science and Technology CIKM 2000 N

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Title: Digital Libraries: Extending and Applying Library and Information Science and Technology CIKM 2000 N


1
Digital Libraries Extending and Applying Library
and Information Science and Technology CIKM
2000 November 9, 2000
  • Edward A. Fox
  • fox_at_vt.edu http//fox.cs.vt.edu
  • CS DLRL Internet TIC
  • Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

2
Acknowledgements (Selected)
  • Mentors JCR Licklider, Michael Kessler, Gerard
    Salton
  • Sponsors Adobe, IBM, Microsoft, NLM, NSF, OCLC,
    SOLINET, SURA, UNESCO, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE), …
  • VT Faculty/Staff Tony Atkins, Thomas Dunbar,
    Debra Dudley, John Eaton, Gwen Ewing, Peter
    Haggerty, Gary Hooper, Gail McMillan, Len Peters,
    James Powell, …
  • VT Students Emilio Arce, Fernando Das Neves,
    Brian DeVane, Robert France, Marcos Goncalves,
    Scott Guyer, Robert Hall, Neill Kipp, Paul
    Mather, Tim McGonigle, Todd Miller, Constantinos
    Phanouriou, William Schweiker, Ohm Sornil,
    Hussein Suleman, Patrick Van Metre, Laura Weiss,
    …

3
Internet Technology Innovation Center Supported
by Virginias Center for Innovative Technology
Statewide University Partners - Governing Board
  • Christopher Newport University
  • William Winter, William Muir, Virginia Electronic
    Commerce Technology Center / Southeastern
    Virginia Network (VECTEC/SEVAnet)
  • George Mason University
  • Scott Martin, Internet Multimedia Center (ICM)
  • Steven Ruth, International Center for Applied
    Studies in IT (ICASIT)
  • University of Virginia
  • Alf Weaver, Internet Commerce Group (InterCom)
  • Jim French, Internet Digital Library
  • Virginia Tech
  • Edward Fox, Digital Library Research Laboratory
    (DLRL), CC, CS
  • Scott Midkiff, Center for Wireless Telecomm.
    (CWT), VTISC, ECpE

4
Digital Library Courseware
  • http//ei.cs.vt.edu/dlib/
  • WWW pages or large PDF copy files
  • CourseInfo quizzes based on books by Michael Lesk
    (MKP.com) and William Arms (MIT Press)
  • Contents based on books, with other popular
    topics added (e.g., agents)
  • Separate pages to supplement Definitions,
    Resources (People, Projects), and References

5
JCDL 2001
  • First Joint ACM/IEEE Conference on
    Digital Libraries ( NSF DLI-2 PI mtg)
  • http//www.jcdl.org
  • June 24-28, 2001 in Roanoke, VA
  • Conference Committee
  • General Chair Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech
  • Program Chair Christine Borgman, UCLA
  • Treasurer Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School
  • Posters Chair Craig Nevill-Manning, Rutgers U.

6
Why this topic today?
  • Many users (patrons) prefer digital libraries to
    traditional libraries or the Web
  • Digital library collections often are free or
    less expensive, so are heavily used
  • Most publishers are working toward digital
    libraries to allow access to their content
  • Computing as well as library and information
    science professionals are key players in building
    digital libraries

7
Outline
  • Grand Challenge WHY !
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

8
Libraries of the Future JCR Licklider, 1965, MIT
Press
World
Nation
State
City
Community
9
Licklider Unified Theory?
  • Not ready in 1960s
  • Analog unified field theory in physics
  • Mess today segmented field, specialities
  • Database lt-gt Knowledge lt-gt Content Mgmnt
  • Multimedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext
  • Logic, Algebra, Artificial Intelligence, …
  • Expensive, annoying for users
  • Dont know where to look
  • Dont know how to use services

10
(No Transcript)
11
Locating Digital Libraries in Computing
and Communications Technology Space
Digital Libraries technology trajectory
intellectual access to globally distributed
information
Communications (bandwidth, connectivity)
Computing (flops)
Digital content
less
more
(Slide from S. Griffin, NSF)
12
Grand Challenges Can
  • Mobilize the community
  • Spur creativity
  • Lead to important benefits in society
  • Push researchers to develop relevant theories
  • Force people to work in teams/groups
  • Convince funding agencies to invest
  • Help bring about integration of systems,
    interoperability, and seamless interfaces

13
DL Challenges
  • World Digital Library (Libraries)
  • Preservation - so people with trust DLs
  • Scalability, sustainability, interoperability
  • (Supporting infrastructure - networks, …)
  • DL industry - critical mass by covering
    libraries, archives, museums, corporate info,
    govt info, personal info - quality WWW
    integrating IR, HT, MM, ...
  • Need tools methods to make them easier to build

14
DLs Why of Global Interest?
  • National projects can preserve antiquities and
    heritage cultural, historical, linguistic,
    scholarly
  • Knowledge and information are essential to
    economic and technological growth, education
  • DL - a domain for international collaboration
  • wherein all can contribute and benefit
  • which leverages investment in networking
  • which provides useful content on Internet WWW
  • which will tie nations and peoples together more
    strongly and through deeper understanding

15
Information Life Cycle
Borgman et al. Workshop Report on Social Aspects
of Digital Libraries http//www-lis.gseis. ucla.
edu/DL/
16
Digital Libraries --- Objectives
  • World Lit. 24hr / 7day / from desktop
  • Integrated super information systems 5S
    streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies
  • Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost
  • Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery
  • Disintermediation -gt Collaboration
  • Universities Reclaim Property
  • Interactive Courseware, Student Works
  • Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

17
DL-Related Timeline
WWW
1985
1990
1995
2000
xxx
OAI
Scholarly EPub in Us
CoRR
NCSTRL
CSTR
XML
PDF
SGML
MPEG-7
JPEG, MPEG
DLI
Proposed Ugrad DL
DLI2
PCs
NSDL
TEI
Java
HyperCard
DC
RDF
Hypertext Conf.
ETDs
NDLTD
18
Core of DL
  • Collecting
  • Authoring, Repositories, Archives, Museums, …
  • Organizing
  • Packaging of Data and Metadata, Storing
  • Naming/Identifying and Cataloging
  • Classification, Clustering, …
  • Serving
  • Indexing, Linking, Summarizing, Visualizing
  • Browsing, Accessing, Searching, Filtering,
    Retrieving, Distributing, Using, …

19
DL Components
User Interfaces
Gateways
Workflow Mgr
MM/ HT Renderer
Search Engines, Classifiers, …
DBMS
Rights Mgr
Data, MM Info
Repository
20
Digital Libraries Shorten the Chain from
Author
Editor
Reviewer
Publisher
AI
Consolidator
Library
Reader
21
DL Users Direct (Organized Artifact Mediated
Communication)
Roles
Digital Library
Author
Teacher
User
Reader
Editor
Learner
Reviewer
Librarian
Dr.
Patient
22
Benefits
  • Ease of use
  • Effectiveness
  • The benefits of digital libraries will not be
    appreciated unless they are easy to use
    effectively. - IITA Workshop report

23
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

24
(No Transcript)
25
PetaPlex Top View
4 ft. side
door
26
PetaPlex Side View
15 shelves
Roles Support Cooling Power
Aluminum
8 ft. high
4 ft. wide
27
PetaPlex Complex
Service Machine 1
Service Machine 3
Service Machine 2
Service Machine 4
FRONT END MACHINE RS/6000, 1G RAM, 4 Proc.
PetaPlex Core
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
28
PetaPlex
  • Digital Library Machine (super object store)
    Parallel computer / storage utility
  • Research inverted files, video server, …
  • Knowledge Systems Incorporated is supplying
    VT-PetaPlex-1 with 2.5 terabytes through 100
    nodes
  • Net connection 25GB disk 233 MHz Pentium
    Linux

29
Structured Video Browser (making video into
hypermedia) www.learn.umd.edu
  • IBrowse
  • Expository multimedia
  • Narrative Structures

30
  • MPEG-7 Image Library Systems

MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Tech.

31
  • MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech.

MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech.

Architecture
32
LMDS offers a LOT of bandwidth (comparison to
previous auctions)
LMDS
MMDS
DBS
PCS A-C Block
LMDS is - 1300 MHz in two Blocks ( 28-31
GHz) - Over 2X bandwidth of AM/FM radio, VHF/UHF
television, and Cellular telephone combined. -
More than sum of previous 16 auctions
Cellular Unserved
Digital Audio Radio Service
PCS D-F Block
Wireless Communications Service
Interactive Video Data
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
MHz
33
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34
SPIRE Visualization
35
CAVE-ETD
  • CAVE-ETD is a simulation of a library that runs
    in a CAVE (VR environment).
  • Populated with a subset of ETD records.

room
room
room
Main Foyer
room
36
Reading Book Abstract
37
Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System
2-way Speech Transation
38
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

39
Definitions
  • Library (libraryarchivemuseum…)
  • Distributed information system organization
    effective interface
  • User community collection services
  • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management,
    handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase,
    annotation

40
Definition Digital Libraries are complex systems
that
  • help satisfy info needs of users (societies)
  • provide info services (scenarios)
  • organize info in usable ways (structures)
  • present info in usable ways (spaces)
  • communicate info with users (streams)

41
5S Layers
Societies
Scenarios
Spaces
Structures
Streams
42
Definition 5S Framework
  • Societies interacting people (, computers)
  • Scenarios services, functions, operations,
    methods
  • Spaces domains constraints (e.g., distance,
    adjacency) 2D, vector, probability
  • Structures relations, trees, nodes and arcs
  • Streams sequences of items (text, audio, video,
    network traffic)
  • (5 Element System Fire, Wood, Earth, Metal,
    Water)

43
5S Combinations
  • Societies Scenarios user model
  • Societies Scenarios Spaces user interface
  • Streams Structures markup
  • Streams Structures Scenarios object
  • Structures Scenarios DBMS

44
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

45
Complex to Simple
MARC (50)
Dublin Core (DC)
46
Authors tools
www.physik.uni-oldenburg.de/EPS/mmm
47
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48
DL Components
User Interfaces
Gateways
Workflow Mgr
MM/ HT Renderer
Search Engines, Classifiers, …
DBMS
Rights Mgr
Data, MM Info
Repository
49
Open Archives Initiative OAI www.openarchives.org
openarchives_at_openarchives.org
50
Original Open Archives Members
  • NASA Langley Research Cntr
  • Old Dominion University
  • Stanford University
  • U. of Ghent
  • U. of Surrey
  • U. of Southampton
  • Vanderbilt University
  • Virginia Tech
  • Washington University
  • American Physical Society
  • California Digital Library
  • Caltech
  • Coalition for Networked Info.
  • Cornell University
  • Harvard University
  • Library of Congress
  • Los Alamos Natl Lab
  • Mellon Foundation

51
Approaches to Open Archives
Build By Institution
Build By Discipline
52
Approaches to Open Archives
Build By Institution
Build By Discipline
Access by
Author Category Interdisciplinary Year Language Qu
ery …
53
OAi Philosophy
  • Self-archiving submission mechanism
  • Long-term storage system archive
  • Open interface harvesting mechanism
  • Data provider service provider
  • Start with gray literature
  • e-prints/pre-prints, reports, dissertations, …

54
Archive of Digital Objects
Archive Access Protocol
Handle (ID)
Metadata
terms and conditions
Digital object
55
OAI Repository Perspective
Required Protocol
Set Structure
URI Scheme
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
Required DC
DO
DO
DO
DO
56
OAI Black Box Perspective
57
Black Box OAI-ETD Perspective
…
…
58
CS Teaching Center (CSTC)
  • Collection of reviewed online resources used to
    aid in teaching of Computer Science
  • Supports author submission and peer-review
    process for new ACM Journal of Educational
    Resources In Computing (JERIC)
  • Connected with NSDL (NSF 00-44)
  • http//www.cstc.org

59
W3C Web Characterization Repository
  • Online database of metadata related to
    publications, tools and data sets dealing with
    Web characterization
  • Project of the Web Characterization Activity
    working group of the World-Wide-Web Consortium
    (www.w3c.org/WCA)
  • http//purl.org/net/repository

60
OAI Repository Explorer
  • Serves as a compliancy test
  • Allows browsing of open archives using only OAI
    protocol
  • Sends requests on behalf of user, parses and
    checks responses and displays browsable interface
  • Will detect most discrepancies in protocol
  • http//purl.org/net/explorer

61
Tiered Model of Interoperability
Mediator services
Metadata harvesting
Document models
62
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63
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

64
(6 slides from Lee Zia, NSF) Presidential
Directive - 12/17/1999 Subject Use of
Information Technology to Improve Our Society
  • 13. The Secretary of the Smithsonian
    Institution, the Director of the National Science
    Foundation, the Director of the National Park
    Service, and the Director of the Institute of
    Museum and Library Services shall work with the
    private sector and cultural and educational
    institutions across the country to create a
    Digital Library of Education to house this
    country's cultural and educational resources.

65
Programmatic History
66
Vision A Learning Environments and Resources
Network for SMET Education (LEARNS)
  • Designed to meet the needs of learners, in both
    individual and collaborative settings
  • Constructed to enable dynamic use of a broad
    array of materials for learning, primarily in
    digital format
  • Managed actively to promote reliable anytime -
    anywhere access to quality collections and
    services, available both within and without the
    network (from www.nsf.gov/nsdl)

67
LEARNS
Users
Tools
Content
The network is the library.
68
LEARNS Connects
  • Users students, educators, life-long learners
  • Content structured learning materials large
    real-time or archived datasets audio, images,
    animations primary sources digital learning
    objects (e.g. applets) interactive (virtual,
    remote) laboratories ...
  • Tools search refer validate integrate
    create customize publish share notify
    collaborate ...

69
Expectations of Tracks
  • Core Integration to coordinate a distributed
    alliance of resource collection and service
    providers, and to ensure reliable and extensible
    access to and usability of the resulting network
    of learning environments and resources
  • Collections to aggregate and actively manage a
    subset of the digital librarys content within a
    coherent theme or specialty
  • Services to increase the impact, reach,
    efficiency, and value of the digital library in
    its fully operational form
  • Targeted Research to have immediate impact on
    one or more of the other three tracks

70
Selected DL2 Ugrad Projects/Topics
71
Tracks 29 Projects
  • 6 Core Integration Columbia, Cornell,
    E.Michigan/MERIT, UCAR, UCB, U-Missouri/NCSA
    (Biology, Eng., Teacher Ed.)
  • 13 Collections Atmosphere, Biology, Biosciences,
    Earth Systems, Engineering, Health Sciences, Math
  • 9 Services Competitive Intelligence, Component
    Environment, Earth Systems J., Metadata NLP,
    Managing LOs, Peer Review, Video
  • 1 Targeted Research Paths

72
NSDL Spine
(Slide from Dave Fulker, Bill Arms 11/2/2000)
73
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74
CS Teaching Center (CSTC)
  • Instead of building large, expensive multimedia
    packages, that become obsolete and are difficult
    to re-use, concentrate on small knowledge units.
  • Learners benefit from having well-crafted modules
    that have been reviewed and tested.
  • Use digital libraries to build a powerful base of
    support for learners, upon which a variety of
    courses, self-study tutorials reference
    resources can be built.
  • ACM Education Board and SIG support, new NSF
    grant with COLLEGIS Research Institute and others
    …

75
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76
Browsing (1)
77
Browsing (2)
78
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79
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80
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81
A Digital Library Case Study
  • Project
  • Networked Digital Library of Theses
    Dissertations
  • http//www.ndltd.org (NDLTD remember
  • ND LTD / NDL TD)
  • (also, newer NUDL Networked University Digital
    Library, with e-courseware, etc.)
  • Domain graduate education, research
  • Genre ETDs electronic theses dissertations
  • Submission http//etd.vt.edu
  • Collection http//www.theses.org

82
NDLTD
Grad Program
Ed. (Tech)
IT
Library
83
The Networked Digital Library of Theses and
Dissertations
www.NDLTD.org
Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving
Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing
Scholarly Communication Empowering Students
Universities
Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis
and Dissertation) Initiative
84
What are the long term goals?
  • Attract all TDs/yr 50K D-US, 25K D-Germany, 10K
    TD-Canada, …
  • gt200K/yr rich hypermedia ETDs that may turn into
    electronic portfolios (images, video, audio, …)
  • Dramatic increase in knowledge sharing
    literature reviews, bibliographies, …
  • Services providing lifelong access for students
    browse, search, prior searches, citation links
  • Hundreds/thousands of downloads / year / work

85
Student Defends Finalizes ETD
Multimedia
Start ETD early!
86
Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD
Approval form
87
Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is
Graduated
Quality control
88
Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New
Research
WWW
NDLTD
Digital library access control
89
User Search Support (multilingual, XML)
Note All groups shown are connected with NDLTD.
90
Access Possibilities
www. openarchives. org
Web search engines
www. theses. org
library catalog clients
3rd Party Services (e.g., UMI)
Virginia Tech
National Library of Portugal
CBUC (Spain)
Ohio Link
MIT
National Projects AU, GE, …
91
Status of the Local Project
  • Approved by university governance Spring 1996
    required starting 1/1/97
  • Submission access software in place
  • Submission workshops for students (and faculty)
    occur often beginner/adv.
  • Faculty training as part of Faculty Development
    Initiative
  • Over 3000 ETDs in collection some have audio,
    video, large images, software, …

92
US University Members (44)
  • Air University (Alabama)
  • Baylor University
  • Brigham Young University (part, whole)
  • Caltech
  • Clemson University
  • College of William Mary
  • Concordia University (Illinois)
  • East Carolina University
  • East Tenn. State U. require fall 2000
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • Florida International University
  • George Washington University
  • Louisiana State University
  • Marshall University (W. Va.)
  • Miami University of Ohio
  • Michigan Tech
  • Mississippi State University
  • MIT
  • Naval Postgraduate School (CA)
  • Penn. State University
  • Rochester Institute of Tech.
  • U. of Colorado Health Science Center
  • U. of Florida
  • U. of Georgia
  • University of Hawaii, Manoa
  • U. of Iowa
  • U. of Kentucky
  • U. of Maine
  • U. of North Texas required since 8/99
  • U. of Oklahoma
  • U. of South Florida
  • U. of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • U. of Tennessee, Memphis
  • U. of Texas at Austin required in 2001
  • U. of Virginia
  • U. Wisconsin - Madison
  • Vanderbilt U.
  • Virginia Commonwealth U.

93
OhioLINK
  • Statewide Consortium
  • Represents 79 colleges, universities, libraries
  • Public Universities
  • Private Universities and Colleges
  • 2-Year Colleges
  • Only a few (e.g., Miami U. of Ohio) are also
    NDLTD members on their own

94
National / Regional Projects
  • Australia
  • U. New South Wales (lead)
  • U. of Melbourne
  • U. of Queensland
  • U. of Sydney
  • Australian National U.
  • Curtin U. of Technology
  • Griffith U.
  • Germany
  • Humboldt University (lead)
  • 3 other universities
  • 5 learned societies Math, Physics, Chemistry,
    Sociology, Education
  • 1 computing center
  • 2 major libraries
  • Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de
    Catalunya, as group, www.cbuc.es
  • Universitat de Barcelona
  • Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona
  • Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
  • Universitat Pompeu Fabra
  • Universitat de Girona
  • Universitat de Lleida
  • Universitat Rovira i Virgili
  • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
  • Biblioteca de Catalunya
  • South Africa ECHEA/SEALS
  • India, Portugal, …

95
Other Countries with Members
  • Netherland
  • Norway
  • Russia
  • Singapore
  • S. Africa
  • S. Korea
  • Spain
  • Taiwan
  • UK
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Germany
  • Hong Kong
  • India
  • Italy
  • Korea
  • Mexico

96
ETD Initiative (and UMI)
Education
Access
Students Learn about DL, EPub
TDs become more expressive
Global TDs become more accessible, archived
Universities
N. Amer. (T)Ds are accessible, archived
UMI
97
Convene Local Planning Group
98
Build Local ETD Site
Digital Library
99
Responsibilities
  • Handle local education and collection
  • Contact information for helpers
  • Archive
  • Utilize standards
  • Metadata MARC / DC-based concensus specification
  • Share metadata
  • Union services, mirrored services
  • Allow access
  • www.theses.org / www.dissertations.org
  • Open Archives Initiative (www.openarchives.org)

100
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102
MARIAN Layers
User Interface Layer
User Information Layer
Search Engine Layer
Database Layer
103
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106
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111
Remember
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

112
Conclusions
  • Consider DLs to use, to teach, to add to, to
    build
  • Education is one important application of DLs
  • Cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, new
    knowledge all are important to preserve
  • Technology opens up exciting opportunities in DLs
    to yield seamless super information systems
  • Having a framework and theory may lead to better
    (more effective) systems and broader
    applicability
  • Interoperability is part of the DL grand challenge

113
URLs
  • http//fox.cs.vt.edu
  • http//ei.cs.vt.edu/dlib (Courseware)
  • http//www.dlib.org (D-Lib Magazine)
  • www.smete.org and later www.nsf.gov/nsdl
  • www.ndltd.org and www.theses.org
  • www.cstc.org (CSTC and JERIC)
  • www.openarchives.org
  • www.jcdl.org (JCDL2001 June 24-28)
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