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Reading Strategies for Struggling Readers

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Reading Strategies for Struggling Readers: Grades 2-6 August 2008 Becky Hinze, Reading Consultant Mary Montgomery, Professional Learning and Leadership Consultant – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading Strategies for Struggling Readers


1
Reading Strategies for Struggling Readers Grades
2-6
August 2008 Becky Hinze, Reading Consultant Mary
Montgomery, Professional Learning and Leadership
Consultant Heartland Area Education Agency 11
2
Housekeeping
  • Handouts
  • Todays handouts (Bring back for Day 2)
  • Tomorrow-Additional handouts provided
  • Sign-in each day
  • Facilities
  • Breaks
  • Table full of resource
  • examples to view

3
Credit Options
GO DRAKE!
  • Graduate Credit is available
  • Additional 90.00 for One Credit from Drake
  • Grade Requirements All done in class
  • Sample Data set Activity
  • Demonstration of Instructional Strategy-Small
    Group
  • Daily Response Sheet
  • 100 Attendance
  • Payment due at sign-up
  • Sign-up after lunch before class tomorrow

4
Parking Lot
  • This will be interactive, ask questions whenever
    you want
  • If you dont feel comfortableuse the parking lot

5
Who is here today?
6
Learning Targets
  • Review the 5 Essential Components of Reading
  • Review the 3 types of assessments
  • Gain skills in matching appropriate instructional
    strategies to assessment data
  • Learn to implement a variety of specific
    instructional strategies for building alphabetic
    principle, fluency, and comprehension skills

7
Putting It All Together
  • Curriculum is What we teach.
  • Instruction is How we teach.
  • Assessment Guides the process.

8
For struggling readers, just making progress
isnt good enough.
Benchmark 3
Benchmark 1
Benchmark 2
Established - Benchmark
Score
Emerging - Strategic
Deficit - Intensive
Time
9
When curriculum, instruction, and assessments are
working together
Benchmark 3
Benchmark 1
Benchmark 2
Established - Benchmark
Score
GOAL
Close the gap!
Time
10
Simple Observation
  • Teaching reading is important
  • Learning to read is extremely complex
  • What it takes to teach reading effectively is
    grossly underestimated
  • Reality We have a solid and converging knowledge
    base about what works
  • We know the skills that enable successful
    readers. We know the skills that can be taught.
  • Generalization of reading skills should not be
    left to chance. We must teach generalization.

11
Enabling Skills
  • Enabling skills are skills that could be
    considered prerequisite skills for the
    demonstration of proficient performances on
    larger assessments measures
  • They represent the sub-skills of higher order
    performance demonstration
  • Deficiencies in enabling skills will often result
    in lower performance on assessments

12
Five Essential Components in Reading
1. Phonemic Awareness - the ability to hear
and manipulate sounds in spoken words 2.
Alphabetic Principle (phonics) - the ability to
associate sounds with letters and to use those
sounds to read and spell words 3. Accurate and
Fluent (effortless) Reading of Connected Text-
accurate reading at a minimal rate with
appropriate prosodic features (expression) and
deep understanding- (Hudson, Mercer, and Lane,
2000)
13
Five Essential Components in Reading
4. Vocabulary Development - the ability to
understand and use words to acquire and convey
meaning 5. Comprehension - the complex
cognitive process involving the intentional
interaction between reader and text to
extract meaning.
COMPREHENSION
14
Complex Alphabetic Code
15
IDM CYCLES Core, Supplemental, Intensive
  • IDM Cycles
  • Curriculum
  • Instruction
  • Assessments

Core
Supplemental
Intensive
16
Students with Reading Difficulties
17
Why are you here?
  • Think about the specific students you are
    currently teaching or have taught in the past
    that brought you to this class today. Write down
    3-5 characteristics of that student(s).
  • Share with a partner. Together list 3
    characteristics in common.
  • As a table group share your lists and write down
    any common characteristics. Be prepared to share
    out.

18
Complex Alphabetic Code
  • Language Develops Naturally but Reading Must be
    Taught
  • All humans have a biological predisposition to
    develop oral language
  • However, our alphabetic reading and writing
    system is a human invention
  • Many children will not learn this complex system
    without explicit instruction

19
Instruction or Practice?The 64, 000 Question
The fact of the matter is that students with
serious reading difficulties will need
extensive opportunities for both instruction and
practice. The question is not which one, but
what to teach, what to practice and how to
manage it. -Wendy Robinson
20
Automatic Acquisition of Words
  • Typical learners have to read a word 4-12 times
    meaningfully to learn it automatically
  • At-risk learners have to read a word 12-42 times
    meaningfully to learn it automatically
  • For some students with serious reading
    difficulties they have to read a word up to 1400
    times to learn it automatically

21
Putting It All TogetherAssessment
  • Curriculum is What we teach.
  • Instruction is How we teach.
  • Assessment Guides the process.

22
TIME TO THINK
  • For the next three minutes, write down what
    reading assessments are given at your grade
    level, and why are they given?
  • Use Time to Think Activity Sheet
  • Large group share out

23
Assessment Considerations
  • Measurement strategies are chosen to
  • Answer specific questions
  • Make specific decisions
  • Give only with a purpose
  • in mind
  • There is a problem if one
  • doesnt know why the assessment is being given.

24
Three Functions of Assessment Needed to Guide
Instruction
1 Screening -Target a group of students 2
Diagnostic - Pinpoint instructional needs 3
Progress Monitoring- Shows whether the
instruction is effective and impacting student
skill development ALL PART OF AN ASSESSMENT
PROCESS!
25
What is Screening?
  • An assessment process used to recognize the
    potential existence of problems or to sort
    students into instructional groupings.

26
One Screening Purpose Identify Kids At Risk
  • Systematic or School-Wide
  • All students given assessments to determine which
    may need additional instruction or assessment
  • Minimum proficiency scores must be determined
    How good is good enough?
  • Heartland Norms
  • DIBELS Standards
  • ITBS-40th percentile
  • Other Research-Based Standards

27
Look at ITBS as a Part of a Screening Process
  • List students falling below the 40th NPR-Reading
    Comprehension
  • Consider raising the expectation to 50-60th
    NPR-Reading Comprehension

28
At Risk
29
DIBELS as a Part of a Screening Process
  • One could look at the DIBELS data printouts
  • Highlight students not at benchmark

30
DIBELS Class List Example
31
Screening Assessment Questions
  • Screening assessments can answer the questions
  • How does the student compare to
    expectations/standards/peers?
  • Who is not performing at the expected level?
  • How far is the GAP between the students
    performance and expectations/standards/peers?
  • All VITAL information for guiding instruction to
    close the GAP

32
Activity
  • Review your current reading assessment list
  • Place the letter S next to those assessments
    that are Screening Assessments
  • REMINDER Screening assessments can answer
    the questions
  • How does the student compare to
    expectations/standards/peers?
  • Who is not performing at the expected level?
  • How far is the GAP between the students
    performance and expectations/standards/peers?

33
Three Functions of Assessments Needed to Guide
Instruction
  • 1 Screening Assessments-Target a group of
  • students
  • 2 Diagnostic Assessment- Pinpoint instructional
    needs
  • 3 Progress Monitoring- Shows whether the
  • student is being effected by the
    instruction.

34
Purpose of Diagnostic Assessment
  • The major purpose for diagnostic assessment is to
    provide information that is useful in planning
    more effective instruction.
  • Diagnostic tests should only be given when there
    is a clear expectation that they will provide new
    information about a childs difficulties learning
    to read that can be used to provide more focused,
    or more powerful instruction.

35
The Diagnostic Process
2-6 Work Our Way Back
Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Accuracy and Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
2nd Grade May Enter HERE!
3-6th Grade Should Enter HERE!
36
Diagnostic Assessment Questions
  • Why is the student not performing at the
    expected level?
  • What skills does the student need to learn to be
    a skilled reader?

Digging Deeper!
37
Diagnostic Process Grades 3-6 Step 1
2nd grade too, If data is available!
  • Is reading comprehension at the expected level?
  • Validate
  • Consider other data to ensure initial screening
    measure was not a result of a performance problem
    rather than a skill problem.
  • Tools to help answer the question
  • ITBS Reading Comprehension Subtest If available
  • Cloze/Maze
  • Classroom Benchmarks, Performance and Tests

38
Diagnostic Process Step 1 Is
reading comprehension at the expected level?
  • If YES Difficulties may be a result of
    task-related issues (i.e. motivation, attention,
    etc.). Work to determine cause of poor
    performance and intervene.
  • If NO Continue to gather data to find out why.
  • Look at Enabling Skills. Go to next Essential
    Component (Accuracy and Fluency with Text)

39
Begin with Reading Fluency and Accuracy

40
Steps 2 3 Fluency Rate and Accuracy
  • Step 2- Is the student fluent? Must define
    fluency expectation
  • Fluency Measuring Tools
  • DIBELS (grades K - 6)
  • AIMSWeb (grades 1 - 8)
  • Curriculum-Based Measures (CBM)
  • Fuchs reading probes (grades 1 - 7)
  • Jamestown reading probes (grades 4 and up)
  • GATHER ERROR SAMPLES FROM THESE TOOLS!
  • Step 3- Is the student accurate?
  • Must define accuracy expectation
  • Consensus in reading research is 95

41
Organizing Fluency Data
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate and Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate andHigh Rate

42
Reading Fluency
Dimensions of Reading Fluency Accuracy
Rate Quality
Why focus on fluency?
43
Reading Fluency
Labored, inefficient reading
Declining Comprehension
Lack of Fluency
A Self-Perpetuating Cycle
Limited knowledge of academic language
Lack of motivation
Smaller Vocabulary
Lack of Practice
44
Reading Accuracy
  • Comprehension is hindered by low accuracy.

45
Accuracy
  • Task Read the section from the book, The Call of
    the Wild.
  • This selection provides the reader with 90 of
    the words. Is 90 accuracy enough to comprehend
    the text?

46
Buck did not read the ______, or he would have
known that ______ was brewing, not only for
himself, but for every tide-water dog, strong of
muscle and with warm, long hair, from Puget Sound
to San Diego. Because men, groping in the ______
darkness, had found a yellow _______ and because
steamship and transportation companies were
______ the find, thousands of men were ______
into the ______. These men wanted dogs, and the
dogs they wanted were _______ dogs, with strong
muscles by which to toil, and ______ coats to
protect them from the ______. Buck lived at a
47
Reading Accuracy Considerations
  • Gather a large enough reading sample-Student may
    look accurate and not be..
  • Gather Error Samples from Instructional Reading
    Level Materials
  • Percentage of Accuracy
  • Independent reading level, 96-100
  • Instructional reading level, 91-95
  • Frustration reading level, 90 and below
  • Are the errors violating meaning? -Go to higher
    criteria (95 - 98)

48
Curriculum Based Measurement
  • Oral Reading Passages
  • Standardized administration procedures
  • Standardized scoring procedures
  • Standardized materials
  • Standardized times

49
Administration Reading
  • You must follow the standardized directions
    provided with the assessment you are using.
  • Example Directions
  • When I say please begin, start reading aloud
    at the top of this page. Read across the page.
    Try to read each word. If you come to a word you
    dont know, Ill tell it to you. Be sure to do
    your best reading. Are there any questions?

50
A Fluent Reader
51
A Non-Fluent Reader
52
Scoring Reading Fluency
Ted was leaving to visit his brother Joe in
Maine. For the first time ever he would get to
fly in an airplane. He was a little scared.
Still, he knew it would be exciting. Teds
parents drove him to the airport. The plane was
late, so they had to wait at the gate for half
an hour.
10 23 35 45 58
53
Scoring Reading
(bother)
(living)
Ted was leaving to visit his brother Joe in
Maine. For the first time ever he would get to
fly in an airplane. He was a little scared.
Still, he knew it would be exciting. Teds
parents drove him to the airport. The plane was
late, so they had to wait at the gate for half
an hour.
10 23 35 45 58
SC
(fist)
(airplane)

54
Scoring
Total (56) - Errors (6) 50 Words Read
Correctly 50 wrc / 56 total 89 accuracy
(bother)
(living)
10 23 35 45 58
Ted was leaving to visit his brother Joe in
Maine. For the first time ever he would get to
fly in an airplane. He was a little scared.
Still, he knew it would be exciting. Teds
parents drove him to the airport. The plane was
late, so they had to wait at the gate for half
an hour.
SC
(fist)
(airplane)

55
Data Summary
3rd Grade Class- Fall DIBELS ORFgt 77
Student Words per Minute Correct Accuracy
Tommy 60 wpmc 80
Jane 80 wpmc 85
Mac 65 wpmc 98
Claire 90 wpmc 98
Liz 67 wpmc 100
56
Organizing Data Activity
wpmc
accuracy
and
  • ACTIVITY
  • Based on criteria for the grade level, place each
    students name into the appropriate box.
  • Organizing data based on performance(s) assists
    in grouping students for instructional purposes.
  • Students who do not perform well on comprehension
    tests, have a variety of instructional needs.

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
57
Organizing Data
accuracy
wcpm
and

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
gt77 wpmc And 95 acc.
Claire
Liz
Mac
Tommy
Jane
58
Organizing Fluency DataMaking the Instructional
Match
Fluency

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Comprehension
Phonics and Word Study
59
Group 3
  • Question
  • Is the student performance on an every day basis
    consistent with this data?
  • If NO, re-assess
  • IF YES,
  • 1) Conduct Error Analysis
  • Gather Error Samples from Instructional Level
    Material
  • 2) Consider Using Phonic Assessment Tools
  • San Diego Quick Screen, Multi-Syllabic Word
    Lists, Etc.

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Diagnostic Assessments Phonetics
60
The Research
  • Letter-sound knowledge is a prerequisite to
    effective word identification. A primary
    difference between good and poor readers is the
    ability to use letter-sound correspondences to
    identify words. (Juel, 1991)
  • Difficulties in decoding and word recognition are
    at the core of most reading difficulties. (Lyon,
    1997)

61
Group 3
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Sight Word Needs
Basic Decoding Needs
Multi-syllabic Decoding Needs
62
What is/are the instructional need(s)?
63
Teach and Assess Along the Continuum
Accuracy/Decoding Instruction
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
64
Matching Diagnostic Assessment to the Levels on
the Continuum
Accuracy/Decoding Instruction
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
Error analysis
Phonics assessments
List of errors from error analysis
65
Error Analysis
1. Conduct Reading Probes 2. Use
directions as specified. 3. Record the
students errors on your copy of the reading
passage. 4. Use at least 25 errors for
students in grade 1 to conduct an error
analysis and at least 50 errors for grades 2 and
above.
5. Use the Sample Error Analysis Sheet to
conduct Error Analysis.
66
Error Analysis Sheet
Actual Student Error
Error Error Error
Other Word Response
sight word CVC(e) letter com.
pre/suffix multisyl.
what when v
pine pin v
bead bed v
want wanted v
kitten kite v
67
Thomas - Second Grader
The Circus The circus was in town. All the boys
and girls wanted to go. Everyone wanted to see
the lions. The biggest lion was called Leo. Leo
did lots of tricks for the show. First, he would
climb up on the stage and growl. Then Leo would
jump through the hoop that was held by a clown.
went
line . . .
calling
want
30 - 8 22
68
Actual Student Error
Error Error Error
Other Word Response Category
Category Category Category
sight word CVC(e) letter co m.
pre/suffix
circus DK wanted went wanted
want everyone DK lions line biggest
DK called calling tricks DK
v
v
v
v
v
69
Error Analysis Practice Activity
  • Look at the DIBELS booklet page provided
  • 5th grade student-Spring Benchmarkgt124wpm
  • Complete an error analysis with the errors from
    this passage
  • What is your conclusion?
  • What is your next step?
  • Share out

70
What We Know and What We Still Need to Investigate
  • Based on the error analysis, we know the student
    has decoding needs within connected text.
  • Question Does the student have decoding needs at
    the word level?

Lets Dig Deeper!
71
Errors at the Word Level
  • Question Can the student read the errors from
    the error analysis accurately in isolation?
  • If YES, instruct accurate reading at the
    connected text level.
  • If NO, instruct decoding accuracy at the word
    level. May need to collect additional
    information to determine the scope of the
    students decoding needs.

72
Phonics Assessment Tools Examples
  • San Diego Quick Assessment,
  • 6 Minute Solution
  • Multi-Syllabic Word lists, Rewards
  • Quick Phonics Screener, Texas A M

73
Phonics Assessment Sample
Quick Phonics Screener-Texas A M University
6. Cons.Digraphs th, ng, sh, wh, ch,igh, ck, kn,wr, nk (a) In List lick sling sunk wrap ship whiz moth sigh chin knob
(b) In Text The ducks chomp on the knot. What is that on the right? Wring the wet dish cloth in the sink.
74
Multi-Syllabic Word Sample
  • Impression
  • Communism
  • Bedazzle
  • Conference
  • Refreshments
  • Taken from Rewards Generalization Test (Archer,
    Gleason, Vachon, 2000)

To answer the question Can the student read
multi-syllabic words?.. Have the
student actually read multi-syllabic words!
75
Back to Our Student
  • Review his performance on the multi-syllabic word
    list- See packet
  • What does the convergence of the error analysis
    data and the word list determine?
  • What is the target for our instruction?

76
Activity Which circle does the sample 5th
grade student seem to best fit in?
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Sight Word Needs
Basic Decoding Needs
Multi-syllabic Decoding Needs
77
ACTIVITY
  • Return to your list of assessments.
  • Place a D by those assessments that are
    Diagnostic in the area of phonics
  • ReminderDiagnostic Assessment Questions
  • Why is the student not performing at
  • the expected level?
  • What is/are the students instructional
  • need(s)?

Digging Deeper!
78
Fluency (Practice)
  • Modeling
  • Explicit teaching and language
  • Multiple practice opportunities
  • Corrective feedback

Accuracy (Instruction)
79
Explicit Instruction
  • Direct explanation. The teachers language is
    concise, specific, and related to the objective.
  • A visible instructional approach which includes a
    high level of teacher/student interaction.
  • The actions of the teacher are clear,
    unambiguous, direct, and visible. This makes it
    clear what the students are to do and learn.
  • Nothing is left to guess work.

80
Group 3 Considerations
  • Link Error Samples to Specific Instruction
  • Is there a need for a specific instructional
    tool/program or just systematic explicit
    instruction with practice?
  • For example If only error pattern is silent e,
    probably doesnt need Corrective Reading..

81
Explicit Instruction
  • Steps to Explicit Instruction
  • Focus statement- make objective clear
  • Model - I do it!
  • Guided Practice -We do it!
  • We do it together!
  • Independent Practice -You do it!

82
Explicit Instruction-Partner Work
  • Find a partner
  • Choose a sample from the Empowering Teachers
    lessons.
  • Read the lesson and review the lesson format.
    (Are the 4 steps evident)
  • Get a large sheet of paper and a marker
  • Design a phonics lesson to teach
  • Remember to use the 4 Steps!
  • (of
    Explicit Instruction)

83
Teach Along the Continuum
Accuracy/Decoding Instruction
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
Provide instruction, guided practice,
independent practice at each levelDo not assume
generalization of the skill will occur!
84
What Skills Does Phonics Include?
Progression of Regular Word Reading
85
Impacts on Instruction
  • 2 separate processors are used when learning to
    read and write
  • When teaching reading embed writing component
  • When teaching writing embed reading component
  • Many published programs/strategies need
  • expanding in order to make these connections

LETRS
86
Adding Encoding To Decoding Instruction
  • Practice writing the letter or letter
    combinations being taught in decoding materials
  • Use the Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Strategy-See
    Handout

LETRS
87
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping
  • Students are given
  • phoneme-grapheme mapping grid
  • tiles, pennies, pieces of corn, etc.
  • pencil
  • Directions
  • Teacher says a word and the students lay out
    CHIPS for the number of sounds in the word.
  • Example- cat
  • Student slides out 1-2-3 chips as he/she says
    the sounds - k/a/t
  • Then, box- by- box, teacher models and writes in
    graphemes with students naming each letter sound

LETRS
88
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping
  • Directions
  • New word given by teacher (mop)
  • Students slide chips out for each sound.(1-2-3)
  • Teacher asks the students What sounds do you
    hear?
  • m/o/p
  • Then ask What letters do you write? (m-o-p)
  • As they name the letter(s) for each sound, they
    write them in each box.

m o p
LETRS
89
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Rules
  • Tricky Patterns Diagraphs (one box), blends (two
    boxes), qu (two boxes, close together) and X
    (across two boxes)
  • Silent e-placed in the corner of the box with
    the final consonant, as it had no sound.

sh u t diagraphs
b r a g blends
q u i t qu
w a X
x
e
LETRS
s m o k Silent e blend
90
Adding Encoding To Decoding Instruction
  • Point out Phonics Generalizations Applied to
    Spelling
  • See Handout

LETRS
91
Adding Decoding to Encoding Instruction
  • Considerations
  • Students must be able to read the words they
    are asked to write.
  • Have student read words on spelling lists
  • During building word activities and word sorts,
    have student go back and read each word.

92
Daily Routines Activity
  • Look for ways to embed linking encoding and
    decoding instruction
  • Think of common daily routines present in your
    teaching
  • Take 3 minutes to brainstorm and write down 3-5
    ways to better link reading/writing activities
  • Share with a partner
  • Large group share

93
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Sight Word Needs FOCUS FOR INSTRUCTION
Basic Decoding Needs
Multi-syllabic Decoding Needs
94
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
this have not that what will want every be
cause
1.
this
this book
95
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
v Teacher holds up one card while students find
and point to same card. v Teacher says the word
twice.
2.
96
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
v Teacher says each word again. v Students hold
up card containing word and say word.
3.
97
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
Students are told they are going to learn to
spell the words v Students hold up one card.
Look at it, close their eyes and try to picture
the word in their minds as the teacher says it. v
After visualizing each word, students put
cards out of sight. v Teacher dictates words
for spelling one by one. v Students check
spelling against word cards and correct any
errors.
98
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
v Word cards are turned over and students run
their fingers under words as teacher reads each
phrase twice. v Students then are called upon
to read phases aloud.
99
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
Students complete maze sentences containing
target words.
100
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
Lesson 1 this
every was this 1. Is every
your book? was this 2.
It every cold in my room. was
this 3. We read every day.
was this 4. I every lost in
the woods. was This 5. Every
is not my book. Was
101
Jollys Method of Teaching Basic Function Sight
Words
Final Activity Teacher flashes word cards in
random order several times. Students say each
word as quickly as possible. Students may pair
off and flash word cards to each other along with
a few previously learned words.
102
Review Activity Cloze Passage It (was) a cold,
dark night. (Everyone) was in bed. Something
woke me up (about) midnight. I sat (up)
listening. I could hear the wind (and) rain
hitting (my) window. I (also) heard footsteps
coming slowly up (the) stairs. Is (this) really
happening, I (asked) myself. (Then) I heard the
sound (again), louder (this) time. (Could) my
pet monster be loose?
103
Adding More Encoding Practice to Sight Word
Instruction
  • Have the students write each sight word in a
    phrase and add the phrase to the back of the
    flashcard
  • Have the students write 1-3 teacher given sight
    word(s) by his/her name every time an assignment
    is given (Multiple practice opportunities
    throughout the day!)

104
Teaching Multisyllabic Words
KU Center for Research and Learning Word
Identification Strategy
B E S T A mnemonic strategy for decoding words
containing a suffix or prefix.
B Break off parts E Examine the stem
S Say the parts T Try it
  • Options
  • BEST Strategy
  • HINTS Strategy
  • REWARDS Strategy

105
Provide Multiple Opportunities to Practice
  • Opportunities to practice a skill is a powerful
    predictor of student learning.
  • Provides timely feedback to student
    understanding.
  • Methods to increase opportunities to practice
    include choral responding, small group
    instruction, providing individual turns.

106
Corrective Feedback
  • Immediate corrective feedback when students make
    an error is critical.
  • Assume that an incorrect response is a learners
    best effort to be intelligent. (Kameenui
    Simmons, 1990)
  • Consistent error correction gives the learner
    more opportunities to learn the information.
    (Kameenui Simmons, 1990)

107
Example
Teacher shows word bed. Brady reads
bad. Teacher no. try again. Brady reads
bid. Teacher look carefully and try
again. Brady reads bread. Teacher says sound
it out with me Brady and teacher /b/ /e/ /d/
bed. Teacher good job.
Incorrect
Correct
1
3
108
Example
Teacher shows word bed. Brady reads
bad. Teacher This word is bed. Teacher
Sound it out with me /b/ /e/ /d/,
bed. Teacher What word did you read? Brady
bed Teacher yes, bed
Incorrect
Correct
4
1
109
Higher Level Decoding Skills
A Few Sample Programs
H-I-N-T-S
See Handout!
REWARDS Intermediate
Phonics for Reading 1, 2, 3
Core Program Intervention Materials
110
A Few More Phonics Based Programs
  • Reading Mastery
  • Corrective Reading Decoding Strand Levels A,
    B1, B2, and C
  • Has a placement test.

111
Phonics Based Program Sample Phonics for
Reading- see handout
  • Phonics for Reading is a research-based
    supplementary phonics program designed to teach
    decoding skills that are generally introduced in
    grades 1-4. Students are taught to read
    one-syllable and multi-syllable words using
    letter-sound relationships and structural units
    such as prefixes and suffixes.

112
Phonics For Reading
  • Who is this program for?
  • 1st and 2nd grade students who would benefit
    from systematic decoding instruction
  • 3rd through 6th grade students who have not yet
    mastered decoding skills
  • Upper grade students with significant decoding
    concerns
  • Adults learning to read English

113
Phonics For Reading
  • How much time do the lessons take?
  • forty to fifty minutes
  • can do a lesson in one day or divide the lesson
    into two sessions
  • What type of instructional grouping can be used?
  • designed for small-group instruction of up to ten
    students
  • may also be used on a one-to-one basis
  • How are the lessons in the Teachers Guide
    designed?
  • Each lesson in each level has four components
  • Word recognition instruction
  • Story reading
  • Spelling instruction
  • Independent activities

114
Phonics For Reading Skills Taught in Each Level
  • Level 1
  • Sounds for short vowel sounds a, i, o, u, e
  • Words with double consonants gg, ff, ll, tt, and
    zz
  • Consonant digraphs ck, th, sh
  • Consonant blends cl, br, cr, fl, etc.

115
Phonics For Reading Skills
  • Level 2
  • Words with common endings ed, ing, and er
  • Vowel combinations ai, ay, ee, ea, oa, ow, and
    igh
  • CVCe words
  • Words with r-controlled vowel sounds (ar, er,
    or, ir, ur)
  • This level assumes that students beginning Level
    2 can decode words containing
  • single consonants, short vowels, consonant
    digraphs, and consonant blends.

116
Phonics For Reading Skills
  • Level 3
  • Words with common beginnings un, dis, re, etc.,
    and common endings such as able,
  • ful, ness, tion, etc.
  • Sounds for vowel combinations oo, aw, au, ai,
    oi, oy, ew, and ou
  • Letter combinations kn, ph, qu, wr, tch, dge
  • Words with soft sounds of c and g and
    alternative sounds of vowel combinations ow,
  • oo, and ea.
  • This level assumes that students beginning Level
    3 can perform the skills
  • introduced in both Levels 1 and 2.

117
Activity Write the Phonics For Reading Level in
the appropriate circle.
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Share your findings!
Sight Word Needs
Multi-syllabic Decoding Needs
Basic Decoding Needs
118
Activity Phonics For Reading Lesson Practice
  • Find a partner- Determine who will begin as the
    teacher.
  • Teacher- Turn to Lesson 1 in your Phonics For
    Reading Packet
  • Student- Have the Student Book copy ready
  • Teacher-Read Script Teach pp. 8-9 STOP at F.
    Passages and Switch ROLES, use provided
    Chalkboard sheet..
  • New Teacher- Read Script and Teach pp. 9-11 STOP
    at Lesson 2

119
Explicit Instruction-Handout
  • 1) Gain the learners attention
  • 2) Review relevant past learning
  • 3) Communicate goal of the lesson
  • 4) Model the skill to be learned
  • 5) Prompt for correct response
  • 6) Check for skill mastery
  • 7) Close the lesson
  • Archer, Anita, Ph.D. Delivery of Lessons Direct
    Instruction. San Diego State University

Reading Mastery Corrective Reading
120
Activity Explicit/Direct Instruction Table
Discussion
Positives of Direct Instruction Negatives of Direct Instruction




121
Explicit/Direct Instruction Considerations
  • Pacing is VITAL-use cues keep the lesson moving
  • Positive reinforcement may need to be increased
    for some students
  • Some students may need to preview or review
    certain lessons
  • Layer additional review and guided practice
    opportunities for certain students
  • Not all programs based on explicit instruction
    steps, are exactly the same

122
Video Example of Direct Instruction
123
Group 3
  • Group students according to similar needs
  • Multi-syllabic Error Pattern
  • Basic Decoding Skills
  • Sight Word Difficulties
  • Teach to instructional needs
  • Add Fluency Building Activities
  • Continue to embed comprehension checks/ strategies

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
124
Material/Strategy Gap Analysis Activity
  • See Gap Analysis Sheet

Group Needs Ideal Resources Current Available Resources Identified Gap


125
Organizing Fluency DataMaking the Instructional
Match
Group 1 Dig Deeper in the areas of reading
comprehension, including vocabulary and specific
comprehension strategies. Group 2 Build reading
fluency skills. (Repeated Reading, Paired
Reading, etc.) Embed comprehension
checks/strategies. Group 3 Conduct an error
analysis to determine instructional need. Teach
to the instructional need paired with fluency
building strategies. Embed comprehension
checks/strategies. Group 4 Conduct Table-Tap
Method. If student can correct error easily,
teach student to self- monitor reading accuracy.
If reader cannot self- correct errors,complete an
error analysis to Determine instructional need.
Teach to the instructional need.
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate

126
Group 2
  • Question
  • Is the student performance on an every day basis
    consistent with this data?
  • If NO, re-test with alternate probe
  • IF YES, validate accuracy
  • Accuracy on progress monitoring probes
  • Accuracy on running records and/or daily
    instruction
  • Phonics assessment tools
  • Also consider raising expectations to 98
    accuracy.
  • Once accuracy is validated-Go to building
    fluency!

95
Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
127
Fluency
  • What Students Need to Learn
  • How to read words (in isolation and in connected
    text) accurately and quickly with little
    attention or effort
  • How to automatically recognize words (decoding)
  • How to increase speed (or rate), improve
    accuracy, and read with expression (prosody)

Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and
Language Arts, 2005
128
Fluency
Fluency is not an end to itself but is the
gateway to comprehension.
129
Fluency Continuum
  • Practice needs to occur at the appropriate
    level(s).

Fluency
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
130
ACTIVITY
  • Return to your list of assessments.
  • Note which assessments assess fluency.
  • Do you assess all three components of fluency?
  • Accuracy
  • Rate
  • Quality
  • Do you assess at all levels of the continuum?

131
Fluency Continuum
  • Letters and Letter-Sound Correspondence
  • Associate letters with sounds for reading and
    writing
  • Practice at the Word Level
  • Single syllable words-combine into two-syllable
    words or compound words
  • Irregular sight words

132
Fluency Continuum
  • Practice at the Phrase Level
  • Phrases include both decodable and irregular
    sight words
  • Select phrases to practice words and patterns
    already taught.
  • Practice at Text Level
  • Lower skill level students need extra practice in
    controlled decodable text first.
  • After proficiency is established with irregular
    words and basic decoding skills, it is
    appropriate to select more non-decodable texts
    for fluency practice.

133
Try a Combo
  • Try doing a combination of fluency level work
  • For example
  • A student needs sight word practice- Accurate
    but slow on sight words and is accurate and slow
    in connected text
  • COMBO- 2-5 minutes of drill work on sight words
    in isolation, AND 5-10 minutes of work in phrase
    strips or connected text using those sight words.
  • Adding the quick drill work opportunities, as
    often as possible, is a great way to intensify
    instruction.

134
Teaching Fluency at the Letters, Letter
Correspondence Irregular Sight Word Levels
  • Learning Sequence
  • - Model to
    Samples
  • - Recall and
    Find in Samples
  • - State
    letter name or read independently

Match
Identify
Name/Read
135
Fluency
  • How We Teach It
  • Explicitly teach all components of fluency rate
    (pacing), smoothness, expression, phrasing
  • Provide opportunities for oral repeated reading
    with support and feedback
  • Match reading texts and instruction to students
    reading levels
  • Monitor students progress in ,not only rate, but
    all areas.

Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and
Language Arts, 2005
136
Teaching Fluency at the Phrase and Connected Text
Level
  • Instructional Recommendations for Building
    Fluency
  • Repeated readings
  • Paired readings
  • Assisted readings
  • Choral reading
  • Fluency below connected text-WORDS and Phrases..
  • Poetry/ Song/Speeches/Radio Reading
  • Comprehension Checks/Strategies should be a
    routine part
  • of any
    work on fluency.- (P.28B)

Very Important!
137
Teaching Fluency at the Phrase and Connected Text
Level
  • Potential materials
  • Read Naturally
  • Quick Reads
  • PALS
  • Six Minute Solution
  • Own materials as long as student is 90-95
    accurate

138
Reading Fluency A Few Options
Blevins www.scholastic.com
6-Minute Solution www.sopriswest.com
PALS Grades 2-6 Reading
Quick Reads www.pearsonlearning.com
Great Leaps www.greatleaps.com
Read Naturally www.readnaturally.com
139
Fluency Continuum
  • Practice needs to occur at the appropriate level.

Fluency
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
Six Minute Solution
140
Overview of Six Minute Solution
  • A reading fluency program-Student training
    required.
  • Grades 3-8/Remedial H.S.
  • Uses rereading strategy oral feedback
  • from peers (Passages levels 1-8)
  • Current instructional levels are determined
  • Partner students
  • Any underlying decoding problems must be
    addressed either prior to or in conjunction with
    this program
  • Research shows high correlation between
    comprehension and fluency
  • Fluent readers will be better able to complete
    assignments and homework.
  • Six Minute Solution
    Handout Packet-Pages 2-3

141
Routine of Six Minute Solution
  • Table I.1- Six Minute Solution Handout-Page 1

1 minute Setting Up
1 minute Timer is set, partner 1 reads, partner 2 marks errors and stopping point
1 minute Partner 2 tells Partner 1 words read, errors made, and error correction procedures- Partner 1 graphs, and SWITCH
1 minute Timer is set, partner 2 reads, partner 1 marks errors and stopping point
1 minute Partner 1 tells Partner 2 words read, errors made, and error correction procedures- Partner 2 graphs, and clean up.
1 minute Clean Up
2nd Grade Newer version for you!
142
Six Minute Solution 2 Assessments Used
  • Determining Partner and Instructional level of
    material
  • Fluency Data- Page 8
  • 1 minute timed reading
  • IF you already have this data from DIBELS etc,
    USE IT!-
  • San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability-
    Pages 248-251

143
Overview of Six Minute Solution
  • San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability-
  • Six Minute Solution Handout-Page 248-251
  • Directions- P. 248
  • Individually administered
  • Student reads off of the student form (P. 251)
  • Teacher records on Teacher Record Sheet (P. 250)
  • Begin at a word list that is 2-3 grades levels
    below current grade level
  • Ask the student to read each word aloud
  • Do not allow more than 3-5 seconds on any
    word-prompt student to go to the next word, and
    mark it as an error
  • Stop when student has missed 3 or more words in a
    list
  • Record highest grade level for each of the 3
    levels
  • Independent (1 Error), Instructional (2 Errors),
    and Frustration (3 Errors)

144
Administration Practice San Diego Quick
Assessment
  • Find a partner, TEAR OFF the last 2 pages of the
    Six Minute Solution Packet, and take turns
    administering the assessment

145
  • Key Points Teacher Role
  • You determine what grade level your student is
    actually in.
  • Begin at either 2 or 3 grade levels below actual
    grade level
  • If the student is not successful on the first
    level, test back until you have an independent
    level of 1 error or less
  • Pick either 3 or 5 seconds max. wait time (be
    consistent)
  • Make sure and stop when the student misses 3 or
    more in a word list.
  • Fill out the independent, instructional, and
    frustration levels
  • Key Points Student Role
  • Play the part! Have fun and it may help to think
    of an actual student you have had.

146
Activity-Administration Practice Class List
  • Tear Off the last two pages of the Six Minute
    Solution packet.
  • Fluency Data and Results from San Diego Quick
    Assessment are given
  • Follow the grouping recommendations, just based
    on data provided. Group the students on the
    sheet. Reminder Reader 1 should be the stronger
    of the two readers
  • Real life-other factors may have to be taken into
    consideration
  • Personalities, schedules, etc.

147
Getting Prepared
  • Determine your partners
  • Copy materials for each group
  • Organize folders for each group
  • Copies of passages, fluency graphs, sleeves,
    markers, sponge. (OR-copies with different
    colored pencils)
  • Plan dates for training students
  • Have your routines pre-determined. Where are
    the folders going to be kept? Who will get up for
    the folders? Where will they read together?

148
Training Students
  • Train to ensure that the program will run
    smoothly
  • 2 class periods recommended
  • Procedures and behavior expectations discussed
  • Modeling with guided practice time
  • Once trained, the process should only take Six
    Minutes

149
Administration PracticeTraining Students
  • Day 1 (Pages 18-19)
  • Select Passage
  • Introduce Concept of Fluency
  • Practice Passages
  • Model Reading Fluency Scoring
  • Students Whisper Read Practice Passage
  • Students Reread the Practice Passage
  • Lead Discussion on Fluency Practice

150
Administration PracticeTraining Students
  • Day 2 (Pages 20-21)
  • Select New Passage
  • Model Fluency Partnership Procedures/Correction
    Procedures
  • Model how to use the fluency graph
  • Discuss Cooperative Partnerships
  • Assign Partners
  • Explain procedures
  • Have the students practice together

151
Activity Practice As Students
  • Six Minute Solution Packet
  • P. 44- Railroads in the West Story
  • Review the Overview of the procedures P.1
  • Practice with a partner!

152
Six Minute Solution Considerations
  • Use the Six Minute Solution as transition between
    subject
  • Some students may need an Extended version 15
    minute solution-double the time for reading
    practice, etc.
  • Book recommends 3-5 times per week, have students
    reading below 40wpmc work on the Automatic Word
    Lists- provided in the back of the book
  • How could one add a Comprehension component?

153
Review Group 2
  • Instructional Recommendations for Building
    Fluency
  • Repeated readings
  • Paired readings
  • Assisted readings
  • Choral reading
  • Fluency below connected text-WORDS and Phrases..
  • Potential materials
  • Read Naturally
  • Quick Reads
  • PALS
  • Six Minute Solution
  • Own materials as long as student is 90-95
    accurate

Group 1 Fluent and Accurate Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
References CBE materials Howell Nolet, 2000
154
Fluency Continuum
  • Practice needs to occur at the appropriate level.

Fluency
Connected Text
Phrase Level
Word Level
Letter Letter-Sound Correspondence
  • Great Leaps
  • Skill Builders
  • PALS
  • Six Minute Solution
  • Great Leaps
  • PALS
  • Great Leaps
  • PALS
  • Six Minute Solution
  • Quick Reads
  • Read Naturally
  • Great Leaps
  • PALS-K
  • Primary Six Minute Solution
  • Skill Builders

155
Material/Strategy Gap Analysis Activity
  • See Gap Analysis Sheet

Group Needs Ideal Resources Current Available Resources Identified Gap


156
Group 4
  • Further investigate inaccuracy
  • See HANDOUT
  • Assisted Self-Monitoring (Pep Talk Test)
  • Criterion is for accuracy to increase by 50 or
    to criterion of 95
  • Assisted Monitoring (Table Tap Method)
  • Immediate correction equals no further
    investigation in decoding
  • Unable to correct, do error analysis

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
157
Group 4
  • Instructional Recommendations for Building
    Monitoring Skills
  • Assisted Self-Monitoring
  • Assisted Monitoring
  • If student doesnt improve accuracy with assisted
    monitoring, use strategies from Group 3 to teach
    decoding skills.

Group 1 Fluent and Accurate Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
References CBE materials Howell Nolet, 2000
158
Material/Strategy Gap Analysis Activity
  • See Gap Analysis Sheet

Group Needs Ideal Resources Current Available Resources Identified Gap


159
Group 1
  • Questions
  • Is the student performance on an every day basis
    consistent with this data?
  • (Accurate and Fluent Reader)
  • If NO, re-assess with alternate probes
  • IF YES, ask
  • Does the student have problems with reading
    comprehension on a regular basis?
  • If NO, work to determine cause of poor
    performance.(i.e. motivation, attention, etc.)
  • If YES-Dig deeper reading comprehension

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
160
Group 1
  • Further investigate comprehension
  • ITBS/ITED Reading Comprehension item analysis and
    look at Vocabulary
  • Observations of instruction within daily program
  • Maze (with retell rubric) and cloze passages
  • Oral Retell assessment
  • File review on fluency and comprehension
  • And many more

Group 1 Accurate and Fluent Group 2 Accurate but Slow Rate
Group 3 Inaccurate and Slow Rate Group 4 Inaccurate but High Rate
Remember to use given criteria or determine
criteria for the tools/processes
161
ACTIVITY
  • Return to your list of assessments.
  • Place a D by those assessments that are
    Diagnostic in the area of comprehension.
  • ReminderDiagnostic Assessment Questions
  • Why is the student not performing at
  • the expected level?
  • What is/are the students instructional
  • need(s)?

Digging Deeper!
162
Comprehension
  • What Students Need to Learn
  • How to read both narrative and expository texts
  • How to understand and remember what they read
  • How to relate their knowledge or experiences to
    text
  • How to use comprehension strategies to improve
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