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The history of the United Kingdom Prehistory to Germanic invasions


... supremacy over the monarchy, the Stuart royal family did not consult the House ... The British Empire also included India, large parts of Africa, the Carribean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The history of the United Kingdom Prehistory to Germanic invasions

The history of the United Kingdom Prehistory to
Germanic invasions
  • The first known inhabitants of the British Isles
    were the Picts
  • The Celts who were coming from Europe from the
    8th century BC intermingled with the original
    inhabitants and formed an Iron Celtic culture
  • Silbury Hill and Stonehenge in south- western
    England are most notable monuments from that
  • The Roman period lasted between 43 and 410 AD and
    they ruled the whole of Britain except northern
    Scotland and they left trace in the English
    language (especially place names such as Chester,
    Lancaster, coming from Latin castra-military
  • Latin was spoken mainly in towns, whereas Celtic
    speech was dominant n the country
  • In the 5th century Angles and Saxons from north
    western Europe invaded and occupied England and
    southern Scotland
  • These Germanic tribes introduced new farming
    methods and established numerous villages
  • Christianity came in the 5th century in Ireland
    and Scotland and at the end of the 6th century in

The medieval period
  • The Danes(Vikings) from Scandinavia invaded
    Britain in the eighth century and settled in the
    north and east
  • The Vikings left a trace in the standard language
    as we know it today, especially in the area of
    legal terminology
  • The English were invaded by the Normans (who came
    from northern France) , led by Duke William Of
    Normandy in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and
    were defeated in that battle
  • A feudal system was imposed , the nobles were
    Norman and the peasants were English-speaking
  • The Normans occupied the whole of England,eastern
    Ireland and the whole of Wales
  • The Welsh managed to preserve their Celtic
  • Three languages were spoken parallellyLatin by
    priests, Norman French by aristocrates and Saxon
    by commoners(Saxon developed into Middle English)
  • The Parliament was established in the 13th century

The sixteenth century
  • This period was marked by Bubonic Plague and the
    Wars of the Roses (wars between the houses of
    York and Lancaster for the English throne)
  • The Parliament was divided into two ?Houses?(The
    House of Lords and the House of Commons)
  • King Henry VIII split from the Roman Catholic
    church when he divorced his first wife Catherine
    of aragon in order to marry Anne Boleyn who, he
    hoped, would give him a son
  • Henry VIII established a new church, Anglican
    church or ?Church of England?
  • In Scotland Calvinism, which insisted on
    simplicity and dislike of celebration, became the
    dominant religion
  • Henrys daughter Elizabeth I strengthened
    Protestantism and her reign marked the golden
    period in English history with dominance of
    England in politics , war operations, colonial
    expansion and culture

The seventeenth century
  • James VI of Scotland became James I of England,
    English and Scottish thrones were united
  • Parliament had established its supremacy over
    the monarchy, the Stuart royal family did not
    consult the House of Commons when it concerned
    finances, which enraged Puritans who regarded
    many practices of the Church of England immoral
    as well as the Kings lifestyle
  • This led to the Civil War and the establishment
    of republic with Oliver Cromwell as the ?Lord
    Protector?,Charles I executed
  • After Cromwells death The Anglican church and
    the monarchy were restored
  • James II gave full rights to Catholics, but was
    overthrown by Prince William of Orange(the ruler
    of the Netherlands) and his Stewart wife Mary who
    were invited to rule by the Parliament

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  • The Scottish Parliament joined the English and
    the Welsh Parliaments in 1707
  • Britain expanded its empire in the Americas, the
    increased trade led to the Industrial Revolution,
    there were many technical innovations in the
    areas of manufacturing and transport
  • Areas of common land, which had been available
    for use by everybody in a village for the grazing
    of animals were incorporated into bigger and more
    efficient farms, which led to the migration of
    hundreds of people from the village to towns
  • London had a population around one million at the
    end of the seventeenth century
  • Britain lost its American colonies in 1777, in
    Ireland many people died of hunger because of
    failed potato crop
  • Another parts of the Empire were Canada,
    Australia and New Zealand with their internal
    self-government,they recognized the authority of
    the British government
  • The British Empire also included India, large
    parts of Africa, the Carribean
  • Britain became the worlds foremost economic
    power, the British came to see themselves as
    having a duty to spread culture and civilization
    around the world

The twentieth century
  • In the nineteenth century many people lived in
    very unpleasant conditions, writers and
    intellectuals of this period protested against it
  • In 1922 The Irish Free state is born
  • Britain was no longer the world s richest
  • The Suffragettes achieved the right to vote
  • The urban working force was united into trade
    unions the main political parties became the
    Conservative Party and the Labour Party
  • In 1971 decimal currency is introduced
  • In 1978 Britain joins the European Economic
  • In 1994 Channel tunnel opens

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The History of the USA
  • Early encounters with Native Americans
  • The original inhabitants of North America were
    Indian tribes, most numerous were Cherokee,
    Apache, Sioux, Comanche
  • The Native Indians believed that there is soul in
    every living thing like trees, animals they also
    thought that land belonged to everybody and there
    was no private property
  • first European explorers and settlers encountered
    Native Americans in the late 1400s and 1500s
  • Native Americans contracted many diseases from
    Europeans and their population shrank from 10
    million to 2-3 million
  • The exchange of plants and animals included
    horses, donkeys,sheep, pigs and cows which were
    alien to Native Indians and potatoes,
    maize,pumpkins and tobaco , which were
    discoveries to Europeans
  • Native Americans were Pantheists, they believed
    that the divine was in all things and that humans
    were no more important that any other part of the

The founders
  • First immigrants in North America are considered
    founders rather than immigrants because they
    created customs, laws and institutions to which
    later arrivals had to adjust
  • No direct rule over the colonies by the British
    crown was established, joint stock companies were
    responsible for colonization, the settlers were
    sent to America to make profit
  • The English established their first permanent
    settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, their main
    goal was to find gold and a passage to Asian
  • They eventually became tobacco plantation owners
    and exported tobacco, they all demanded to own
    land, the workers on plantations were black
    people brought from Africa, who became slaves of
    those white plantation owners
  • Other colonies included Maryland, settled by
    Catholics , they concentrated on rice and indigo
  • Massachussets was settled by Pilgrims,a small
    group of separatists from the Church of England
    The Puritans settled in Bay Colony, Mass.and
    later extended toMaine and Connecticut

The first wave of immigration(1680-1776)
  • The Middle Colonies were founded by the Dutch
    with towns of New Jersey and New Amsterdam as fur
    trade posts
  • The Germans moved to Pennsylvania and believed
    theh had to maintain using their language and
    preserve their culture, they did not try to adapt
    to new life, they were hard-working people who
    used advanced farming methods
  • A large group of Scotch Irish ethnic groups fled
    economic, political and religious discrimination
    by the English, a stereotype of them being
    frontier folk developed
  • A small French enclave persisted in South
    Carolina, Florida had been settled by the Spanish
  • By 1776 the English were a bare majority (52 ),
    the black population was a majority in some parts
    of Southern colonies, although the cultural,
    political and economic dominance of Anglo-
    Americans was clear
  • In 1777 the colonies achieved their independence
    after American War for Independence from the
    British crown, the war started because of taxes
    with the event known in history as the Boston Tea

The second wave of immigration(1820-1890)
  • A range of factors pushed Europeans from their
    homelands(eg. religious persecution pushed German
    Jews to emigrate)but economy reasons made people
    from northern and Western Europe(commonly called
    the?old immigrants?) move to America(improved
    farming machinery and the move from the country
    to the city made left people jobless)
  • The largest immigrant groups were Germans, Irish,
    Britons and Scandinavians, followed by a large
    number of French Canadians, Chinese, Swiss and
    Dutch.The people were mainly motivated by land,
    which America had plenty of
  • Other employment opportunities included
    exploiting mineral nad forest resources,railroad
    companies, building transportation networks
    skilled crafts, etc.
  • Although ethnically mixed there was anti- foreign
    agitation which culminated when the American
    Party proposed tripling the length of time for
    foreign-born population to get US citizenship,
    this movement was stopped by the Civil War in the
  • It continued after the War and that resulted in
    Chinese Exclusion Act, which effectively ended
    Chinese immigration in 1882

The third wave of immigrants(1890-1930)
  • In this period rose the arrivals from southern
    and eastern parts of Europe, the largest groups
    were Italians, Jews, Poles, Hungarians, folowed
    by Mexicans, Russian, Czechs, Croats, Greeks,
    Portuguese, Syrians, Japanese and Filipinos
  • The languages , traditions, manners and customs
    of the Slavic people seemed exotic while Eastern
    European Orthodox Jews, the Mediterranean
    nationalities and Asians also appeared to belong
    to other races
  • Cheap train and steamship tickets , usually
    pre-paid by their relatives, made their decision
    to emigrate easier. Most immigrants went where
    the jobs were, to the industries in the Northeast
    and Midwest
  • Settlement houses and inner-city charities were
    built for these immigrants, these buffer zones
    were often important to immigrants because they
    could use their mother tongue and follow old-
    country traditions
  • In 1909 Israel Zangwills play? The Melting
    Pot?popularized the idea that all population
    groups in the US would eventually fuse through
    intermarriage and become an entirely new people
  • In 1920s racist immigration laws were introduced
    and there were lists of undesirables
  • In 1921 Congress passed the first general
    limitation of imigration(it minimised immigration
    from eastern and south Europe) and in 1924 the
    Oriental Exclusion Act was passed

1930 to today
  • The Great Depression put a stop to voluntary mass
  • Half million Mexican Americans were deported and
    about 250 000 immigrants from Europe who fled
    Nazi and Fascist regimes were allowed to settle
    in the USA
  • During the Second World war contract labourers
    from Mexico worked in the USA because of shortage
    of farm labour
  • After the 2nd world war familes were reunited
  • Between 1948 and 1959 Cold War refugees from
    Communist countires, especially Hungary nad Cuba
  • In 1965 national origins system was replaced by
    hemispheric limits (170 000 for the Eastern
    Hemisphere and 120 000 for the Western
  • The act of 1965 encouraged ?brain drain?
    reserving 20 of visas for people who possessed
    skills needed in the US
  • A major event in the space race was Apollo 11
    landing on the moon, which marked the supremacy
    of the USA in this area
  • The Immigration Act of 1990 allowed spouses and
    children of illegal immigrants who were given
    amnesty in 198o to join their families
  • Recently arriving immigrant groups replaced
    established ethnic groups in urban areas, from
    where they left into better paid jobs and moved
    to the suburbs(?white flight?)