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ARIZONA INDIAN NATIONS: Shaping Arizonas Future

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Unemployment rates range from 0 to 37 percent, which is unusually low and may be ... TOURISM ON ARIZONA INDIAN LANDS. Little data available on Indian tourism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ARIZONA INDIAN NATIONS: Shaping Arizonas Future


1
ARIZONA INDIAN NATIONS Shaping Arizonas Future
  • Presented by
  • Joan Timeche
  • NNI Assistant Director

2
Long-Hair Katsina dancers, painting by Gilbert
Timeche
My daughter, Briana, in traditional Hopi dress.
Hopi Buffalo dancers
Village of Old Oraibi, Hopi Reservation, 1980s
3
Presentation Topics
  • Native Nation Building
  • Building Indian Economies
  • The Arizona American Indian
  • Demographics
  • Traditional Economies
  • Modern Economies
  • Economic Impact of AZ Indian Nations
  • Challenges Opportunities
  • Questions Answers

4
Sources Bureau of Indian Affairs and US Census
2000
NATIVE NATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
  • 562 federally recognized tribes in 31 states
  • gt 2.5 million Native Americans (1.5 of US
    population)
  • 55.7 million acres of trust land across the U.S.

5
The Puzzle
Native Nation Building
What explains the success that some American
Indian nations have had in building sustainable,
self-determined economies?
6
Characteristics of the Nation Building
Approach to Economic Development
  • Sovereignty in practice
  • Effective governing institutions
  • Cultural match
  • Strategic orientation
  • Leadership

7
Development Planning and Process in the
Nation-Building Approach
6. Implement them
Leadership
5. Choose projects
4. Craft development policies
3. Identify strategic priorities/concerns
2. Build capable institutions
1. Claim jurisdiction (decision-making power)
8
  • 21 federally recognized, diverse and tribes
  • gt 236,000 Native Americans reside on reservations
    (gt 255,000 statewide)
  • AZ tribes control gt 14.7 million acres or 28
    percent of Arizonas overall land base and vast
    natural resource holdings
  • Forests
  • Minerals
  • Scenic natural wonders
  • Millions of acre feet of water

9
DEMOGRAPHICS (2000 U.S. Census)
  • 236,876 reside on reservations, approximately 5
    percent of the states population
  • Per capita income
  • 4,970 to 16,635,
  • 8 reservations had poverty levels of 40 percent
    or more
  • Unemployment rates range from 0 to 37 percent,
    which is unusually low and may be inaccurate, as
    most Indian nations cite rates double and triple
    those rates

10
TRADITIONAL ECONOMIES
  • Pre-European contact . . .
  • Thriving, self-sufficient life ways
  • Sophisticated agricultural technologies and
    complex societies
  • Barter economy
  • As tribes progressed into 20th century, became
    more acculturated, changed to cash economy,
    traditional life-ways changed

11
MODERN ECONOMIES
  • Varying levels of economic activity, much
    attributable to the geography and uniqueness of
    each tribe (see Industries table)
  • Language, culture, customs as well as
    institutions of governance impact the local
    political, social, economic environment and pace
    at which it develops
  • On most reservations, businesses and development
    are owned and controlled by the tribal government
  • In 1992, only 0.64 percent of all firms in AZ
    were Native American owned firms. Does not
    include micro enterprises -- the invisible
    economy.

12
  • Gaming - the single most important catalyst for
    Indian nations. Some 2005 AZ statistics
  • 21 tribes have compacts
  • 15 tribes have casinos, 2 no longer operate
    casinos, and 6 have machine transfer agreements
  • 12,122 slot machines and 441 tables games

13
Use of Gaming Proceeds
  • Gaming revenues are directed towards improving
    the standard of living for Native Americans and
    ensuring a better future.
  • physical
  • health
  • education
  • social services
  • government
  • economic diversification

14
  • Tourism
  • Increased interest and volume of tourists
  • Opportunity to capture a greater share of
    monetary benefits through sound plans for managed
    and sustainable tourism.

15
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16
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17
Sheraton Wild Horse Pass Resort Spa, Gila River
Indian Community
18
Modern Economies (contd)
  • Utility Authorities -
  • Ft. Mojave TON control and own all utilities,
    several are researching the expansion beyond
    water services
  • Ft. Mojave SRPMIC serve as regional landfills.
  • Telecommunications -
  • Ft. Mojave, TON, GRIC, SCAT, Navajo, and Hopi
  • Agriculture -
  • 14 tribes actively involved in agriculture
  • GR farms exports to Pacific Coast companies and
    uses technology in daily operations
  • Some have registered tribal herds
  • Other Industries
  • manufacturing,
  • industrial parks,
  • mining,
  • retail, etc.

Pavilions Shopping Center - Salt River Indian
Community
19
ECONOMIC IMPACT
Tribal governments and their people have long
contended that tribal economies make significant
financial contributions to Arizona economy and
its tax revenues. A 1994 study, The Economic
Fiscal Importance of Indian Tribes in Arizona
found
  • Estimated 288.2 million in household
    expenditures (1993).
  • 90 cents of every 1 goes off the reservation
  • Reservation-based enterprises employed both
    Indian and non-Indians and spent approx. 68
    million for goods services (statewide)
    resulting in 3.4 million in state tax revenues.
  • Tribal government expenditures estimated at 43
    million (off-res purchases only) and 40.2
    million of direct induced income and 1,704 jobs.
  • Federal govt-tribal govt transactions (DOI, HUD,
    IHS, DOL) for Indian programs in 1993 est. at
    523.5 billion, resulting in 8.1 million in AZ
    transaction privilege tax.
  • State General Fund expenditures attributable to
    Indian reservation populations estimated at 41.1
    billion in 1993 (corrections, AHCCS, DES, DHS,
    education, youth rehab.)

This data did not include gaming expenditures.
20
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GAMING (2005)
  • In 2005, AZ Indian casinos generated 1.349
    billion (a 13.8 percent from previous year).
  • 10,000 first tier jobs created, 43 filled by
    Native Americans, 31m in payroll taxes, 110m in
    employee benefits
  • 240m spent on in-state vendors for food,
    merchandise, and services
  • More than 35m spent by tribes and State on
    oversight, 25m on tribal regulation
  • AZ spends 3,000/year per game on regulation,
    compared to Atlantic City (3x larger) avg of 672
    per game per year and Las Vegas (20x larger) avg
    of 118 per game per year

21
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GAMING (2005) (contd)
  • With passage of Proposition 202 in 2002, gaming
    revenues are shared with the State of Arizona -
    65.3 million in FY 2004 PLUS 12 with cities and
    counties.
  • 2005 Contributions to State of Arizona
  • Instructional Improvement Fund - 31.4 m
  • Trauma Emergency Services Fund - 15.7 m
  • Tourism Fund - 4.5 m
  • AZ Wildlife Conservation Fund - 4.5 m
  • Problem Gambling - 1.3 m

22
TOURISM ON ARIZONA INDIAN LANDS
  • Little data available on Indian tourism
  • Two recent studies completed by the Center for
    Applied Research make the following projections

23
CHALLENGES OPPORTUNITIES
  • Natural Resources
  • threats of resource depletion
  • environmental concerns
  • water rights and allocations
  • Agriculture - in 1992 accounted for 10 percent of
    total state value of six major crops farmed.
  • International markets
  • Water resource allocations
  • Services
  • reducing enormous economic leakage to
    off-reservation communities
  • requires development of basic services at
    local/regional locations.
  • Tribal Private-Sector Development
  • virtually non-existent
  • must be developed to meet the needs of a growing
    economy
  • success of micro-enterprises could very well lead
    to the growth of a tribal private sector.

24
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • For successful development to occur, the
    following are critical
  • Common vision about the future of the community ?
    a strategic plan for community economic
    development
  • Informed consent on use of land ? a land use plan
    or comprehensive plan for planned growth.

25
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • Land for development - land is our most precious
    resource and often the most controversial.
    Uncertainties can be reduced by adopting
  • a zoning ordinance
  • an efficient leasing process
  • a position on private sector development vs.
    tribal ownership

26
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • A commitment to development by the local/tribal
    decision-makers. This includes
  • a willingness to learn about development
  • understanding that you must spend money to make
    money (authorizing the )
  • understanding and practicing the separation of
    business and politics

27
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • Institutional Infrastructure that can support
    development such as -
  • a regulatory system that addresses
  • rules of commerce (Uniform Commercial Code,
    preference laws, etc.)
  • acceptable industries (policy statement)
  • controls you want to impose (safety, health, and
    other integrity concerns)
  • registration/licensing of business and collection
    of fees taxes

28
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • a judicial system that
  • can enforce regulations
  • is fair consistent in resolving disputes
  • a business development process that is efficient
    and user friendly
  • Resources to develop the physical infrastructure
    (water, sewer, electricity, roads, etc.) as most
    land is either under- or undeveloped

29
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • The financial resources or willingness to secure
    funds to support development
  • Citizen engagement and exercising right to vote
    in tribal, state, and federal elections (Indians
    did not have a right to vote until July 15, 1948
    Supreme Court of Arizona decision.)
  • Gathering as much information as possible and
    seeking the necessary assistance to make informed
    decisions

30
Challenge and Opportunities (continued)
  • Believe in self and in our people. We may not be
    as business savvy as the non-Indian world yet,
    but we have definitely made major strides. Look
    at all our accomplishments - - -
  • in exercising our sovereignty
  • building our nations
  • all while maintaining cultural integrity!!

31
It is clearly evident that Indian nations are a
major force in shaping Arizona economy.
32
  • For further information
  • Visit
  • www.nni.arizona.edu
  • www.arizonanativenet.com
  • www.ksg.harvard.edu/hpaied/
  • Obtain a
  • copy of
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