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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition

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[Insert tissue repair.swf] ... 6 The Integumentary System Introduction Skin Large waterproof covering UV light and chemical protection Accessory structures Hair, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition


1
(No Transcript)
2
Chapter 6
  • The Integumentary System

3
Introduction
  • Skin
  • Large waterproof covering
  • UV light and chemical protection
  • Accessory structures
  • Hair, nails, glands

4
The Layers of the Skin
5
Introduction
  • Epidermis upper layer
  • Epithelial tissue divided into sublayers
  • Dermis lower layer
  • Dense connective tissue
  • Connects skin to fat and muscle
  • Below dermis is subcutaneous layer called
    hypodermis

6
Introduction (contd.)
7
The Epidermis
  • Stratified, squamous, keratinized, epithelium
  • Keratinization
  • Cells move to surface, lose water and nuclei
    change
  • Composed of five layers

8
The Epidermis (contd.)
  • Stratum corneum
  • Outermost layer
  • Dead, keratinized cells
  • Barrier to light, heat, chemicals, microorganisms

9
The Epidermis (contd.)
  • Stratum lucidum
  • One to two cell layers thick
  • Flat and transparent
  • Difficult to see

10
The Epidermis (contd.)
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Two or three layers
  • Flattened cells
  • Active keratinization
  • Lose nuclei
  • Compact and brittle

11
The Epidermis (contd.)
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Several layers of spiny-shaped cells
  • Desmosomes prevalent
  • Desmosomes interlocking cellular bridges

12
The Epidermis (contd.)
  • Stratum germinativum
  • Rests on basement membrane
  • Lowermost layer called stratum basale
  • New cells produced here (mitosis)
  • Melanocytes produce melanin
  • Skin color
  • Albinism

13
The Dermis
  • Also called corium
  • Structures found in dermis
  • Blood and lymph vessels
  • Nerves
  • Muscles
  • Glands
  • Hair follicles

14
The Dermis (contd.)
  • Divisions
  • Papillary
  • Adjacent to the epidermis
  • Reticular
  • Between papillary and subcutaneous
  • Subcutaneous (hypodermis)
  • Layers of fat below the dermis

15
The Accessory Structures of the Skin
16
Hair
  • Covers most of the surface of the body
  • Three parts cuticle, cortex, medulla
  • Shaft visible portion
  • Root hair follicle
  • Arrector pili smooth muscle

17
Hair (contd.)
  • Growth
  • Hair follicle
  • Cycles of growth and rest
  • Texture straight, curly, or tightly curly
  • Color based on complex genetic factors

18
Nails
  • Modified epidermal cells
  • Lunula white crescent
  • Body visible portion
  • Root covered by skin
  • Growth occurs from the nailbed

19
Nails (contd.)
20
Sebaceous Glands
  • Produce sebum (oil)
  • Lubricates skin and hair
  • Secretion controlled by endocrine system
  • Increases at puberty
  • Decreases in later life

21
Sweat Glands
  • Most numerous in palms and soles
  • Not found on margins of the lips or head of the
    penis
  • Each gland has secretory portion and excretory
    duct
  • Sweating helps cool the body

22
Functions of the Integumentary System
23
Sensation
  • Temperature receptors
  • Hot and cold
  • Pressure receptors
  • Excessive pressure as pain
  • Mild pressure as pleasurable
  • Combinations produce burning, itching, tickling

24
Protection
  • Prevents passage of harmful physical and chemical
    agents
  • Melanin protects from UV rays
  • Lipid content inhibits water loss
  • Acid mantle kills most bacteria
  • Nails protect ends of our digits
  • Hair acts as insulation and filter

25
Thermoregulation
  • Normal body temperature 98.6 degrees F
  • When external temperatures increase
  • Blood vessels dilate
  • Sweat occurs
  • When external temperatures decrease
  • Blood vessels first dilate then constrict

26
Secretion
  • Sebum
  • Cosmetic gloss
  • Moisturizer
  • Antifungal/antibacterial properties
  • Sweat
  • Essential in cooling process
  • Vitamin D

27
Animation The Skin
  • Watch the Skin animation and see the structures
    of the skin up close.
  • Insert The Skin.swf

28
Animation Tissue Repair
  • Watch the Tissue Repair animation to understand
    how the skin heals and a scar is formed after a
    deep laceration.
  • Insert tissue repair.swf

29
Summary
  • Discussed the layers of the epidermis and the
    process of keratinization
  • Described the structure of the dermis
  • Discussed the accessory structures of the skin
    including the hair and nails
  • Discussed the different functions of the
    integumentary system
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