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The Odyssey

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Title: The Odyssey


1
The Odyssey
Notes by Mrs. Warren
Or, What all freshmen should know to pass this
unit
Typed by Mrs. Warrens Peer Helpers
2
Epic Terms
Epic a long, narrative poem about the adventures
of gods and heroes. Epic Hero a character whose
actions are noble or inspiring. They often
overcome foes or escape from difficulties. Epic/He
roic/Homeric Simile a long, elaborate comparison
of unlike subjects. They go on for several lines
and usually compare the ordinary to the
unknown. Epithet a word or phrase used to
describe or characterize a person or thing.
Example "Zeus, lord of the clouds."
3
More Epic Terms
In medias res when a story begins in the middle
of the action. All exposition is
skipped. Episode the division of an epic. Oral
Tradition the passing of songs, stories and
poems from generation to generation by word of
mouth. Archetype a theme, plot, setting,
character type, or hero that recurs in many
different cultures. Example the battle of good
vs. evil innocence lost misbegotten lovers,
etc. Rhapsodes they are "singers of tales." They
were the ones who told the epics in the oral
tradition, before these poems (stories) were
written down.
4
Elements of an Epic
  • A physically impressive hero of national or
    historical importance.
  • A vast setting involving much of the known
    physical world, and sometimes the land of the
    dead and mythological realms as well.
  • Action such as a quest or journey taken in search
    of something of value.
  • Evidence of supernatural forces at work (i.e.,
    help of gods, goddesses, etc.)
  • Glorification of the hero at the end.
  • A rootedness in a specific culture or society.

5
Background Information
  • Homer (Greek) is credited with first composing
    The Illiad (about the Trojan War.).
  • The Trojan War lasted for 10 years in Troy (Troy
    modern day Turkey).
  • the cause of the Trojan War the Greek King
    Menelaus had his wife, Helen, stolen by the
    Trojan Prince Paris.
  • The Odyssey is about what Greek King Odysseus (of
    Ithaca) experiences trying to return home to
    Ithaca after 10 years at the Trojan War. The
    Odyssey is the 2nd epic attributed to Homer.
  • The Illiad and The Odyssey were used in Greek
    schools to teach their culture's values.

The Illiad is the model for the epic of war.The
Odyssey is the model for the epic of long
journeys.
6
The War Story Background
  • The Illiad is set in the 10th and final year of
    the Trojan War. The Greeks attack Troy to avenge
    the insult done to King Menelaus of Sparta
    (Greek). Menelaus's brother, Agamemnon, leads the
    unified Greek kings in battle against Troy. When
    the Greeks finally win, they trash the city of
    Troy and kill all the inhabitants except those
    they were taking back to Greece as slaves. The
    readers of The Odyssey would have already known
    the story of Achilles and the names of deeds of
    other Greek war heroes.

7
The Wooden Horse
  • For 10 years the Greeks tried to enter Troy, with
    no success. King Odysseus hatches a plan The
    Greeks build a huge wooden horse that is hollow
    inside. They fill the horse with Greek soldiers,
    roll it to the gates of Troy, and then move their
    camps as if they have left and as if the wooden
    horse is a peace offering. The Trojans see this,
    think they've won the war, roll the horse inside
    the city gates, and start to get drunk. Once the
    Trojans pass out drunk, the Greeks jump out of
    the horse and kill the Trojans, except for the
    captives to be used as slaves.
  • SO The Odyssey picks up the story after this
    point.
  • Myths stories that use fantasy to express ideas
    about life that cannot be easily explained in
    realistic terms. They are religious in that they
    focus on the relationship between humans and
    gods.
  • Alter Ego a character who serves as a reflection
    of a hero's best or worst qualities. Poseidon is
    the alter ego of Odysseus.
  • The Odyssey is 11,300 lines long

8
The Plot Structure of the Odyssey
  • Books 1-4 the adventures of Telemachus as he
    searches for his father, King Odysseus. He
    (Telemachus) leaves Ithaca and seeks the help of
    other Greek kings in searching for Odysseus.
  • Books 5-8 Adventures of Odysseus as he leaves
    Calypso's island (Ogygia) and arrives in
    Phaeacia.
  • Flashback Books 9-12 Odysseus recounts his
    travels and experiences to the Phaeacians and
    their king, Alcinous.
  • Books 13-24 about Odysseus landing on Ithaca,
    the battle with the suitors, and the final
    recognition and reunion of Odysseus with
    Telemachus, Penelope, and Odysseus's father,
    Laertes.

9
Property of an epic Invocation of the Muse
the poet prays for inspiration to relay his tale/
song/ poem from one of the 9 muses. The Muses
were mythological daughters of Zeus and were
credited with inspiring music, arts, theater,
story telling (anything artistic). The poem
starts with Homer invoking the Muse. (Book
I) Homer is asking the Muse (Calliope) to help
him retell the story of Odysseus.
10
BOOK 5 When We Meet Odysseus in the Textbook
  • Calypso's island of Ogygia (not 1
    chronologically)
  • Odysseus has spent 7 years on the island as her
    boy toy. (some of the time he enjoyed).
  • Line 41-47 epic simile "A gull patrollingup to
    the cave." This compares how a seagull skims the
    water (known) to how Hermes, a god, skims the
    water (unknown).
  • Calypso's cave/island is described like a
    paradise. Meanwhile, Odysseus is miserable.
  • Calypso tells Odysseus that it's her idea to let
    him go. She's saving her pride also, she truly
    feels for Odysseus.
  • Epithet line 101 "Son of Laertes, versatile
    Odysseus"

11
BOOKS 6-8
  • line 120 epithet Odysseus refers to himself as
    Laertes's son. This shows his humility and how
    his family has taken on more importance to him
    than the glories of a king.
  • Line 145 he values his home and family most.
    (this theme is the driving force of the poem.).
  • Odysseus and his men spent 3 days with the
    Cicones. 72 men die there (Book 9)
  • line 179 epithet "Zeus, the lord of cloud"
  • 3 days they're stuck in the storm (p.898)
  • 9 days drifting on the open sea (p.898)

12
BOOK 9 (This starts the flashback books)
  • The Lotus Eaters
  • on the 10th day they land in the Land of the
    Lotus Eaters (3 on your kill map).

Odysseus sends 3 men to check things out. The
Lotus Eaters are friendly and start feeding the 3
men the lotus plant. ( narcotic). None die this
is an example of Odysseus acting like a good
leader because he won't leave them and drags them
back to the ship before they lose all memory of
home.
13
The Land of the Cyclopes (Past)
  • Odysseuss impression of the Cyclopes before they
    get to the island
  • Giants, louts
  • Lawless no organized system of government.
  • Uncivilized distasteful way of life to the
    ancient Greeks
  • Cruel and barbaric, like cave men
  • They do not have an agrarian (agricultural) way
    of life very distasteful to the ancient Greeks

14
  • Polyphemus's mother is Thoosa, a sea nymph and
    daughter of Phorkys, also a sea god, who lives in
    a cave in Ithaca.
  • Odysseus and crew spend a few days on lush island
    nearby watching the Cyclopes. They had to stop on
    island due to heavy fog. They spend their time
    feasting and relaxing. On the 3rd day, they leave
    the lush island and go to the Land of the
    Cyclopes.

15
Day 1
  • Setting cold, harsh environment. Very stony and
    uninviting.
  • They see the Cyclops Polyphemus, son of Poseidon.
    Polyphemus is huge (prodigious). He lives alone
    taking care of his livestock. He's very savage-
    looking.
  • Odysseus and his crew dock. He picks 12 of his
    best fighting men to go with him. He tells the
    rest to stay with the ships and guard everything.
    an example of Odysseus acting like a good
    leader.
  • Odysseus thinks ahead and brings along good wine
    as a peace offering.
  • Odysseus is the cleverest of the ancient heroes
    of Greece because his protector is Athena,
    goddess of wisdom.
  • Polyphemus is an archetypal character
    representing the brute forces any hero must
    overcome.

16
  • they go into Polyphemus's cave while he's out.
    They check out the food in the cave. The men
    suggest that they take the food and milk products
    and leave. Odysseus refuses to leave. He's
    curious and wants to see Polyphemus up close. an
    example of Odysseus acting human, rather than
    heroic.
  • Odysseus and his men make a fire and burn an
    offering to the gods. They eat some of
    Polyphemus's food.
  • Polyphemus puts down his load of food. Odysseus
    and his men hide. Polyphemus brings in his
    animals, then moves a huge stone slab in front of
    the door. No way for Odysseus and his men to get
    out.
  • Polyphemus starts his evening chores and
    discovers Odysseus and his men. He asks O. if
    he's a friend or foe, beggar or merchant.
  • Immediately, he has broken the ancient
    tradition of courtesy to strangers. Foreshadows
    events to come, which are bad. Odysseus is afraid
    but acts bravely. He talks to the Cyclops about
    being at Troy and traveling, but doesn't give
    his name. He reminds Polyphemus about the
    customary treatment for guests, and plugs in a
    little threat to try to make Polyphemus do the
    right thing.

17
  • Polyphemus insults Odysseus and says Cyclops
    don't fear the gods (a sacrilege). Then he tries
    to find out where the ships are.
  • Odysseus lies to protect his men he says they're
    shipwrecked and there were no other survivors.
  • Polyphemus eats 2 men.
  • Odysseus doesn't try to kill Polyphemus because
    they would be unable to escape the cave because
    of the stone slab.
  • Odysseus and the remaining 10 men freak out and
    CRY. Polyphemus goes to sleep and Odysseus draws
    his sword and wants to stab at Polyphemus, but
    stops. He stops because he realizes they will be
    trapped in the cave since they are unable to move
    the stone slab. This is an example of Odysseus
    using his intellect and thinking before he acts.


18
Day 2
  • Polyphemus starts the next morning doing his
    chores as if nothing's wrong. Then he eats 2 more
    men for breakfast.
  • Line 304-305 simile
  • Polyphemus leaves the cave with his animals, then
    replaces the stone slab behind him. Odysseus and
    his men are trapped, but he hatches a plan to get
    out of the cave and injure Polyphemus.
  • They see a green olive tree and they cut out a
    6-foot portion. They sharpen that section. Then
    put it in the fire to harden the big spike. They
    then hide the weapon in a pile of poop in the
    cave and wait for Polyphemus to return. Odysseus
    and the men toss to see who will help stab
    Polyphemus. Odysseus is the captain and the best
    men were chosen to help him in the toss.
  • 5 including Odysseus will blind Polyphemus in
    his sleep.
  • Line 332-333 example of foreshadowing.
  • Polyphemus returns and closes the slab over
    door, and begins his evening chores.

19
Day 2 Cont...
  • He eats 2 more men for dinner.
  • Odysseus uses the Pramnian wine he had brought to
    get Polyphemus drunk. He says he'll cut a deal
    with Odysseus if he gives him more wine. He
    agrees and gives him more. Polyphemus asks him
    his name. Odysseus tricks him and tells him his
    name is Nohbdy last. irony Nohbdy Nobody.
  • The escape Odysseus and his men stab Polyphemus
    in the eyeball and pop it while he's passed out
    drunk. They can't kill him or they'll be trapped
    in the cave and starve to death. They tie rams
    together in three's and using willow from
    Polyphemus's bed. Then, he ties each of his men
    under the middle ram (Odysseus being clever).
    Odysseus waits until all other men are secure he
    then puts himself under a single, large ram. They
    wait until the morning. Heroic act Odysseus is
    putting himself at the greatest risk to protect
    his men.

20
Day 3
  • moment of tension the men get out of the cave
    safely, but Polyphemus (blind) stops the one
    under which is Odysseus. He stops it and talks to
    it Irony Polyphemus asks the ram where
    "Nohbdy" is. He doesn't realize that
    Nohbdy/Odysseus is under his hand. (line 450-456)
  • Personification Polyphemus talks to the ram like
    it is concerned for him.
  • Odysseus and his men make it safely back to the
    ship and take Polyphemus's sheep with them. They
    load up and pull out to sea distraught over lost
    (eaten) men.
  • Line 476 Odysseus lets his emotions take over
    (acting human, not heroic). When they're out to
    sea, in anger Odysseus shouts back at Polyphemus
    and baits him.
  • Polyphemus breaks off a hilltop and hurls it at
    their ship. They are washed back closer to the
    shore. They row twice as far away and Odysseus's
    men beg him not to shout at Polyphemus anymore.

21
Day 3 Cont...
  • Odysseus refuses. He shouts at Polyphemus anyway
    and tells him his real name. Polyphemus says he
    knew about Odysseus from a prophecy.
  • Polyphemus calls out to his father, Poseidon, and
    asks him to kill/curse Odysseus. His father hears
    him.
  • Line 526 Odysseus blasphemes the power of
    Poseidon.
  • Line 529-538 Polyphemus's curse will cause the
    death of all of Odysseuss men.
  • Polyphemus picks up another giant stone and
    throws it at Odysseuss ship. It misses. He and
    his crew head back to the nearby lush island.
    They unload the animals and divide them up.
    Odysseus kills the best ram, his, and makes a
    sacrifice to Zeus. Zeus does not accept the
    offering because Odysseus blasphemed Poseidon.
  • They sail off again.

22
The Wind King (Past)
  • after they leave Cyclops's island, they land on
    Aeolia, the island of the wind King, Aeolus. For
    1 month they stay here.
  • When they leave, Aeolus puts all the stormy winds
    in a bag so Odysseus and his men will have smooth
    sailing. Aeolus leaves only the good winds free.
  • When they are near home, Odysseus's men open
    the bag while he sleeps. They are blown back to
    Aeolia. King Aeolus refuses to help them a 2nd
    time, thinking they and their voyage and cursed.
    It will take them much longer to get home now.

23
Land of the Laestrygonians (Past)Example of
Vast Setting
  • 11 ships of the 12 enter the harbor here. The
    12th ship (carrying Odysseus) remains furthest
    out in the sea. The Laestrygonians are giant
    cannibals so, when the 11 ships enter the harbor,
    thousands of these giants surround and attack the
    ships, they eat 588 men. They were here for only
    1 day. Only the 12th ship, with Odysseus and his
    45 crew members down to 45 crew members.

24
Circes Island of Aeaea (Past)
  • Odysseus divides his crew into 2 groups.
    Eurylochus with 22 men goes out in a search party
    to find good, freshwater, and a safe place to
    rest. Odysseus leads the 2nd group.
  • Line 539 alliteration
  • Line 543-546 epic/ homeric/ heroic simile
  • Eurylochus's group goes out to explore island.
  • Eurylochus's group finds Circe's palace

25
-Circe's singing when they come up. They also see
her weaving on her loom, so they think she's
friendly. -Polites tells the group they should
not fear the goddess also, he says they have no
reason to want to trick her or use stealth -Circe
calls them all in -All the men except Eurylochus
go into her palace. -Circe makes them
comfortable .She seats them on lounging
chairs. .She feeds them cheese and barley. She
gives them a wine concoction.
26
Cont...
  • Line 568 the spiked drink makes the men forget
    then she turns them all into pigs/swine. However,
    they still have the minds of humans.
  • Eurylochus returns to the ship and reports what
    happened to Odysseus. The other 22 remain at
    Circe's hall.
  • He begs Odysseus to leave the island but,
    Odysseus wants to save his men (heroic)
  • Odysseus goes to save his men, but on the way
    he meets the god Hermes.
  • Hermes gives Odysseus a special flower- a moly-
    to protect Odysseus from Circe's magic.
  • Hermes tell Odysseus he must make the goddess
    swear she'll play no "witch's" tricks on him.
  • Odysseus heads to Circe's palace and she welcomes
    him.

27
Odysseus and Circe
  • Circe seats him in a silver-studded chair
  • She gives him a drink laced with her "unholy
    drug"
  • She tries to change him into swine, but her trick
    doesn't work Odysseus is protected by moly he
    received from Hermes.
  • Circe then tells him she was previously told of
    Odysseus and that she wants him to "play and
    love"
  • Odysseus refuses until she swears an oath that
    she will try no more tricks.
  • Circe makes the oath and they begin a romantic
    relationship
  • Odysseus continues to worry about his men who
    were transformed into swine an example of him
    acting like a good leader.

28
He refuses to eat and acts disconsolate, much to
Circe's dismay. Circe tires to cheer up Odysseus,
but he refuses until Circe changes his men back -
this is an example of his cunning. Circe, in
sympathy, frees the men and changes them back
into humans. They appear younger and more
handsome. The men and Odysseus weep for joy when
reunited. Even Circe is touched by their
emotion. This act by Circe alters Odysseus's
opinion of her. Now he calls her
"exquisite." Circe tells Odysseus to stow away
all their gear and return with all his "dear
companions" from the ship. Odysseus obeys because
he says he can't resist her.
29
Odysseus Versus Eurylochus
  • As Odysseus and his men return to the ship, they
    find their crewmates weeping.
  • They cried because they thought the transformed
    men had been lost.
  • They cried in relief at seeing their crewmates
    return safely.
  • Odysseus gives his men the orders to store their
    equipment, but Eurylochus opposes this idea.
  • Eurylochus challenges Odysseus's judgment and
    authority. He tells the men they should doubt
    Odysseus because of all their past troubles.

30
  • Eurylochus reminds them of the 6 men eaten by
    Polyphemus.
  • He reminds them about the men changed into pigs.
  • Odysseus responds angrily he wants to kill
    Eurylochus an example of him acting humanly and
    reacting with his emotions. But, Odysseus is also
    acting like a strong leader in that he will not
    tolerate dissension.
  • The other men tell Odysseus not to worry.
  • They'll follow him to Circe's hall.
  • They tell Odysseus to leave Eurylochus behind.
    They demonstrate their loyalty and respect for
    Odysseus and Ithaca.
  • This shows how Odysseus can still be hot-headed
    and violent flaws

31
  • Eurylochus and the men go with Odysseus back to
    Circe's hall.
  • She wines and dines them.
  • The rest helps restore them mentally and
    physically. This shows Circe's compassion
    contrasted to her cruelty since other humans
    remain as animals (but not Odysseus's men).
  • Odysseus and his men are lulled into staying
    for a year, not thinking of home.

32
Aeaea Cont...
  • While the men are drunk one night, Elpenor gets
    too drunk, falls off the roof, and dies. (1
    dead).
  • His men begin to long for home.They remind
    Odysseus that he is a king and has
    responsibilities in Ithaca as a king/leader.

33
Odysseus is torn between his duty and his
enjoyment with Circe (he succumbs to the same
type of danger as the 3 men faced in the land of
the Lotus Eaters). This time Odysseus must be
saved. Odysseus tells Circe he must leave. She
responds by telling him what he must do.
34
Again, Circe shows her concern for Odysseus,
which is contrasted with her callousness toward
other humans.She tells them they must travel to
the underworld (aka. The Land of the Dead). She
tells him he must seek the advice of Teiresias,
the blind prophet of Thebes (who's dead) before
he can find his way home.
35
Land of the Dead- Underworld/Hades (past) Book 11
  • This is an example of a vast setting.
  • The setting is darkness, endless, bottomless.
  • This foreshadows the grim news that Odysseus will
    learn from Teiresias.
  • This foreshadows his men's deaths to come later.
  • Perimedes and Eurylochus help Odysseus make the
    sacrifices Circe told him to so that he can bring
    Teiresias back from the dead.

36
Helping with the sacrifices shows Eurylochus's
wishy-washy character. This shows Odysseus's
ability to forgive. Now, he again treats
Eurylochus with great trust. They make an altar
to Teiresias.
This is to convince him to help them. They see
many different kinds of dead people - including
soldiers. This foreshadows the death of his own
men. The blood is symbolic of life he regains
enough "life" to prophesy for Odysseus. Odysseus
encounters the following characters from the
Trojan War Ajax, Achilles, and Heracles (aka.
Hercules).
37
More Underworld
  • Epithet "the prince of Thebes" is Teiresias.
  • Odysseus sees the ghost/ spirit of Elpenor, his
    man who fell off the roof and died on Circe's
    island. Elpenor tells him he died falling off the
    roof (Odysseus didn't realize it was partially
    his fault). This foreshadows how all the other
    men will die as a result of giving into their
    human desires later when they come to Helios's
    island.
  • Elpenor serves as a warning.

38
Teiresias tells him that Poseidon will cause him
more troubles and losses on their way home.
The prophecy go to the single straight, keep
your men in line, and when you get to Thrinakia,
don't mess with Helios's cattle. If you do this,
you'll get home safely. Line 636 If Odysseus
doesn't do this Destruction of ship and
crew. He'll be the only survivor. It'll take more
years to get home.
39
More prophecy from the dead
Odysseus's home will be overrun by men eating his
food and courting his wife. He'll return under
strange sail. Then he'll have to travel to a
strange land, make a sacrifice to every god and
goddess in order of rank then, it'll bring peace
between Odysseus and Poseidon and Odysseus will
live long and die peacefully. Odysseus will
see his mother in the underworld gt she committed
suicide while he's gone.
40
Sirens (still in past)
Odysseus and his men leave the Underworld and go
back to Aeaea. Circe warns him about the dangers
to come. She tells Odysseus how he can pass by
the Sirens without endangering his crew, but
still satisfy his curiosity to hear the famed
creatures. The Sirens hypnotize men with their
songs and then eat them. Circe tells Odysseus to
stuff his men's ears with wax have them tie
Odysseus to the ship's mast so he can't be
harmed then they row past the Sirens.
41
Charybdis - (past) Book 12 This is a female
monster who sucks in a storm of water and spews
it out 3 times a day. Circe advised Odysseus to
avoid Charybdis entirely because they all could
die. She tells him to go near Scylla and accept
the loss of 6 men as opposed to all. Circe,
like Teiresias, warns Odysseus to not eat
Helios's cattle. Odysseus does not tell his men
that some of them will die because they would not
have wanted to leave Circe's island-- then,
Odysseus would never get home. Line 805-808
Epic/ Homeric simile Line 818 Scylla eats 6
men Line 822-828 Epic/ Homeric simile
42
Scylla (past, Book 12)
A very ugly monster, she has 12 legs and 6 heads.
Scylla eats 1 man for each head as they sail
past. Odysseus was told about this by Circe. He
knows before they get here that 6 men will die.
43
Thrinakia (Helios's Cattle-Past)
Odysseus tries to convince his crew to bypass
Thrinakia altogether. They disobey him and land
anyway. He makes them promise not to eat Helios's
cattle. A storm comes up and they're forced to
land on Thrinakia. They are there for 1 month
without eating the cattle.They run out of food.
Odysseus wanders off alone to pray for help he
falls asleep. While he's gone, Eurylochus rallies
the crew against Odysseus. Eurylochus convinces
them it's better to dies having made the gods
angry than to starve to death. Odysseus wakes
up and realizes what happened. Meanwhile,
Lampetia (Helios's daughter) runs to tell her
father what happened. Helioss threat to Zeus
either Zeus punish Odysseus's men, or Helios
(sun) will never shine on Earth again. Zeus's
response he hits the ship with a thunder bolt.
All die but Odysseus.
44
End of Flashbacks/ Present Past meet
45
Part 2 Summaries Books 13-24
46
The past and present meet here in the story as
King Alcinous of the Phaeacians provides Odysseus
with a ship to return home to Ithaca. It's a
magically fast ship. Odysseus lands on Ithaca
but is met by Athena, who transforms him into a
beggar to protect his Identity from the suitors.
Most of his loyal army was lost or killed either
at the Trojan War or on the journey home. Book
13 is when Odysseus leaves Phaeacia in the
Phaeacian ship and arrives in Ithaca.
47
Book 14 - in his beggar's disguise, Odysseus
makes his way to Eumaeus's hut (his trusty
swineherd) it's important to know that Eumaeus is
representative of true faithfulness and is the
first known introduction of a servant as
important character. This shows Homer's
originality. Odysseus, still in disguise, doesn't
reveal himself to Eumaeus. Eumaeus follows the
Greek custom and welcomes the "stranger".
48
Book 15 Athena appears to Telemachus, who has
gone to Pylos and Sparta to look for news of
Odysseus. Telemachus stays gone 1 year. Odysseus
returns to Ithaca before his son. Athena appear
to Telemachus and tells him to go home. When
Telemachus does, the palace is overrun by the
suitors. The suitors are spending Telemachus's
inheritance and demanding that Penelope pick a
new husband. Athena warns Telemachus that the
suitors plan to ambush him when he arrives.
Telemachus returns to Ithaca, but first goes to
Eumaeus's hut.
49
We are now reaching one of the most climactic
moments of this epic. At this point, Odysseus has
not seen Telemachus for 20 years. The dogs aren't
mean to Telemachus because he's spent most of his
life around Eumaeus. At this point, Odysseus
doesn't realize it's Telemachus approaching.
50
  • Line 945-955 Eumaeus's reaction Odysseus does
    nothing because he's waiting for the sign from
    Athena (epic/Homeric/heroic simile)
  • Line 956 epithet
  • Line 966 "Uncle" is Telemachus's term for
    Eumaeus. Telemachus also upholds the Greek custom
    of xenos (xenia). Telemachus sends Eumaeus to the
    palace to tell Penelope he's home and alive.
    Athena is now ready to reunite Odysseus and
    Telemachus.
  • Athena turns to Odysseus back into a younger
    vibrant man. symbolism white is purity/
    cleansing
  • Line 100 epithet
  • Line 1008-1009 Odysseus cries and acts like a
    father.
  • Line 1021 Odysseus still expects Telemachus to
    act like a prince and fear no one.
  • Line 1031-33 epic simile cries of men to cries
    of taloned hawk (from Book 16)

51
  • Book 17 - The Beggar and Argos the Dog
  • Telemachus goes back to the palace to his mom,
    Penelope, and Eurycleia, his nurse. A
    fortuneteller has told Penelope that Odysseus is
    alive and in Ithaca.
  • Odysseus goes back into disguise as the beggar.
    He and Eumaeus return to the palace. He is only
    recognized by his dog, Argos. Eumaeus doesn't
    realize he's talking to Odysseus.
  • As soon as Argos recognizes Odysseus, Argos
    finally dies symbolizes loyalty.
  • Odysseus is now in his own hall in disguise as
    the beggar. Penelope welcomes "the beggar", who
    says he has news of Odysseus.

52
  • Book 18- Penelope appears among the suitors and
    gets onto Telemachus for allowing the evil
    suitors to mistreat the beggar.
  • Book 19- the suitors leave for the night and
    Odysseus and Telemachus hatch their plan.
  • Odysseus is revealed to Eurycleia when she washes
    his feet and sees a scar. Athena casts a spell
    over Penelope so she doesn't know what's going
    on. Penelope decides a test for the suitors for
    the next day.

53
  • Book 20- Odysseus wants to destroy the suitors.
    Athena tells Odysseus they will die.
  • Book 21- The Test of the Great Bow
  • Penelope makes the test so that the suitors must
    successfully string Odysseus's bow- which only he
    can do. Penelope cries when she holds the bow
    because she feels like she's giving up on
    Odysseus's return
  • Odysseus reveals himself to Philoteus and
    Eumaeus, who swear to bear arms with him.
  • Plan Line 1163-73 gives Philoetus and Eumaeus
    orders.
  • Line 1184 example of irony because the taunting
    suitors don't realize they're joking about what
    will really happen.

54
  • Line 1185 - epithet
  • Line 1185-1191 epic/Homeric/heroic simile.
  • Line 1193 metaphor sting can't sound like a
    bird
  • Line 1203 simile
  • Odysseus wins the bow contest
  • Line 1217 epithet applies to Telemachus
  • The climax is here in Book 22. He must kill or
    get rid of more than 100 young men.
  • Antinous the most sleazy suitor. Line 1219
    epithet
  • Line 1222 metaphor rain of arrows
  • He kills Antinous first.
  • Line 1237-38 simile
  • Line 1238 "river of blood" -- Hyperbole/
    metaphor
  • The suitors think Odysseus got a lucky shot to
    kill Antinous
  • Line 1252- personification "grip of death"
  • Line 1253 - color yellow symbolizes cowardice.
  • Eurymachus pleads with Odysseus to spare their
    lives since the ringleader, Antinous, is dead. In
    exchange, he offers tithes and gifts as
    restitution. (repayment).
  • Now Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus and Philoeteous
    begin killing the remainder of the suitors.
  • Another intervention of the gods Athena's shield
    takes form in the hall.
  • Line 1290-1303 epic simile

55
  • Book 23- Odysseus and Penelope
  • Odysseus orders the maids who betrayed them
    (slept w/ suitors) to clean up the blood, the
    hall, and remove the dead bodies. Then Telemachus
    hangs them in the courtyard.
  • Eumaeus tells Penelope that Odysseus is back.
    Penelope suspects a trick, so she decides to test
    the "suitor."

56
  • Line 1329 epithet
  • Line 1335 epithet
  • GLORIFICATION OF THE HERO
  • Odysseus is bathed, and then Athena comes and
    makes him appear handsome and kingly again. She
    actually makes Odysseus look bigger and better
    than ever.
  • Line 1342-1346 Homeric/heroic/epic simile.
  • Penelope tests Odysseus by telling Eurycleia to
    make up a separate bed for him, as if the great
    tree bed had been moved.
  • Odysseus responds in anger because he built that
    room and palace around an unmovable olive tree.
    This proves to Penelope that Odysseus really is
    her husband.
  • Line 1410-1413 epic simile
  • Book 24 The families of the suitors try to
    challenge Odysseus, but he defeats them.

The End
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