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Republic of Haiti Rpublique d'Hati French Repiblik Dayti Creole

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Humid trade-winds don't affect it as much as the Dominican Republic ... Approximately 20% of the food is imported or smuggled from the Dominican Republic or US ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Republic of Haiti Rpublique d'Hati French Repiblik Dayti Creole


1
Republic of HaitiRépublique d'Haïti -
FrenchRepiblik Dayti - Creole
2
Haiti is 50 miles east of Cuba and 120 miles west
of Jamaica
3
Flag
  • Adopted May 18, 1803 when the rebellion against
    France started
  • Colors were chosen from the French flag
  • Blue is for Saint Martin.  He was a gallo-roman
    officer that helped the poor.
  • White is the color of the Virgin Mary and Joan of
    Arc.  It is also the color of royalty.
  • Red was for St. Denis, the patron saint of
    France
  • The Haitian arms
  • Royal palm in the center topped with a red and
    blue cap of liberty. There are also six blue and
    red flags, two smaller red banners on the sides,
    many weapons (rifles with bayonettes, two yellow
    cannons and many cannonballs), a drum, an anchor,
    green grass, and a white banner reading "L'UNION
    FAIT LA FORCE," meaning "Union is Strength."

4
Geography
  • Haiti derived from the indigenous Arawak word
    Ayti (Mountainous Land)
  • About the size of Maryland
  • Approximately two-thirds of the total land area
    is above 1,600 feet in elevation
  • Four major mountain ranges are mainly limestone
  • Shores are generally rocky, rimmed with cliffs,
    and indented by a number of natural harbors
  • Surrounding seas are known for their coral reefs

  • Rivers are numerous, but short and not navigable
  • An interior basin, known as the Central Plateau
    in Haiti and the San Juan Valley in the Dominican
    Republic, occupies about 150 square miles in the
    center of the country. The plateau has an average
    elevation of 1,000 feet.

5
Climate
  • Warm, humid tropical climate
  • Temperatures are modified by elevation
  • Average temperatures range from 75 F (24 C) in
    January and February to 83 F (28 C) in July and
    August
  • Humid trade-winds dont affect it as much as the
    Dominican Republic
  • Southern area is more susceptible to hurricanes
    and wind damage
  • Droughts causing crop failure and famine are not
    uncommon in some parts of the country whereas
    others have two rainy seasons each year

6
Plant and Animal Life
  • Most animals have been driven off by
    deforestation, grazing and agriculture
  • Cacti and acacias form thorny woods on dry land
  • The only prominent animals are caimans
  • No national or regional parks
  • Coral formations and the animal life suffer
  • National bird Hispaniolan Trogon

7
History
  • Dec. 6, 1492 Haiti's native Arawaks fell victim
    to Spanish rule
  • 1697 Haiti became the French colony of
    Saint-Dominique, which became a leading sugarcane
    producer dependent on slaves
  • 1791, an rebellion erupted among the slave
    population of 480,000, resulting in a declaration
    of independence by Pierre-Dominique Toussaint
    l'Ouverture in 1801
  • 1804 Napoléon suppressed the independence
    movement, but it eventually triumphed under
    Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who gave the new nation
    the Arawak name Haiti. It was the world's first
    independent black republic.
  • Mulatto minority vs. African majority and
    disputes with Santo Domingo hurt Haitis
    development
  • Succession of dictatorships
  • 1915-1934 Occupation by U.S. Marines brought
    stability
  • 1945-1949 democratic president Dumarsais Estimé

  • 1949-1957 dictatorship Gen. Paul Magloire
  • 1957-1971 François Duvalier, Papa Doc secret
    police ensured political stability with
    brutality
  • 1971 Duvaliers son Jean-Claude, Baby Doc took
    over after his death

8
History
  • 1980s became one of the first nations to face an
    AIDS outbreak so the tourism industry collapsed
    and caused more unemployment
  • 1986 unrest in country caused Baby Doc to flee
  • 1990s international community tried to establish
    democracy in Haiti
  • Feb. 1991 Jean-Bertrand Aristide became the
    first elected chief executive
  • Nov 1991 military took control in a coup
  • 1994 UN peacekeeping force, led by the U.S. -
    Operation Uphold Democracy - arrived - Aristide
    was restored to office and René Preval became his
    successor in 1996 elections
  • 2000 US soldiers and UN peacekeepers left, but
    the government was ineffective and the economy
    was in ruins highest rates of AIDS,
    malnutrition, and infant mortality in the region
  • Jan. 2004 Violent protests rocked the country
    with protesters demanding that Aristide resign
    because he was becoming an authoritarian
  • Feb 2004 full-blown revolt with help of American
    and French pressure led to Aristide being ousted
    on the 29th
  • Sept. 2004 Hurricane Jeanne kills over 2,400
    people - lawlessness and gang violence were
    widespread, and the interim government had no
    control over parts of the country, which were run
    by armed former soldiers.

9
History
  • After many delays, elections were held on Feb.
    7th, 2006
  • Former prime minister and René Préval was seen as
    the favorite. But when the election count
    indicated that Préval's lead over the other
    candidate was dropping and that he would not win
    an outright majority, Préval contested the
    election and charged that massive fraud and
    gross errors had stained the process. On Feb.
    14, the interim government halted the election
    count, and the following day, after the votes
    were retabulated, Préval was declared the
    winner.
  • Since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN
    Stabilization Mission in Haiti maintain civil
    order in Haiti despite efforts to control
    illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic
    privation and civil unrest continue to cross into
    Dominican Republic and to sail to neighboring
    countries
  • TODAY
  • President René Préval (2006)
  • Prime Minister Jacques-Édouard Alexis (2006)

10
The People
  • 95 African origin, 5 mulatto or white
  • Haitian Creole and French are the national
    languages
  • Creole is used in normal life and French (spoken
    fluently by about 10 of the population) is used
    for more formal occasions, but the school system
    remains French
  • Roman Catholic 80, Protestant 16, other 3,
    none 1. (roughly half the population practices
    Vaudou)
  • 53 literacy rate (2003 est.)

11
Sports and Recreation
  • Sports and gambling go hand-in-hand
  • Organized sports are not common besides soccer
    games in Port-au-Prince
  • Haiti has produced a few international level
    football, soccer, tennis, swimming and cycling
    athletes
  • Card games and dominoes are popular
  • Cock-fighting is the most popular sport it takes
    place almost every Sunday in almost every village
    and neighborhood
  • Considerable amounts of money are exchanged
  • Successful trainers can become powerful figures
    in a community

12
Economy
  • Poorest country in the Western Hemisphere in
    terms of GDP per capita (12.85 billion per
    capita 1,600 - 2005 est.)
  • 15.2 inflation rate
  • Exports 390.7 million (2005 est.)
    manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa, mangos.
  • Imports 1.471 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.) food,
    manufactured goods, machinery and transport
    equipment, fuels, raw materials
  • Major trading partners U.S., Dominican Republic,
    Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, UK
  • 80 of the population is in absolute poverty
  • As much as 60 of the population is unemployed
  • Limited resources have been depleted through
    severe exploitation
  • Agriculture dominates the economy, but cant keep
    up with the demand
  • Approximately 20 of the food is imported or
    smuggled from the Dominican Republic or US
  • Conventional wage-earning jobs are not common
  • Most Haitians work in informal jobs like street
    vending, doing odd jobs, working abroad and
    sending the money back home, and illegal
    activities like smuggling
  • Haiti is a major stopping point between South and
    the United States for illegal drugs
  • Monetary unit is the gourde

13
Resources
  • Gold and copper are found in the northern parts
    of the country and aluminum ore deposits in the
    southern parts of the Haiti, but large-scale
    mining was discontinued in 1983
  • No natural energy sources, so Haiti is highly
    dependant on energy imports
  • Firewood and charcoal are used for cooking
  • Major issues are soil erosion, droughts, and lack
    of irrigation
  • Not a lot of fishing takes place because most
    boats are too small and are not equipped for it

14
Agriculture
  • Employs about 60 of the labor force but only
    accounts for one third of the GDP
  • Farmers generally concentrate on subsistence
    farming of plantains and bananas, yams, corn,
    sweet potatoes and rice
  • A mild arabica coffee is the main cash crop
  • Sugarcane is the second cash crop, but since the
    1970s, Haiti has had a net import of sugarcane
  • Goats and cattle are the most common livestock
  • Pigs and horses are also common along with some
    poultry
  • In 1982 African Swine fever exterminated the
    Creole pig population

15
Education
  • Officially compulsory between the ages of 6 and
    12, but lack of facilities and staff, only a
    small proportion of Haitian children attend
    school, mostly in private or church-administered
    institutions
  • More than half of the adult population is
    illiterate, and the rate of illiteracy is higher
    in the countryside than in the cities.
  • The curriculum is based on the French model, and
    French is the main language of instruction
  • The State University of Haiti (founded 1920)
    enrolls more than 10,000 students, whereas
    Quisqueya University (1988) is much smaller both
    are in Port-au-Prince. Many students attend
    universities in Europe and North America

16
Health and Welfare
  • Epidemics of infectious and parasitic diseases,
    diseases of the circulatory system, conditions
    associated with malnutrition, and AIDS
  • Haiti has a higher incidence of AIDS and a higher
    infant mortality rate than any other country in
    the Western Hemisphere
  • Three-fourths of Haitian households lack running
    water, and unsafe wateralong with inadequate
    housing and unsanitary living conditionscontribut
    es to the high incidence of infectious diseases.
  • There is a chronic shortage of health care
    personnel, and hospitals lack resources.

17
Sources
  • Encyclopedia Britannica Haiti
  • www.infoplease.com Haiti
  • www.enchantedlearning.com The Flag of Haiti
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