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Gilgamesh Stephen Hagin Kennesaw State University

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... Gilgamesh Enkidu Enkidu as Tool of Society Gilgamesh s dream of Enkidu as a copper axe ... to venture forth from the ... my splendor see ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gilgamesh Stephen Hagin Kennesaw State University


1
Gilgamesh Stephen Hagin Kennesaw State
University
2
The Real Gilgamesh?
  • King Gilgamesh is believed to have reigned in
    Sumer around 2700 to 2500 BCE.
  • Legends state that Gilgamesh ruled for 126
    years.
  • Gilgamesh was the son of the goddess Ninsun and
    Priest Kullab.

3
The Gilgamesh Cycle
  1. Gilgamesh and the Halub-tree (or Gilgamesh,
    Enkidu, and the Netherworld)
  2. Gilgamesh and Huwawa (or Gilgamesh and the Land
    of the Living)
  3. Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven
  4. The Death of Gilgamesh
  5. The Flood
  6. The Descent of Inanna (or Ishtars Journey to
    the Netherworld)

4
Sumer farmers ? 4000 BCE Babylonia herders
? 2500 BCE
5
The Fertile Crescent
6
Alexander Pope Essay on Man  from Epistle II
Of the Nature and State of Man with Respect to
Himself, as an Individual
7
KNOW then thyself, presume not God to scan, The
proper study of mankind is man. Placd on this
isthmus of a middle state, A being darkly wise,
and rudely great
8
He hangs between in doubt to act, or rest In
doubt to deem himself a God, or beast In doubt
his mind or body to prefer Born but to die, and
reasning but to err
9
Created half to rise, and half to fall Great
lord of all things, yet a prey to all Sole
judge of truth, in endless error hurld The
glory, jest, and riddle of the world!
10
? ? SOCIETY NATURE
God beast mind body act
rest reason ignorance thought
passion lord prey GILGAMESH ENKIDU
11
Gilgamesh as 2/3 God
12
? ? Gilgamesh Enkidu
Society Nature
13
What is a marriage? The myth tells you what it
is. Its the reunion of the separated duad.
Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (5)
14
Who Is Enkidu?
  • Enki Enkidu
  • EN god of EN god of
  • KI the land KI the land
  • DU that is good
  • Enki god of water Enkidu keeper of the forest
  • (Both are ? figures with ? functionality)

15
The Enkidu Experiment The gods seek harmony
and balance ? ? Gilgamesh? ?Enkidu
Society Nature
16
Enkidu Judged by Society
  • The hunter (trapper) calls Enkidu a murderous
    youth (55)
  • Degrading names often used the Gutians were
    referred to as dogs and monkeys in The
    Cursing of Agade

17
Intermediaries
  • dæmon The original word daemon is defined as an
    intermediary between gods and man.
  • Typical incarnations serpent, scorpion,
    gatekeeper, woman

18
Shamhat as Intermediary ? ?
Gilglmesh Shamhat ?Enkidu
Society Nature
19
Enkidu Changes Gil Remains Enkidu has now
become profound Enkidu who has become like a
god (56).   ? ? Gilgamesh
? Enkidu
20
Enkidu as Tool of Society Gilgameshs dream of
Enkidu as a copper axe.   ?
? Gilgamesh and
Enkidu
21
Enkidu Grows Weaker
  • Enkidu, however, is considered to have grown
    weak, for wisdom was within him (this phrasing
    can be found in the N. K. Sandars prose
    translation).
  • Enkidu cries at the thought of Humbaba. 

22
Humbaba as the New Enemy ? ?
Gilgamesh Humbaba ?
Enkidu Society
Nature Uruk Land of the Living
23
Humbaba as Evil Humbaba, the battering ram,
is described by the elders of Uruk as a creature
who is the terror of the people and whose
breath is death and whose actions are evil,
making him an object of hate.
24

25
Extispacy Humbabas face resembles the gnarled
intestines of the sacrificial animal, used for
divination.
26
? ? Gil. Enkidu Humbaba
Shamash Society
Nature Uruk Land of the Living
27
Humbabas Seven Cloaks
  • Cloaks Holy me
  • ? ?
  • Gil. Enkidu Humbaba
  • Shamash
  • 7 7

28
The Power of Seven
  • Shamash, the sun god and god of justice, conjures
    up the 13 winds that restrain Humbaba because
    they blow at him from different directions 
  • Shamash tells the characters that "Humbaba will
    not be clothed in seven cloaks" and that he will
    be "wearing only one six are taken off" (73)

29
Humbaba Weakened
  • Cloaks Holy me
  • ? ?
  • Gil. Enkidu Humbaba
  • Shamash
  • 76 13 7-6 1

30
Humbaba Compromised
  • Cloaks Holy me
  • ? ?
  • Gil. Enkidu Humbaba
  • Shamash (sun) Ellil (wind)
  • 76 13 7-6 1

31
Sun God as Societal Judge
32
? ? SOCIETY NATURE Aries
Taurus Gil ( Enkidu) (Enkidu) society
s law Humbaba lumber Land of
Living Shamash Ishtar civilization
Bull of Heaven
33
Heroic Journeys
  • Campbell defines the stages of the heroic journey
    that begins when something has been taken or if
    the hero lacks the experiences available or
    permitted to the members of his society (POM,
    152)
  • Three stages
  • - departure
  • - fulfillment
  • - return

34
Heroic Journeys, cont.
  • Two types (both POM, 152)
  • physical the hero performs a courageous act in
    battle or saves a life
  • spiritual the hero learns to experience the
    supernormal range of human spiritual life and
    then comes back with a message

35
Heroic Journeys, cont.
  • Also, the heros journey
  • can be either voluntary or involuntary
  • can be proper or false
  • is often performed by the male figure (males tend
    to venture forth from the home condition
    Inanna is an exception)

36
The Journey East
37
The Scorpion Men
38
Scorpion Men as Intermediaries ?
? death life/rebirth
Gil ? Scorpion Men Enkidu Society
Nature Uruk Land
of the Far-Away
39
Societys Message Ignored
  • "You will not find the
  • eternal life you seek.
  • There is no permanence.

40
Scorpion Men solar guardians Siduri divine
wine maker Urshanabi ferryman Utnapishtim
immortal man
41
? flower serpent water Nature
42
All things must die, it is but truth to say. It
cannot profit any soul alive Against this
everlasting law to strive.
Geoffrey Chaucer, The Knights Tale, Part IV
43
Gilgamesh Urshanabi, this plant is a plant to
cure a crisis. With it a man may win the breath
of life. Its name shall be An old man grows
into a young man. The Epic of
Gilgamesh, Tablet XI
44
Gilgamesh old man, young man bilga
elder, ancestor mesh young man, hero
45
? ? knowledge Gilgamesh
experience Society Nature
46
The Conference of Birds Farid Ud-din Attar
12th century Persian myth
47
There in the Simorghs radiant face they
saw Themselves, the Simorgh of the world with
awe They gazed, and dared at last to
comprehend They were the Simorgh at the
journeys end.
48
They ask (but inwardly they make no sound) The
meaning of these mysteries that confound Their
puzzled ignorance how is it true That we is
not distinguished here from you?
49
And silently their shining Lord replies I am
a mirror set before your eyes, And all who come
before my splendor see Themselves, their own
unique reality
50
Though you have struggled, wandered, traveled
far, It is yourselves you see and what you
are. Farid Ud-din Attar, The
Conference of Birds (12th c.)
51
The God is within you. You yourself are your
creator. Joseph Campbell, The Power of
Myth (202)
52
We always think in terms of opposites. But God,
the ultimate, is beyond the pairs of opposites
. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth
(57)
53
Gods are magnified dreams, and dreams are
manifestations in image form of the energies of
the body in conflict with each other.
Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (46)
54
Enlightenment Harmonize the Masculine and
Feminine The secret cause of all suffering is
mortality itself, which is the prime condition of
life. It cannot be denied if life is to be
affirmed. Joseph Campbell,
The Power of Myth (xi)
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