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Crisis in Darfur


... Sudan and borders Libya, Chad and the Central African Republic ... tilling 'non-Arab Black African' Muslims (Fur, Zaghawa and ... vs. African. Both ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crisis in Darfur

Crisis in Darfur
modern day genocide
Now Called the Darfur Genocide by the United
  • military conflict in the Darfur region of western

What is Darfur?
  • Region is an area about the size of Texas,
  • It lies in western Sudan and borders Libya, Chad
    and the Central African Republic
  • It has only the most basic infrastructure and
    development. The approximately 6 million
    inhabitants of Darfur are among the poorest in

Brief History of Darfur
  • Technically a British Colony, but ruled by Egypt
    (another British Colony)
  • Remained largely underdeveloped during
    colonization, even up to independence in 1956
  • Most resources were routed to Arab populations
    near the Nile which caused an inequality between
    different tribes

The Primary Actors
  • Current lines of conflict are seen to be ethnic
    and tribal, rather than religiousunlike the
    Second Sudanese War
  • One side of the armed conflict is composed mainly
    of the Sudanese Military and the Janjaweed (a
    militia group)
  • Recruited from the Arab Baggara tribes. These are
    camel-herding nomads
  • The other side of the conflict is consisted of a
    number of rebel groups Sudan Liberation
    Movement, Justice and Equality Movement
  • Recruited from the land-tilling non-Arab Black
    African Muslims (Fur, Zaghawa and Massaleit
    ethnic groups)

Arab vs. African
  • Both True and False
  • Political tensions in 1968 brought to light
    differing economic activities and
    ethnicitiespoliticians used these differences to
    gain votes in different areas

  • Rooted in structural inequality between the
    center of the country around the Nile and the
    'peripheral' areas
  • Decades of drought, desertification, and
  • Nomadic tribes are moving further south into
    lands occupied by non-Arab tribes
  • UN Secretary General even points to Global
    Warming as a cause

Conflict Begins February 2003
  • Rebel groups (JEM and SLA) accuse
  • the Arab-dominated Sudanese
  • government of oppressing non-
  • Arabs in favor of Arabs
  • Government was also accused
  • of neglecting the Darfur region
  • of Sudan
  • Rebel groups mount an insurgency
  • against the Sudanese government

Government Response to Claims
  • Although they deny they support the Janjaweed
  • Aerial bombardment supporting ground attacks by
    the Janjaweed
  • accused of committing major human rights
  • mass killing
  • Looting
  • Systematic rape
  • They have frequently burned down whole villages,
    driving the surviving inhabitants to flee to
    refugee camps

  • wiped out entire villages
  • destroyed food and water supplies
  • systematically murdered, tortured, and raped
    hundreds of thousands

Scorched Earth PolicyJust reinstated this month
  • through direct violence, disease, and starvation,
    already claimed as many as 400,000 lives
  • 2.3 million Darfuris have fled their homes and
    communities and now reside in a network of
    internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in
  • 200,000 more live in refugee camps in Chad
  • These refugees and IDPs are almost entirely
    dependent on the United Nations and other
    humanitarian organizations for their basic needs
    food, water, shelter, and health care.

Other Atrocities
  • Sudanese military paints many of its attack
    aircraft white the same color as U.N.
    humanitarian aircraft a violation of
    international humanitarian law.
  • When a plane approaches, villagers do not know
    whether it is on a mission to help them or to
    bomb them
  • The government and Janjaweed have also bulldozed
    refugee camps to move the displaced persons out

UN Response
  • On 9/18/2004 the UN Security Council called for a
    Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to assess the
  • The UN report released on 1/31/2005 stated that
    while there were mass murders and rapes, they
    could not label it as genocide because "genocidal
    intent appears to be missing
  • Several steps have been taken but all of these
    have been frustrated by the government of Sudan
    and with the support of a number of other
    governments, including Egypt and Algeria
  • Currently have 7,400 peacekeeping troops there
  • Just allowed to monitor

Results of Genocide (as it is now recognized)
  • The human suffering in Darfur continues despite
    the fact that the United States Congress,
    President Bush, and two U.S. Secretaries of
    State, have all labeled the conflict in Darfur
    genocide the first time in U.S. history that a
    conflict has been labeled as such while it was
  • U.N. officials say that the death rate in Darfur
    could rise as high as 100,000 people per month if
    the fragile humanitarian life-support system

(No Transcript)
What Is To Be Done?
  • Peace agreements signed in 2005, 2007, and 2008
    all failed
  • Cease Fire
  • China must use its pressure
  • Boycott of Olympics in China?
  • Foreign countries must make Darfur a priority
  • Continued Humanitarian Aid

Google Earth Crisis in Darfur