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6. The Levant: 1200720 BCE

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Title: 6. The Levant: 1200720 BCE


1
6. The Levant 1200-720 BCE
  • BOT612 Old Testament Backgrounds

2
Crisis Political Change 1200-900
  • "The political pattern of the Near East c. 1200
    can be summarized broadly as follows in the
    Levant, Cyprus and Mycenaean Greece the basic
    political unit was the city-state usually
    controlling a fair stretch of surrounding
    territory. Between c. 1400 and 1200, the small
    states of the Levant generally formed part of the
    Hittite or Egyptian sphere of imperial control
    Cyprus (or part of it), too, was dominated by the
    Hittites at the end of the thirteenth century. To
    the east a contemporary political power was
    Kassite Babylonia, although it was being eclipsed
    in the second half of the thirteenth century by
    the meteoric rise of Assyria to the north (the
    Middle Assyrian empire), and the establishment of
    a strong Elamite state to the east."

3
Crisis Political Change 1200-900
  • "1200 . . . to the east, Assyria, Babylonia and
    Elam appear to have remained relatively stable
    until around the mid-eleventh century.
  • Crisis in the West
  • "First, the great Hittite empire, with the
    exception of one or two of its subject kingdoms
    (e.g. Carchemish), disappeared completely around
    (or probably soon after) 1200."
  • "Second, several cities in the Levant, most
    strikingly Ugarit and Emar, were destroyed around
    this time, and their sites not reoccupied."
  • "Finally, soon after the middle of the twelfth
    century, Egypts control of the southern Levant
    ended by the early eleventh century it had
    withdrawn within its narrowest frontiers, having
    lost control over Sinai and Nubia."

4
The Sea Peoples
  • Merneptah (1224/1213-1204)
  • There is a description, "(inscribed at Karnak) of
    a war fought by Merneptah in his fifth year (1220
    (1209)) against a Libyan coalition attempting to
    move into the western Delta. Included in the
    Libyan forces were people who are designated,
    variously, as northerners coming from all lands
    and of the countries of the sea. Modern
    scholars have therefore dubbed them simply
    sea-peoples. They are listed as being S_?0rdn,
    3kws, Trs, S0krws and Rwkw. A total of the
    numbers of prisoners taken from the first four
    groups is preserved 2200 in all. This needs to
    be set against the 7000 Libyan prisoners (several
    different tribes were

5
The Sea Peoples
  • involved). The impression, then, is that these
    Libyan allies constituted a proportionally
    smaller force. The Egyptian account mentions that
    the sea-people contingents consisted of men
    only, unlike the Libyans, who were accompanied by
    their families. This implies that the
    sea-peoples were mercenary soldiers hired by
    the Libyan chief."

6
Merneptah Monument at Karnak
7
Merneptah Monument at Karnak
8
The Sea Peoples
  • Ramesses III (1184-1150)
  • "Over forty (or thirty) years later (1176),
    Ramesses III fought in his eighth year a
    campaign, which was elaborately commemorated
    (pictorially and textually) in his great funerary
    temple at Medinet Habu, against an attack of
    peoples moving south from Syria by sea and by
    land. Some of them, such as the Tjkr, Prst, Wss
    and Dnn, had not been mentioned before, while two
    (S0rdn, S0krs Trs - extremely doubtful) were
    among the Libyan allies in Merneptahs campaign
    forty-four (or thirty-three) years earlier."

9
The Sea Peoples
  • ". . . as for the foreign countries, they made a
    conspiracy in their islands. All at once the
    lands were on the move, scattered in war. No
    country could stand before their arms Hatti,
    Kode (Cilicia), Carchemish, Arzawa and Alashiya
    (Cyprus). They were cut off. A camp was set up in
    one place in Amor (Amurru, i.e. north Syria).
    They desolated its people, and its land was like
    that which has never come into being. They were
    advancing on Egypt while the flame was prepared
    before them. Their league was Prst, Tjkr, S0krs,
    Dnn and Wss united lands. They laid their hands
    upon the lands to the very circuit of the earth,
    their hearts confident and trusting Our plans
    will succeed." (ANET, 262-263)

10
The Sea Peoples
  • "I extended all the boundaries of Egypt. I
    overthrew those who invaded them from their
    lands. I slew the Dnn who are in their isles,
    the Tjkr and the Prst were made ashes. The S0rdn
    and the Wss of the sea, they were made as those
    that exist not, taken captive at one time,
    brought as captives to Egypt, like the sand of
    the shore I settled them in strongholds bound in
    my name. Numerous were their classes like
    hundred-thousands. I assigned portions for them
    all with clothing and grain from the store-houses
    and granaries each year. . . . I made the
    infantry and chariotry to dwell at home in my
    time the S0rdn and Khk (a Libyan group) were in
    their towns, lying the length of their backs
    they had no fear, for there was

11
The Sea Peoples
  • no enemy from Kush nor foe from Syria. Their
    bows and their weapons were laid up in their
    magazines, while they were satisfied and drunk
    with joy. Their wives were with them, their
    children at their side for I was with them as
    the defence and protection of their limbs."
    (Papyrus Harris I ANET, 262)

12
Mortuary Temple of Rameses III in Medinet Habu
13
Mortuary Temple of Rameses III in Medinet Habu
14
The Sea Peoples
  • "The conclusion to be drawn from the Egyptian
    evidence alone is that some groups of people,
    perhaps at home in coastal areas of southern
    Turkey, were affected adversely by a series of
    economic difficulties in the thirteenth and
    twelfth centuries and therefore hired themselves
    out as mercenary soldiers to states such as
    Egypt, but also to others (e.g. Libyans). A small
    number were forced by the growing crisis to take
    their families and farming stock in the hope of
    finding new lands where they might settle. Others
    (e.g. the Lukka in EA 38) used boats to raid the
    coastline, which was probably little more than an
    extension of their normal piratical activities.
    The implication is that they were relatively

15
The Sea Peoples
  • poor people who, perhaps as a result of the
    gradual decline of central control by major
    powers, such as the Hittites, moved around in
    small bands to find further means of survival by
    plunder, encroaching on land and mercenary
    activities. Further, although these movements
    seem to have been on the increase and to have
    become, in some cases, more aggressive, they were
    not a new phenomenon, and the Egyptians seem to
    have had established means for absorbing at least
    some of the people involved into their service."

16
The Sea Peoples Origins (?)
  • "Clear evidence for the origins of the Sea
    Peoples is still missing. Disregarding some
    farfetched theories, the admissible views may be
    roughly classified according to three main
    geographical zones. (a) The N Balkans,
    particularly Illyria on the Adriatic coast the
    "Illyrian theory" is related with the
    identification of the Philistines (Palaisti may
    be the original form of the name) with the
    Pelasgoi (sometimes spelled Pelastoi) of the
    classical sources, a pre-Hellenic people who
    inhabited the Balkans and the Aegean regions.

17
The Sea Peoples Origins (?)
  • (b) The W Aegean region, i.e., Greece, the
    Aegean islands, and Crete this theory relies on
    archaeological (mainly ceramic) comparisons and
    on the biblical tradition, which brings the
    Philistines from the island of Caphtor, i.e.,
    Crete. (c) The E Aegean, i.e., Anatolia and the
    offshore islands. This view, which is gaining
    increasing acceptance, is supported by the most
    solid and diversified evidence."

18
Philistines Introduction
  • ""The Philistines (Heb pe6listm), whose
    country of origin is still unknown, must have
    come to Canaan through the Aegean basin,
    destroying the Mycenaean and Minoan
    civilizations. They came partly overland via
    Anatolia, destroying the Hittite empire, Ugarit,
    and Amurru, and partly by ship via Crete (Caphtor
    of the Bible, cf. Amos 97 and Jer 474 Keftiu
    of the Egyptians) and Cyprus ("ships come from
    the quarter of Kittim," i.e. Cyprus Num 2424
    probably alludes to the first waves of the Sea
    Peoples). They were allied with other Sea
    Peoples, and their ultimate goal was to settle in
    Egypt. In about 1190, Rameses III clashed with
    them and defeated them. Rameses settled the
    conquered

19
Philistines Introduction
  • Philistines, mostly as Egyptian mercenaries, in
    the coastal towns, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ashdod
    (cf. Deut 223, where "Caphtorim" refers to the
    Philistines). The connection between Egypt and
    Caphtorim is reflected in Gen 1013-14. The term
    "the Negeb of the Cherethites" (1 Sam 3014) may
    reflect Philistine occupation of that part of the
    Negeb (for the identification of Cherethites as
    Philistines, cf. Ezek 2516)."

20
Philistines History
  • "The signs of destruction in Ashdod, Ashkelon,
    and Gaza suggest that sometimes after the reign
    of Rameses VI (ca. 1150 b.c.e.), the Philistines
    drove out their Egyptian overlords by force."
  • "The Philistine Pentapolis was formed, a
    confederation of Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ashdod,
    together with two towns in the Shephelah which
    had already been settled by Philistines Ekron
    and Gath. Each of these towns was a city-state,
    consisting of a "royal city" ruling a number of
    "country towns" (1 Sam 275, cf. 1 Sam 618). The
    rulers of these city-states were called
    se6ra4nm (singular, seren), a title whose
    etymology has not yet been satisfactorily
    explained it may be from the Hittite word for

21
Philistines History
  • "Judge." For the next 150 years, until about
    1000 b.c.e., the Philistine confederation was the
    most powerful entity in this corner of the world,
    occupying the land strip from Raphia in the S to
    Joppa, spreading gradually N (they founded Tell
    Qasile) and E through the Jezreel Valley to
    Beth-shan, and even establishing their hegemony
    over the Israelite tribes in the hill country
    (cf. 1 Sam 105 1323-1416, and also 2 Sam
    2313-17). The source of Philistine power was
    apparently in the jealously defended monopoly of
    iron wares and the art of forging iron (1 Sam
    1319-21)."

22
Philistines History
  • "Very early the Philistines accepted the local
    Canaanite deities, dedicating temples to Dagon in
    Gaza (Judg 1621-23), Ashdod (1 Sam 52-3), and
    Beth-shan (1 Chr 1010-12), and to Astarte (1 Sam
    3110)."
  • "The clashes between the Philistines and the
    Israelites are vividly reflected in the book of
    Judges. Despite the heroic exploits of Samson
    (Judges 13-16) and Shamgar son of Anath (Judg
    331), the pressure of the Philistines was
    relentless, as seen in the tales of the migration
    of part of the tribe of Dan, who traveled N in
    their search for a safe refuge."

23
Philistines History
  • "Further evidence of the advance of the
    Philistines can be found in the defeat of the
    Israelites at Ebenezer (the Philistines had
    already reached Aphek), resulting in the loss of
    the ark of the covenant and the destruction of
    the holy precinct Shiloh (1 Sam 4 cf. Jer 712,
    14)."
  • Samuel's victory over the Philistines (1 Sam
    75-14), even if it is historical, did not
    appreciably reduce the pressure of the
    Philistines. The people demanded a king to lead
    them in war. The king chosen was Saul, whose wars
    with the Philistines can be traced from the
    beginning of his reign (1 Sam 13) until its
    tragic end on Mount Gilboa (1 Samuel 31). The
    eventual victor, however, was David, whose
    triumphs over the

24
Philistines History
  • Philistines (1 Samuel 17 186-9, 25-27, 30
    198) had gained him such renown as to arouse the
    jealousy and hatred of Saul. David was forced to
    flee, and eventually to become a vassal to his
    former foes the Philistines (1 Samuel 27, 29)."
  • After the death of Saul, David was crowned king
    of Judah in Hebron (2 Sam 21-4), apparently with
    the consent of the Philistines. When David was
    chosen king over all Israel, however, and moved
    his capital to Jerusalem, the Philistines
    realized their danger and attacked. David's
    victories over the Philistines made Israel the
    leading power in the land of Canaan. We may
    assume that Gath became a vassal state to Israel.
    This change is suggested by David's

25
Philistines History
  • mercenaries from Gath, who were under the
    command of Ittai the Gittite (cf. 2 Sam
    1518-22), and by his bodyguard, the Cherethites
    and the Pelethites (2 Sam 818 1518 207, 23
    1 Kgs 138, 44 1 Chr 1817). The crushing defeat
    inflicted by David appears to have put an end to
    the Philistine Pentapolis henceforward each
    city-state acted independently in its own selfish
    interest. It seems likely that the Philistines
    made a defensive alliance with Pharaoh to protect
    them against David otherwise it is difficult to
    explain how Pharaoh was able to capture Gezer and
    give it as a dowry to his daughter, the wife of
    Solomon (1 Kgs 916). Forty years later
    apparently the same geopolitical situation

26
Philistines History
  • enabled Shishak to invade Judah and Israel (1
    Kgs 1425), because no Philistine city, except
    Gaza, his starting point, is mentioned in his
    list of conquered towns. After the death of
    Shishak, Egypt was no longer a power in Asia. In
    the constant struggles between the Philistines
    and Israel (cf. 1 Kgs 1527 1615) and the
    Philistines and Judah, in which the Philistines
    turned to the Edomites and the Arabs as allies
    (cf. Amos 16-8 2 Chr 2116-17), Judah sometimes
    prevailed (2 Chr 1711 266), and sometimes the
    Philistines (2 Chr 2116-17 2818, until a new
    factor appeared on the scene, Assyria."

27
Philistines History
  • "Philistia (Akk Pa-la-as8-tu) appears in Assyrian
    records for the first time in the inscriptions of
    Adad-nirari III (810-783 BCE ANET, 281b, 282a),
    but Assyrian domination of Philistia started only
    after the conquest of Syria by Tiglath-pileser
    III, when the Assyrian empire reached the
    Mediterranean, and the Assyrians began to try to
    dominate the maritime trade of the coastal towns
    of Phoenicia and Philistia. In 734 b.c.e., the
    first Assyrian campaign against Philistia began
    its main object was the conquest of Gaza (the
    sequence of events is very fully expressed in
    Zech 95-6). The king of Gaza, Hanno, fled to
    Egypt, but later returned and was reinstated as a
    vassal of Assyria."

28
Philistines History
  • ". . . when Sargon ascended the throne of
    Assyria, Hanno joined the Syro-Palestinian
    rebellion headed by the king of Hamath, which was
    also supported by Egypt. In 720, Sargon, having
    crushed the rebels near Qarqar, attacked
    Philistia. Hanno called on the Egyptian army for
    help. The Assyrians met the Egyptians near
    Raphiah, defeated them, captured Hanno and took
    him captive to Assyria. Gaza subsequently
    remained a loyal vassal until the end of the
    Assyrian empire."

29
Philistines Material Culture
30
Ashdod Map
31
Ashdod Material Culture
32
Ashkelon
33
(No Transcript)
34
Ashkelon Material Culture
35
Ashkelon Mycenaean IIIC1b Pottery
36
Ashkelon Mycenaean IIIC1b Pottery
37
Ashkelon Mycenaean IIIC1b Pottery
38
Ashkelon Mycenaean IIIC1b Pottery
39
Ashkelon Material Culture
40
Ashkelon Material Culture
41
Ekron Map
42
Ekron Inscription
43
Ekron Inscription
44
Ekron Temple
45
Ekron Mycenaean IIIC1b Pottery
46
Aramaeans
  • Deut 26.5 "A wandering Aramean was my ancestor
    he went down into Egypt and lived there as an
    alien, few in number, and there he became a great
    nation mighty and populous."
  • "Assyrian and biblical texts reveal the presence
    of people called Arameans living in most parts of
    Syria from the end of the 2d millennium BC."
  • ". . . the general designation Aramaeans masks
    the fact that they are not a unified group,
    except in terms of their language."

47
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • "From the fourteenth century onwards there are
    occasional references to a people called Ahlamu
    who, most scholars now agree, were associated
    with the later Aramaeans. They appear variously
    as agricultural labourers and marauders from as
    far afield as Bahrain to Syria. But the earliest
    indisputable evidence for the Aramaeans dates
    from the reign of Tiglath-pileser I (1114-1076).
    From his fourth regnal year onwards he undertook
    at least fourteen annual policing actions against
    a people called Ahlume-Armuya in the area of the
    middle and upper Euphrates

48
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • "I have crossed the Euphrates twenty-eight times,
    twice in one year, in pursuit of the ahlumu
    Aramaeans. I brought about their defeat from the
    city Tadmar of the land Amurru, Anat of the land
    Suhu, as far as Rapiqu of Karduniash (Babylonia).
    I brought their booty (and) possessions to my
    city Ashur."

49
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • "It is even possible that, perhaps towards the
    end of Tiglath-pileser Is reign, Aramaean
    raiders penetrated right into the heartland of
    Assyria . . . ."
  • ". . . subsequently, Ashur-bel-kala (1074-1057)
    was definitely in control of the main Assyrian
    cities, and fighting vigorously against Aramaeans
    in his turn. Admittedly, Ashur-bel-kalas account
    makes it quite plain that he was being pressed
    hard by the Aramaeans in Upper Mesopotamia-around
    the headwaters of the Khabur, along the upper
    Balikh, in the mountains and along the Euphrates
    -and, after his reign, the sources in Assyria are
    extremely scanty. When they become relatively
    plentiful again, at the end of the tenth century,
    the Assyrian evidence

50
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • shows Aramaean states established just to the
    west of the Assyrian heartland and stretching
    right across Upper Mesopotamia."
  • Ashur-dan II (934-912) " With the renewed
    expansion of Assyria from Ashur-dan II onwards,
    the Assyrian kings reasserted their claims to
    Upper Mesopotamia, and the Aramaean states were
    gradually incorporated into the revitalised
    Assyrian empire, and some inhabitants were
    deported to the Assyrian cities. Right from the
    start of its renaissance, then, the new Assyrian
    state included Aramaeans within its territorial
    span."

51
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • "In summary, the Assyrian evidence presents a
    picture of Aramaeans pressing into Assyrian-held
    territory in the eleventh century. Their success
    in seizing and holding stretches of land is
    reflected in the emergence of a number of
    Aramaean states in Upper Mesopotamia by the tenth
    century. As the Assyrian mobilized to reconquer
    the area from the end of the tenth century on,
    they gradually absorbed these territories,
    turning them into Assyrian provinces but, at
    least in come cases, using members of the local
    Aramaean population to enforce Assyrian control.
    Such individuals owed their position to the
    Assyrian king, and came to form an integral part
    of the Assyrian imperial machinery at

52
Aramaeans Assyrian Sources
  • the highest levels. An indication of the fact
    that this interweaving of Aramaeans and Assyrians
    happened not only exceptionally at the very
    highest echelons is the early appearance (eighth
    century) of 'Aramaisms' in Assyrian, and the use
    of Aramaic written on parchment in certain
    contexts and for particular purposes. The
    conclusion must, therefore, be that despite the
    aggressive military tone against Aramaeans taken
    by the royal annals they came to constitute a
    significant proportion of the Assyrian population
    at all levels of the socio-political structure."

53
Aramaeans Biblical Evidence
  • "Zobah was the earliest prominent Aramaean state,
    according to the account of David's Syrian wars
    contained in 2 Samuel 8, and its formation has
    been most interestingly analysed, by analogy with
    David's creation of the strong state of Israel in
    the tenth century, by Malamat (1963). What
    Malamat has stressed in his comparison are the
    similarities in the development of the two
    regions both David and Hadadezer (king of Zobah)
    constructed their initial power-base around a
    small kernel Judah in the case of David, Beth
    Rehob in the case of Hadadezer both added a
    larger, more important adjoining region to this
    small core to create a new, unified state
    Israel was added to Judah, Zobah to Beth Rehob

54
Aramaeans Biblical Evidence
  • in both cases, the ruler of the new political
    formation bore the title of the larger group
    David was called the 'king of Israel' (not 'of
    Judah'), Hadadezer 'king of Zobah' (not 'of
    Rehob'). Finally, Hadadezer of Zobah may have
    annexed the important and rich oasis of Damascus
    and added some smaller states that owed him
    allegiance, but were left under their own rulers.
    Eventually, Damascus established its independence
    from both Solomon's Israel and the kingdom of
    Zobah, under its king Rezin."

55
Phoenicians Introduction
  • Ezekiel 27
  • "Phoenicia was the Greek name for the Syrian
    littoral north of Palestine. The name meant "dark
    red" and was applied first to the people and
    region renowned for dyes of this color, and then
    to some of the natural products that became
    associated with them in international trade.
    Phoenicia was neither a country nor a nation but
    a conglomerate of city-states that was
    distinguished from adjacent areas by its habitual
    outreach into the Mediterranean world and by its
    preferred dealings with Indo-Europeans and
    Greeks. Its history consists in the contribution
    of these individual cities and their dominions to
    the civilization and gradual maturation of the
    Mediterranean world."

56
Phoenicians Introduction
  • "The notion that 'Phoenicia' means 'Canaanites'
    underlines the fact that the Phoenician
    city-states of Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Beirut, Arvad
    and Sarepta represent a direct development of the
    Late Bronze Age Canaanite coastal cities. That
    the idea is basically correct is shown by the
    fact that the Phoenicians called themselves
    Canaanites the designation 'Phoenician' is
    Graeco-Roman. The Phoenician cities were those
    that appear to have been relatively slightly
    affected or disrupted by either the Aramaean
    penetration or the Israelite expansion, and so
    they were able to maintain what appear to be
    essentially the earlier Canaanite traditions. A
    plausible explanation for this continuity is their

57
Phoenicians Introduction
  • geographical position they lay right on the
    coast, sometimes with offshore island
    settlements, and were backed by a very narrow
    plain protected by a steep mountain range crossed
    by few passes."
  • "One of the reasons for a fairly widespread
    knowledge of the Phoenicians is their extensive
    commercial activities, especially in the western
    Mediterranean, where they founded a number of
    colonies some of which developed into substantial
    cities. The foundations date to the early first
    millennium, although the precise chronology is
    disputed."

58
Phoenicians Sources
  • "There are references to Phoenicians in the Iliad
    and Odyssey, where they appear as highly skilled
    craftsmen, especially in metalwork, and weavers
    of elaborate garments. They may also appear as
    kidnappers and producers of cheap trinkets. The
    curiously mixed image reflects admiration and
    fear, the sort of antagonism that is now often
    felt towards gypsies and tinkers, and the kind of
    aristocratic contempt for 'trade' which is a
    hallmark of these heroic poems. Herodotus
    provides some information on their colonization,
    especially in Greece, to which he attributes the
    origin of the Greek alphabet, and their discovery
    of the goldmines on Thasos. Thucydides mentions
    that they formed the earliest

59
Phoenicians Sources
  • foreign settlers in Sicily, predating the Greek
    presence there. Such depictions remain at the
    level of stereotypes and generalities, and
    provide no very coherent picture, especially not
    of the Phoenician homeland. In the first century
    AD, Josephus included in his history of the
    Jewish people some material supposedly drawn from
    a lost history of Tyre basically it is little
    more than a list of kings. A little later, in the
    early second century A.D. Philo of Byblos wrote
    an account of Phoenician religion, which he
    claimed was a translation into Greek of a work of
    Sanchuniathon, a priest of Byblos. Philo's work
    is only preserved in fragments, and there has
    been considerable doubt as to whether

60
Phoenicians Sources
  • Sanchuniathon's work was ever anything more than
    a figment of Philo's imagination. But a more
    positive tendency has been to accept the reality
    of the Phoenician original underlying Philo's
    account, because some of it seems to correspond
    to the material now known from Ugarit, which has
    provided important insights into Canaanite
    mythology and religion. But even it we accept the
    more positive approach, Philo seems to have
    'hellenised' Sanchuniathon substantially, so the
    question of how we might use his material for
    reconstructing the Phoenician reality of the
    early first millennium remains vexed."

61
Phoenicians
  • "It is evident, from the extensive material from
    Ugarit, in particular, and, to a lesser degree,
    Byblos, that the Canaanite city-states played a
    central role in the trading and production system
    of the Near East, and that their commercial
    activities were stimulated by, and supported, the
    large centralized states such as Egypt, the
    Hittite realm, and Babylonia. Because of the
    demands made on them by these large and complex
    states, the coastal cities appear to have
    concentrated their energy and resources on the
    production of luxury commodities such as ivory
    inlaid furniture for royal consumption an
    industry that certainly continued in the
    Neo-Assyrian period. At the same time the
    manufacture of textiles was

62
Phoenicians
  • developed on a large scale to meet demands for
    tribute payments, as exemplified in the
    agreements between Ugarit and the Hittite kings.
    Textiles could also be used in exchange for raw
    materials, that either were used to produce
    luxury commodities (such as elaborate furniture
    and metalwork) or could be re-exported. An
    accompanying and necessary development was the
    perfection of ships capable of carrying bulky
    items, and the refinement of navigational skills
    a specialization that could, and was, exploited
    by some of the larger states. . . ."

63
Phoenicians
  • "An obvious concomitant of this development was
    that the cities and their politically powerful
    neighbours were mutually dependent, as the larger
    states provided the consumer markets on which the
    economy of the coastal cities had come to
    depend."

64
Neo-Hittite States
  • "'Neo-Hittite' (alternatively 'Late Hittite' or
    'Syro-Hittite') is the term applied, after 1200,
    to a number of small principalities in north
    Syria, Cilicia and south-central Anatolia. . . .
    having formed part of the earlier Hittite empire,
    they retained a number of definable Hittite
    features."
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