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DRUG USE A HIGH RISK BEHAVIOR

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Amphetamines - people use them illegally to stay awake and alert, to improve ... as liquid, capsules, powder, blotter paper, thin gelatin squares, mushrooms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DRUG USE A HIGH RISK BEHAVIOR


1
DRUG USE A HIGH RISK BEHAVIOR!!
  • Substance abuse is a high risk behavior that
    includes misusing legal drugs or using illegal
    drugs or other chemicals
  • People abuse drugs for a number of reasons, none
    of them healthful!
  • 1. Teenagers
  • the highest percentage of use is with
  • people between the ages of 18-25

2
  • Why do teenagers abuse drugs???
  • A way to be accepted with peers
  • Influenced by the media
  • Curious
  • A way of rebelling
  • Escape pressures
  • 2. Adults -
  • 3. Elderly -
  • 4. Athletes -

3
Drug Use A High Risk Behavior!!
  • Substance abuse can harm a persons physical,
    mental, emotional and social health and even lead
    to death
  • Substance abuse has far-reaching consequences for
    the abuser, for others in the abusers life, and
    for society at large.

4
What is the difference between drug use and abuse?
  • Misuse
  • Using the drug incorrectly due to ignorance
  • Taking the drug with the wrong food
  • Stopping the drug too soon
  • Abuse
  • 1. intentionally misusing the drug


5
Dangers of substance abuse
  • Some drugs have side effects
  • can range from minor to deadly.
  • Illegal drugs can be especially dangerous
    because there are no controls or means of
    monitoring these substances for quality, purity,
    or strength.

6
Dangers of drug abuse
  • Overdose
  • is a strong or fatal reaction to taking a
    large amount of drug. Often, overdoses occur
    when alcohol and other drugs are combined.
  • When drug abuse involves injecting substances
    through a needle, hepatitis B or HIV can occur
  • People who experiment with drugs tend to lose
    controlcan lead to STDs or pregnancies

7
Dangers of Substance Abuse
  • Tolerance the body needs more and more of the
    drug to get the same effect
  • Physiological dependence the body develops a
    chemical need for a drug. The body will
    experience severe effects when the drug is taken
    away
  • Withdrawal - occurs when a person stops using
    the drug on which he can become dependent on.

8
Dangers of Substance abuse
  • Psychological Dependence a person believes a
    drug is needed in order to feel good or to
    function normally
  • Addiction - physiological and psychological
    dependence to the drug
  • Antagonistic interaction happens when two drugs
    taken together cancel each other out. Exa. Blood
    pressure medicine and nicotine

9
Dangers of substance abuse
  • Risk to unborn and newborns
  • 1. breast milk can pass from mother to
    infant.
  • 2. Can cause miscarriage or premature birth
  • 3. Can cause birth defect, mental retardation

10
ADDICTION
  • Addiction is a process - a series of gradual
    changes that happen over time
  • This process happens more quickly to some than
    others. The younger you are, the quicker the
    addiction.
  • Some people can be hooked on a drug the very
    first time they take it.
  • Once an addiction occurs, the person will need
    help if he/she is to have any hope of returning
    to normal.

11
Addiction Signs
  • Cont. concern about where the next fix will
    come from
  • Choosing friends that can supply the addictive
    substance
  • Changes in appearance or personal health
  • Irritability, nervousness, personality changes,
    mood swings
  • Violent behavior
  • Black-outs
  • Needing larger amounts of a substance to feel
    normal

12
Types of Psychoactive drugs
  • There are four main groups -
  • Stimulants
  • Depressants
  • Narcotics
  • Hallucinogens
  • The first three groups, when used properly, have
    medicinal value. Hallucinogens have no
    medicinal value.

13
1. STIMULANTS
  • Drugs which cause the body systems to speed up
  • Effects increased heart rate and breathing,
    increased blood pressure, dilated pupils,
    decreased appetite, dry mouth, dizziness,
    sweating, headache, blurred vision,
    sleeplessness, anxiety, moodiness
  • Very high doses irregular heartbeat, tremors,
    high fever, heart failure
  • How it enters the body swallowed, snorted,
    injected

14
STIMULANTS
  • Amphetamines - people use them illegally to
    stay awake and alert, to improve athletic
    performance, to lose weight, etc.
  • Methamphetamine fumes alone can be deadly
  • Cocaine powerful stimulant regular use can
    lead to depression, edginess, weight loss, and
    physiological dependence
  • Cont. use can destroy the nasal septum. Can
    cause heart attacks due to disturbing electrical
    impulses of the heart. Can occur on the first
    use!
  • The drug, not the user, control the shots
  • Crack - a form of cocaine

15
Stimulants slang names
  • Speed
  • Uppers
  • Crank
  • Pep pills
  • Medical use Treats hyperactive children
  • Treats narcolepsy
  • Used for weight control
  • Bumble bees
  • Hearts
  • Footballs
  • Christmas trees
  • Black beauties

16
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17
Meth Mouth
  • Experts believe that meth ravages teeth by drying
    up saliva and leaving users with dry mouths.
  • Without saliva, bacteria in the mouth multiply,
    leading to decay.
  • Dentists report that healthy teeth can become
    rotten from even a few months of meth use.

18
Long- Term Effects of Meth Use
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized lifestyle
  • Violent and aggressive behavior
  • Permanent psychological problems
  • Behavior resembling paranoid schizophrenia
  • Poor coping abilities
  • Disturbance of personality development
  • Lowered resistance to illnesses
  • Possible brain damage

19
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20
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21
2. DEPRESSANTS
  • Depresses or slows down the central nervous
    system. alcohol can prove fatal. Users feel no
    pain or fear.
  • Effects similar to the effects of alcohol
  • small doses calmness, relaxed muscles
  • larger doses slurred speech, impaired
    judgment, impaired coordination
  • very large doses respiratory depression,
    coma, death
  • How it enters the body swallowed

22
2. Depressants
  • Medical use to stop convulsions, relief of
    tension and anxiety, to induce sleep
  • Slang names yellow jackets, reds, red devils,
    blues, ludes, barbs, downers, yellows
  • Drugs barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol,
    methaqualone

23
3. Narcotics
  • Powders ranging from white to dark brown
    tablets, capsules, liquid. Comes from the poppy
    plant or it is synthetic
  • Effects stimulates a burst of euphoria, often
    followed by drowsiness, nausea and vomiting.
    Ravages the body and is extremely addictive.
    When paired with alcohol, heroin is easy to
    overdose on.

24
3. Narcotics
  • Short term problems breathing problems, nausea,
    vomiting, constipation
  • Long term problems users must take the drug to
    feel normal. A break of only one day can bring
    on severe withdrawal symptoms aches, chills,
    sweating, muscle spasms and weakness. After a
    break, the usual dose may be an overdose
  • Heroine is highly addictive.

25
3. Narcotics
  • Medical use pain relief, cough suppressant
    (codeine), pain relief, stops diarrhea, relief
    from tooth pain
  • Morphine used to reduce severe pain. Exa.
    Relief from cancer
  • Slang names smack, horse, brown sugar, junk,
    mud, big H, Miss Emma, schoolboy, dollies, blue
    velvet
  • How it enters the body injected, smoked or
    inhaled

26
3. Narcotics
  • Heroine has no accepted medical use in the US.
  • Depresses the nervous system an slows breathing
    and pulse rate
  • Coma or death may occur with large doses
  • Tolerance develops quickly

27
HALLUCINOGENS(Psychedelics)
  • Drugs that distort the senses and cause
    hallucinations
  • Could appear as liquid, capsules, powder, blotter
    paper, thin gelatin squares, mushrooms
  • Effects time distorted, senses distorted, may
    produce bizarre, unpredictable behavior, person
    may sit for hours in a quiet dreamlike state
  • how it enters the body swallowed, injected,
    smoked, licked off paper, chewed

28
4. Hallucinogens
  • Short term effects a bad trip intense
    panic, confusion, deep depression, terrors, scary
    delusions. Can cause fatal accidents
  • Long term effects Out-of-the-blue flashbacks
    hallucinations without taking the drug again for
    up to a few days to a year after an acid trip.
    Severe depression
  • All are illegal

29
4. Hallucinogens
  • PCP(angel dust) considered to be one of the most
    dangerous of all drugs. Time seems to pass
    slowly, body movements slow down, coordination
    impaired, dulls the sensations of touch and pain.
  • Mescaline is the psychoactive ingredient of the
    peyote cactus.

30
4.Hallucinogens
  • LSD (acid) effects are widely unpredictable.
    Some users believe that they can fly
  • LSD acid is odorless, colorless. Often added
    to absorbent paper, such as blotter paper, and
    divided into small decorated squares.
  • The effects of LSD are unpredictable. Great mood
    swings, delusions and visual hallucinations. The
    user may hear colors and see sounds.
  • Trips are long about 12 hours. Some users
    experience severe, terrifying thoughts and
    feelings, fear of losing control, fear of
    insanity and death and despair.
  • Flashbacks occurs suddenly, often without
    warning, and may occur within a few days or more
    than a year after LSD use

31
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
  • Powerful compounds that are similar to the male
    sex hormone, testosterone. These drugs are taken
    to increase muscle mass and strength
  • Effects may initially increase muscle mass,
    body strength, and weight, purple or red spots
    on the body, swelling of feet and legs,
    unpleasant breath odor, depression, increased
    risk of heart attack, stroke liver cancer, acne
  • Males - sterility, withered testicles, impotence
  • Females irreversible masculine traits, breast
    reduction, sterility
  • How it enters the body swallowed, intramuscular
    injection

32
Steroids
33
INHALANTS
  • Dangerous fumes are concentrated in a bag, on a
    cloth, etc. and inhaled
  • Effects nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds,
    fatigue, lack of coordination, loss of appetite,
  • solvents decrease in heart rate and
    breathing, impaired judgment
  • nitrites rapid pulse, headaches, loss of
    bowel and bladder control, long term use can
    cause hepatitis, brain damage, nervous system
    damage, suffocation, and death
  • How it enters the body Vapors are inhaled
    through the nose or mouth
  • A person can go into a coma from a single use and
    be in a vegetable state the rest of his/her life
  • Gate way drug

34
MARIJUANA
  • The dried leaves, stems, and seeds of the
    cannabis sativa plant Hashish is the dark brown
    resin that is collected from the top of this
    plant.
  • Effects increased heart rate, bloodshot eyes,
    dry mouth and throat, increased appetite,
    short-term memory loss, altered sense of time,
    damage to lungs and circulatory system
  • How it enters the body Smoked in joints, pipes,
    eaten
  • Main active chemical I marijuana is THC.
    Marijuanas effects on the user depend on the
    strength of t he THC
  • Cannabis is a hallucinogen and has the effects of
    both a depressant and a stimulant
  • Alters your senses, coordination, reaction time,
    and can interrupt your ability to make rational
    and healthful decisions.

35
Marijuana
  • Short term effects problems with memory and
    learning, distorted perception, difficulty in
    thinking and problem solving, loss of
    coordination, increased heart rate, anxiety, and
    panic attacks.
  • Effects on the lungs same respiratory problems
    that tobacco users have. (cancer, etc,)
  • If you use marijuana for a long time, you could
    start losing interest in how you look and how
    youre doing in sports, school or any activity
    that you are involved in

36
CLUB DRUGS
  • Are used by young adults at all-night dance
    parties such as raves or trances, dance
    clubs, and bars.
  • Some club drugs are colorless, tasteless, and
    odorless. They can be added to beverages by
    individuals to intoxicate or sedate others.
  • There has been an increase in reports of club
    drugs used to commit sexual assaults

37
Club Drugs
  • Ecstasy (MDMA) adam, or HTC - mind
    altering drug with hallucinogenic properties
  • Health hazards psychological difficulties,
    confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug
    craving, severe depression.
  • Physical problems muscle tension, nausea,
    blurred vision, chills, sweating
  • Long term problems damage to the parts of the
    brain critical to thought and memory

38
CLUB DRUGS
  • GHB is odorless and nearly tasteless. Induces
    a state of relaxation
  • Can be slipped into someones drink without
    detection. Has been reportedly used in cases of
    date rape.
  • Physical problems nausea, vomiting, respiratory
    problems, seizures, coma

39
CLUB DRUGS
  • Rohypnol people may unknowingly be given the
    drug which, when mixed with alcohol, can
    incapacitate and prevent a victim from resisting
    sexual assault.
  • Physical symptoms sedative-hypnotic effects
    including muscle relaxation and amnesia.

40
Club Drugs
  • Ketamine special k is a powerful hallucinogen
    that includes visual distortions and a lost sense
    of time, sense and identity.
  • Profound physical and mental problems including
    delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function and
    potentially fatal problems
  • Special K is a powder that is usually snorted but
    is sometimes sprinkled on tobacco or marijuana
    and smoked.

41
Addiction what friends or family members can do
  • Many families, after recognizing that the problem
    exists, will have an intervention.
  • Intervention - the interruption of the
    addiction continuum before the addict hits
    bottom.
  • Meetings take place without the addicted persons
    knowledge.
  • Second step in this process is a surprise meeting
    with the addict that forces the addict to face
    the seriousness of the problem.
  • If addict refuses to recognize the problem, the
    addict will be given an ultimatum - Wife will
    move out, etc.

42
Recovery
  • A process that happens over time -. A recovered
    person never says I am cured, but I am
    recovering.
  • The first step in the recovery process is
    detoxification the removal of the drug from the
    body, usually under medical supervision
  • This step also includes restoring ones mental
    health
  • Most experts recommend total abstinence
  • Relapse slips from recovery, or periodic
    returns to use can happen

43
Treatment options
  • Support group such as AA, narcotics Anonymous,
    cocaine anonymous
  • Detoxification Units a person is under a drs.
    care and may be given some medication to ease the
    symptoms of withdrawal
  • Inpatient treatment centers involves detox and
    counseling, both individual and group

44
Treatment options
  • Outpatient treatment centers
  • involves follow up sessions, counseling
  • Continuing programs
  • Halfway houses-
  • people are admitted to this program generally
    after they have completed at least a 28 day
    recovery program where they stay for 6 months to
    a year where they learn coping and living skills
    they will need when they return to society.

45
Choosing to be Drug Free!
  • Learn to say no!
  • Give a reason (lie or truth)
  • Provide alternatives
  • Use eye contact to say no
  • Take a definite action
  • Realize that no drug will solve your problem
  • Talk to trusted friend/counselor, etc.
  • Learn to handle the stress in you life and get
    help when you need it.
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