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Transducers

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Transducers Jacob Dison What is a transducer? Defined as a device that converts one form of energy to another. Examples: Motors, Speakers, Microphones, Antennas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Transducers


1
Transducers
  • Jacob Dison

2
What is a transducer?
  • Defined as a device that converts one form of
    energy to another.
  • Examples Motors, Speakers, Microphones,
    Antennas, Light Bulbs, Potentiometer, Gauges
  • Essentially Sensors and Actuators

3
Finite-State Transducers
  • Two tapes, one for input and one for output.
  • Converts a input into an output.
  • Mealy and Moore machines.

4
Moore Machine
  • Invented by Edward F. Moore (1925 -2003)
  • Wrote Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines
    (1956)
  • Associates an output with each state of the
    machine.

5
Moore Machine Formal Definition
  • (K, S, O, d, D, s, A,)
  • K States
  • S Input
  • O Output
  • s Initial State
  • A Final State
  • d Transition Function
  • D Output Function

6
Moore Notation
7
Stoplight Example
8
Mealy Machine
  • Invented by George H. Mealy in 1955
  • Associates outputs with transitions.

9
Mealy Machine Formal Definition
  • (K, S, O, s, A, d)
  • K States
  • S Input
  • O Output
  • s Initial State
  • A Final State
  • d Transition Function

10
Mealy Notation
11
Barcodes!
12
Parity Bit Generator
13
Bidirectional Transducers
  • Works in both directions
  • Example Soundex System
  • Input Kaylor
  • Output K460
  • Kahler, Kaler, Kaylor, Keeler, Kellar, Kelleher,
    Keller, Kelliher, Kilroe, Kilroy, Koehler,
    Kohler, Koller, and Kyler.

14
Weighted Transducers
  • In addition to inputs and outputs, associates a
    weight, which can be a number of things including
    time, probability, distance etc.

15
Directions
16
Hidden Markov Models
  • Nondeterministic Finite State Transducer
  • Machine is hidden, only outputs can be observed.

17
HMM
18
Questions?
19
References
  • Elaine Rich. Automata, Computability and
    Complexity Theory and Applications. Prentice
    Hall. 2008. 96-98.
  • Emmanuel Roche, Yves Schabes. Deterministic
    part-of-speech tagging with finite-state
    transducers. Computational Linguistics,
    21(2)227-253, June 1995.
  • Cyril Allauzen, Mehryar Mohri. p-Subsequentiable
    Transducers. ATT Labs Research
  • Mohri, Mehryar Weighted Finite-State Transducer
    Algorithms An Overview ATT Labs Research

20
References
  • Pradel, Michael. Finite-State Transducers.
    Seminar on Natural Language Processing. July 6,
    2007.
  • Hsu, Chun-Nan., Chang, Chien-Chi. Finite-State
    Transducers for Semi-Structured Text Mining.
    Institute of Information Science
  • Wagner, F. StateWORKS Moore or Mealy model?.
    StateWORKS.com. April, 2005.
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