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DROPOUTS BACK ON THE TRACK

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The educational system of Cyprus. Technical and Vocational Education ... 2.000 young people 3-4% of all secondary school population in Cyprus drop out of school. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DROPOUTS BACK ON THE TRACK


1
  • DROPOUTS BACK ON THE TRACK
  • CYPRUS FIRST INTERNATIONAL MEETING
  • Nicholas Andilios
  • The Cyprus Pedagogical Institute
  • Nicosia
  • Friday 25th May, 2001

2
ISSUES
  • The educational system of Cyprus
  • Technical and Vocational Education
  • The mission of the Public Education in Cyprus
  • Definition of the target group
  • Timing
  • The size of the group
  • Characteristics of the group
  • Reasons for leaving school
  • What they consider helpful for avoiding dropping
    out of school
  • Flow of secondary school leavers
  • Measures dealing with the problem

3
STRUCTURE OF THE CYPRUS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
8
7
6
5
4
3
16
15
11
10
9
14
13
12
20
19
18
17
23
22
21
Pre-Primary
Primary
Secondary
Higher
  • University of Cyprus
  • Greek Universities

COMPULSORY EDUCATION
Lyceums of Optional Subjects
  • Higher Technical Institute
  • Higher Hotel and Catering Institute
  • Forestry College
  • Nursery School

First cycle of Secondary Education
1
3
2
4
6
5
3
2
1
3
2
1
Technical and Vocational
  • Mediterranean Institute of Management
  • Private Tertiary Educational Colleges

Private Schools
Overseas Universities
5
4
3
2
1
7
6
4
GYMNASIUM 3
YEARS
LEAVING CERTIFICATE
TECHNICAL TECHNICIAN COURSES 3 YEARS
VOCATIONAL CRAFT COURSES 3 YEARS
HIGHER EDUCATION
EMPLOYMENT
5
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
SPECIALISATIONS
CLUSTERS
TECHNICAL TECHNICIAN COURSES MAC
HINING FITTING AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS ELECTRI
CAL MACHINES INSTALLATIONS ELECTRONIC APLLIAN
CES COMPUTER ELECTRONIC BUILDING AND CIVIL
ENGINEERING WORKS FASHION
DESIGN GRAPHIC ART GRAPHIC DESIGN
VOCATIONAL CRAFT COURSES MACHINING AND FITT
ING SHEET METALWORK WELDING PLUMBING WELDIN
G AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS ELECTR. MACHINES INS
TALLATIONS ELECTR. APPLIANCES REFRIGERATION
BUILDING CONTRUCTION BUILDING SCIENCE FURNIT
URE MAKING COOKERY/WAITING DRESS MAKING / DR
AUGHTING SILVERSMITHING GOLDSMITHING / SHOE
MAKING HOTEL INSTALATIONS MAINTENANCE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
BUILDING AND CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS
HOTEL CATERING
FASHION DESIGN
GRAPHICAL ARTS INTERTIOR DESIGN
OTHERS
6
TEACHING TIME DISTRIBUTION
Technical Courses
Vocational Courses
42, 5 GENERAL
EDUCATION
40 TECHNOLOGY AND
WORKSHOPS
57,5 TECHNOLOGY AND
WORKSHOPS
60 GENERAL
EDUCATION
7
  • The mission of the Public Education in Cyprus
  •   To create free and democratic citizens,
  • fully developed personality,
  • mentally and morally refined,
  • healthy, active and creative,
  • who contribute with their work
  • and conscientious activity
  • to the social, scientific, economic and cultural
    progress of the country to the promotion of
    co-operation, mutual understanding, respect and
    love among individuals and people for the
    prevalence of freedom, justice and peace.

The aim of Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education   To develop the required academic
, technical vocational skills and knowledge in
order to obtain appropriate technical/vocation
al jobs in industry or to advance their techni
cal and vocational education so that they can
be assured of a happy and creative life"
8
  • Definition of the target group
  •  
  • The group of young people who left school
    between the ages of 12 to 18 years old and for
    this reason have failed to complete it
    successfully.
  • As a result they are outside the educational
    system without achieving any form of
    qualification or certification which will allow
    them to obtain a skilled occupation.

9
  • The size of the group
  • FLOW OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLMENTS

10
  • 2.000 young people 3-4 of all secondary school
    population in Cyprus drop out of school.
  • During the last 10 years, the Cyprus educational
    system has lost over 20.000 young people, a
    number, which is quite disturbing considering the
    Cyprus population.
  • At the end of the year after failing a class
  • Leave school even though they have successfully
    completed the year
  • During the academic school year.

11
  • Reasons for leaving school
  • low grades
  • difficulties with and low interest in learning
  • disciplinary and behaviour problems
  • desire to leave school
  • decided to have a family
  • desire to get a job
  • financial reasons
  • problems with teachers
  • health problems
  • bad friends
  • immaturity
  • other reasons (parents divorce, lack of help,
    independence, work, problems with fellow
    students)

12
  • The characteristics of the group
  • Low average income families
  • Low education of parents
  • 80 single 20 married
  • 80 have a full time job
  • A higher percentage of the unemployed were
    female
  • Most work as semi skilled workers
  • Most claimed to be happy ranging from happy to
    very happy
  • They regret they left school
  • Quite a few of them state they intend to enrol in
    some educational programme

The mission of the Public Education in Cyprus
To create free and democratic citizens, fully de
veloped personality, mentally and morally refined
, healthy, active and creative, who contribute
with their work and conscientious activity
to the social, scientific, economic and cultural
progress of the country to the promotion of
co-operation, mutual understanding, respect and
love among individuals and people for the
prevalence of freedom, justice and peace.
13
who as Rosenbach said They become dropouts
because the system provides more help, support
and reward to those students who need it less and
provides very little or none of these to those
who need it most!!! Meritocracy theory
14
The dropouts considered the following as helpful
in order not to quit school
  • Personal
  • more concern about the future
  • more studying
  • better friends
  • more interest and maturity
  • fewer absences
  • not repeating class
  • not changing school
  • School
  • updating rules
  • different system
  • better employment guidance towards
    technical training
  • Teachers
  • more flexible
  • more helpful
  • better behaviour
  • Family Parents
  • more help
  • better financial condition
  • stricter
  • other family reasons

Some claimed that nothing could have changed the
situation
15
  • There have always been dropouts
  • In the past it was not particularly difficult
    for the school dropouts to obtain a job,
    something which might still be valid. Even though
    it is possible for the school dropouts to obtain
    a job there are serious issues and concerns to be
    raised regarding their future role as productive,
    creative and happy members of the modern
    society we live in.
  • For today?
  • For  the future?
  • How ready are they?
  • Why is it different today?

16
  • FLOW OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVERS

1985-1986
1995-1996
Labour Market
Third Level Abroad
Third Level Abroad
27
Labour Market
25
37
Third Level in Cyprus
57
Third Level in Cyprus
36
18
17
Enrolments by Institution
18
  • New trends
  • Technological revolution
  • Globalisation of the economy
  • Explosion of knowledge

19
  • Tucker in 1996 put things into the right
    perspective
  • front line staff are no longer
  • expected to leave their heads at the
  • factory gate

20
  • The idea of unskilled labour as the base for
    production cannot be effective in the
    contemporary technological era. The emphasis now
    is on the worker at any level of the business who
    is
  • educated
  • competent
  • flexible
  • enterprising
    and above all
  • responsive and responsible

21
  • The characteristics of the group
  • Low average income families
  • Low education of parents
  • 80 single 20 married
  • 80 have a full time job
  • A higher percentage of the unemployed were
    female
  • Most work as semi skilled workers
  • Most claimed to be happy ranging from happy to
    very happy
  • They regret they left school
  • Quite a few of them state they intend to enrol in
    some educational programme

The mission of the Public Education in Cyprus
educated competent flexible enterprisin
g
and above all responsive and responsible
22
  • ...qualities which can mainly be acquired
    through effective education and training
    programmes, particularly appropriate for this
    group of people

23
  • A group of people we can not afford to failed
    them again

24
EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION
Books and written material
Teaching activities
E v a l u a t i o n
Values and needs
Aims
Objectives
Types of lessons
Instructional strategy
Time
Mission
Student characteristics
Learning activities
Teaching and learning material
F E E D B A C K
25
  • CYPRUS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM REFORM
  • New programmes of study
  • More flexible curriculum,
  • Introduction of electives, ie Art, Music, Dance,
    Theatre, Astronomy
  • New subjects and specialisations
  • Easier access from the unified lyceum to TV
    programmes
  • New entry and re-entry points
  • Measures to compat prejudice against TVE
  • Lifelong learning programmes
  • Revision of the Apprenticeship Scheme
  • Review the relationship of TVE with other
    stakeholders
  • Further training and retraining TV instructors
  • THE NEW PROPOSAL HAS BEEN APPROVED BY THE
    COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

26
  • REFORM OF THE TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
  • THE NEW PROPOSAL HAS BEEN APPROVED BY THE COUNCIL
    OF MINISTERS
  • THE REFORM IS EXPECTED TO LAST FOUR YEARS 2000 -
    2004
  • AT A COST OF 13 MILLION CYPRIOT POUNDS
  • 3 NEW TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS
  • 12OO NEW PLACES FOR STUDENTS
  • IMPROVE THE EXISTING TEACHING AND LEARNING
    INFRASTRUCTURE
  • INTRODUCE NEW TECHNOLOGIES
  • RESTRUCTURE THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION

27
Preventive and supportive measures
What are the existing measures
  • Before
  • Within the school
  • Apprenticeship scheme
  • After
  • obtaining a job
  • entering into a non-formal education programme

28
What are the existing measures
  • The School Psychology Unit and the Counselling
    and Career Education Service
  • Preventing - Advising
  • Guiding Supporting
  • Apprenticeship Scheme
  • Initial vocational training
  • Dual-type

29
Apprenticeship scheme
  • Run by the Ministry of Education and Culture
    and supported by the Ministry of Labour and
    Social Insurance and by the Human Resource
    Development Authority
  • Aimed at young people who have not successfully
    completed their high school education. It
    provides both practical and theoretical
    training
  • Takes place within industry for three days each
    week and the students are remunerated for
    their work. Theoretical classes and practical
    workshops are provided within the Technical
    Schools
  • Duration two academic years
  • Results Up until now there are about 8.000 new
    technicians have been trained and entered
    industry.

30
Apprenticeship scheme
  • Students are trained for the following
    occupations
  • Builders, Furniture makers/Carpenters, Car
    Mechanics, Car electricians, Electrical
    technicians, Sheet metal workers/welders,
    Aluminium construction manufacturers, Machine
    workers - fitters, Silversmiths - Goldsmiths,
    Shoemakers, and Maintenance workers of
    techno-mechanical installations in Hotels.

31
Enrolments by Institution
32
Conclusions
  • intentions and realities
  • the greater the gap the greater the inefficiency
    - the closer the gap the greater the success
  • student characteristics must be very seriously
    considered if new learning is to take place
  • the profile of the new worker puts additional
    pressure on the drop outs making them a likely
    canditate TO BECOME A SOCIAL DROPOUT
  • this meeting address a contemporary problem that
    needs to be dealt with promptly effectively and
    responsibly

33
  • END

34
What are the existing measures
  • Evening Technical and Vocational School
  • Preventive (e.g. remedial education)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Afternoon and Evening Technical Classes (AETC)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Continuing training

35
What are the existing measures
  • Evening Gymnasia
  • Preventive (e.g. remedial education)
  • Second-chance
  • Adult Education and Training Centres
  • Initial vocational training
  • Continuing training

36
What are the existing measures
  • State Institutes of Further Education.
  • Preventive (e.g. remedial education)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Continuing training
  • Private Institutes of Further Education.
  • Preventive (e.g. remedial education)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Continuing training

37
What are the existing measures
  • The Human Resource Development Authority (HRDA)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Dual-type
  • Subsidies, grants (active measures)
  • General measures linking sectoral policies
  • The Cyprus Productivity Centre (CPC)
  • Initial vocational training
  • Continuing training
  • Dual-type

38
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Objective
  • The Counseling and Career Education Service
    (C.C.E.S.) assists students of the Public
    Secondary and Technical Schools and other young
    people in

39
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Developing personal awareness with regards to
    their interests, needs, abilities and
    expectations, as well as developing the necessary
    skills for the acquisition of objective
    educational and occupational information.
  • Making suitable decisions about their education
    and career plans.
  • Dealing more effectively with any psychological,
    personal, family and/or social problems they
    might be facing.

40
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • These objectives are sought by Counseling, use of
    Tests, Computerized Information Systems,
    Publications, Career Education, Anti-Drug
    Education, In-service Training, Personnel
    recruitment.

41
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Short description
  • In co-operation with parents or guardians, the
    school authorities, the Educational Psychologists
    and the Social Services, the Counselor works with
    the pupil so as to determine why she/he wants to
    drop out of school and initiate appropriate
    measures to discourage them. In such cases the
    pupils have several options, such as

42
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Continue to see their counselor
  • Visit the Central Counseling Office for
    consultation
  • Continue secondary education in the evening
    school and work at the same time
  • Follow a vocational course at a Technical School
    or the Human Resource Development Authority of
    Cyprus
  • Look for a job if they are over fifteen
  • In the case of pupils who do not intent to pursue
    Post-Lyceum studies, the Counselor

43
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • examines the pupils abilities and interests
    through individual and / or group counseling
  • holds sessions with the parents, where necessary
  • suggests information material e.g. relevant
    published material, Government Education and
    Labour Statistics, Occupational Handbooks etc.,
    and makes feasible suggestions and optional
    recommendations.

44
The Counseling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
Definition of target group of measure
Children of pre-school age Primary school pupils
Secondary school pupils  
45
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Age
  • 5-18 years old
  • Year of introduction
  • 1960s
  • Duration
  • All the year round

46
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Responsible bodies
  • The Ministry of Education and Culture
  • Numbers involved
  • For the whole public school population of Cyprus

47
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Resources involved
  • Counseling and Career Education Services of the
    Ministry of Education and Culture has been
    staffed by permanent qualified counselors since
    1991 and supported by the Ministry of Education
    and Culture.

48
The Counselling and Career Education
ServicePreventive and supportive measure
  • Financial aspects
  • Provided by the Ministry of Education and
    Culture
  • Evaluation
  • More personnel required
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