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SOLAR ENERGY and SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM

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SOLAR ENERGY and SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM Prof. Le Chi Hiep Director, Program on Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation (VNU-HCM) Berlin, October 9, 2009 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOLAR ENERGY and SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM


1
SOLAR ENERGY and SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM
  • Prof. Le Chi Hiep
  • Director, Program on Renewable Energy Energy
    Conservation (VNU-HCM)
  • Berlin, October 9, 2009

2
OUTLINE
  • 1. GENERAL INFORMATION
  • 2. SOLAR ENERGY and ITS APPLICATIONS IN VIETNAM
  • 3. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM
  • 4. DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

3
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
4
  • VIETNAMPopulation 85.8 millions (2009)
  • Area 332,000km2Capital Hanoi

5
Latitudes and Longitudes of several main
provinces/cities in Vietnam
Location Latitude Longitude
Ha Giang 22o54N 105oE
Hanoi 21o03N 105o54E
Hue 16o29N 107o36E
Da nang 16o03N 108o12E
Qui Nhon 13o47N 109o15E
HoChiMinh City 10o45N 106o41E
Phu Quoc 10o12N 103o58E
Ca Mau 9o11N 105o09E
6
  • Installed electric generating capacity (9GW,
    2004).
  • In 2004, Vietnam generated 40.1 billion
    kilowatthours (Bkwh) of total electricity, of
    which 52 percent was supplied by conventional
    thermal sources and 48 percent came from
    hydroelectric sources.
  • Electricity demand has increased steadily in
    Vietnam during the last decade, but the countrys
    per capita energy consumption remains one of the
    lowest in Asia.

7
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10
2. SOLAR ENERGY and ITS APPLICATIONS IN VIETNAM
11
Mean Annual Sunshine Hours
  • North 1800 2100 hours of sunshine a year, on
    average.
  • South 2000 2600 hours of sunshine a year, on
    average.

12
MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS (Hours/day)
Location HANOI (21o03N, 105o54E)
January 2.2
February 1.6
March 1.4
April 2.7
May 5.3
June 5.2
July 5.9
August 5.3
September 5.4
October 5.3
November 4.2
December 3.5
13
MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS (Hours/day)
Location DANANG (16o03N, 108o12E)
January 4.4
February 5.1
March 3.4
April 6.9
May 8.3
June 7.9
July 8.3
August 6.7
September 5.8
October 4.7
November 4.0
December 3.6
14
MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS (Hours/day)
Location HOCHIMINH City (10o45N, 106o41E)
January 7.9
February 8.8
March 8.8
April 7.7
May 6.3
June 5.7
July 5.8
August 5.6
September 5.4
October 5.9
November 6.7
December 7.2
15
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION (kWh/m2/day)
Location HANOI (21o03N, 105o54E)
January 2.24
February 2.40
March 2.53
April 3.46
May 5.23
June 5.31
July 5.59
August 5.10
September 4.79
October 4.18
November 3.45
December 2.97
Annual Mean Solar Radiation 3.93kWh/m2/day
16
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION (kWh/m2/day)
Location DANANG (16o03N, 108o12E)
January 3.5
February 4.3
March 5.2
April 5.8
May 6.4
June 5.9
July 6.5
August 5.7
September 5.2
October 4.2
November 3.1
December 2.5
Annual Mean Solar Radiation 4.85kWh/m2/day
17
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION (kWh/m2/day)
Location NHA TRANG (12o15N, 109o11E)
January 4.66
February 5.29
March 5.69
April 5.91
May 5.90
June 5.66
July 5.66
August 5.51
September 4.92
October 4.42
November 4.04
December 4.15
Annual Mean Solar Radiation 5.15kWh/m2/day
18
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION (kWh/m2/day)
Location HOCHIMINH City (10o45N, 106o41E)
January 5.1
February 6.3
March 6.6
April 5.7
May 5.0
June 4.9
July 5.1
August 5.0
September 4.8
October 4.5
November 4.3
December 4.6
Annual Mean Solar Radiation 5.2kWh/m2/day
19
Location Ho Chi Minh City, April 28th, 2005
20
Location Ho Chi Minh City, June 28th, 2005
21
Location Ho Chi Minh City, March 5th,
2009(Total solar radiation, W/m2)
0900 323 1040 255 1220 886
0910 494 1050 249 1230 725
0920 489 1100 650 1240 791
0930 638 1110 1064 1250 934
0940 658 1120 464 1300 797
0950 650 1130 871 1310 785
1000 508 1140 1044 1320 773
1010 659 1150 1031 1330 838
1020 503 1200 497 1340 453
1030 629 1210 957 1350 474
22
Location Ho Chi Minh City, March 5th,
2009(Total solar radiation, W/m2)
1400 685 1540 387 1720 139
1410 611 1550 344 1730 98
1420 344 1600 385 1740 66
1430 392 1610 381 1750 17
1440 557 1620 306 1800 7
1450 627 1630 135 1810 7
1500 649 1640 139 1820 0
1510 643 1650 140 1830 0
1520 583 1700 182 1840 0
1530 469 1710 168 1850 0
23
Solar Applications
  • Two main applications
  • - Solar hot water
  • - Solar photovoltaics

24
  • Solar hot water has been developed since 1990. At
    the early period, it was very difficult to get
    the attention of the community.
  • But, since around 1998, the number of installed
    solar hot water systems has gradually increased,
    especially in Ho Chi Minh city.

25
  • Currently, solar hot water has become one of
    products at high competition. That leads to the
    increase of the number of companies doing
    business in this field.
  • But, there is so far no full industry referring
    to solar hot water. The main components of the
    system (solar collector,) are imported, mainly
    from China.

26
3. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM
27
3.1. RESEARCH
  • Researches referring to solar photovoltaics have
    been done from 1975.

28
Early research interests
  • Monocrystalline silicon
  • Polycrystalline silicon
  • Amorphous silicon

29
Current research interests
  • Determination of the light- induced degradation
    rate of the solar cell sensitized N719 on
    nanocrystalline TiO2 particles
  • Thermal degradation kinetics of solar cell dye
    N719 bound to nanocrystalline TiO2 particles
  • Fabrication of solar cells based on N719,
    D520-dyed nano-crystalline titanium dioxide and
    investigation of their performances
  • Improvement of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
    Open-circuit Voltage by Electrolyte Additives and
    Cell Treatment with 4-tert-butylpyridine

30
  • The Relationship between Electrochemical
    Impedance Spectra and Photovoltaic Performance
    Characteristics during the Light and Thermal
    Ageing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
  • Effects of Electrolyte Additives on the
    Open-circuit Voltage of Dye-Sensitized Solar
    Cells
  • Decomposition and degradation of dyes in solar
    cells under prolonged thermal and light ageing
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell based on
    nano-crystalline titanium dioxide

31
  • Fabrication of solar cells based on titanium
    dioxide and organometallic dyes
  • Grid connected systems

32
  • But, due to many difficulties, the research on
    solar photovoltaics is nearly activities of
    scientists in laboratory only.
  • It has not exercised its influence on the
    society.

33
3.2. APPLICATION
  • In 1990, the first 300Wp-unit was installed at
    Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh city.
  • From 1994, solar photovoltaics has been expanded
    in the whole country.
  • Currently, total installed photovoltaics is
    around 2MWp.

34
  • Installed locations
  • - Rural areas (PV units were installed at more
    than 3000 houses, there have been around 8500
    families who can reach PV indirectly by using
    batteries charged from stations).
  • - Cultural centers.
  • - Medical centers.
  • - Telecommunication units.
  • - Traveling boats.

35
  • - Post offices
  • - Ambulances.
  • - Public lighting systems.
  • - Traffic lighting systems.
  • - Battery charging stations.
  • - Schools.
  • - Islands.

36
2000Wp
Reference http//www.soltechvn.com/vn/
37
810Wp
Reference http//www.soltechvn.com/vn/
38
Reference http//www.selco-vietnam.com.vn/index.p
hp?langvn
39
  • Main features of photovoltaic development in
    Vietnam
  • - Most budgets funded by international
    organizations and several funded by national
    agencies (there is so far nearly no personal
    budget invested to set up the system).
  • - It leads to unstable and unsustainable
    development.
  • - All solar panels are so far imported.

40
  • Currently, there are only several companies doing
    business on photovoltaics in Vietnam.
  • SELCO-VIETNAM could be considered as the biggest
    company in this field (Installed photovoltaics
    262kWp)

41
  • Several related websites for your reference
  • 1. http//www.selco-vietnam.com.vn/index.php?lang
    en
  • 2. http//www.soltechvn.com/vn/

42
  • Recently, a factory producing solar panels has
    been installed in Long An near Ho Chi Minh
    City.
  • By planning, its expected capacity is 3MWp/year
    (first step) and 5MWp/year (next step).

43
4. DISCUSSION CONCLUSION
44
4.1. DISCUSSION
45
  • There is high potential to exploit solar energy
    in Vietnam.
  • There is also high demand on solar technologies
    such as solar photovoltaics and solar hot water.
  • (Survey 50,000 families in southern and central
    parts of the country need PV systems)

46
  • Current situation on solar photovoltaics
  • 1. Solar hot water has been developed well,
    especially in the southern parts of the country.
    Currently, it is easy to see solar hot water
    systems on roofs of many houses in Ho Chi Minh
    city.
  • 2. In the meantime, solar photovoltaics has been
    almost done by projects and has been installed
    dispersedly. There have been only a few people
    who want to invest the systems by their own
    budget.

47
  • Referring to energy policy, currently there are
    good enough macroscopic policies and roadmap to
    promote renewable energy activities in Vietnam.
  • In June 2009, the draft of the law on energy
    conservation was submitted to the consideration
    of the national assembly. Hopefully, the similar
    draft of the law on renewable energy could be
    submitted next year.

48
  • According to the current energy policy, renewable
    energy including solar energy is expected to be
    one of main energy resources of the country.

49
  • But, unfortunately, the current applications of
    renewable energy, especially of installed solar
    photovoltaics, are still far from our expected
    targets.
  • Although there have been activities referring to
    photovoltaics in Vietnam leading to around 2MWp
    installed, but Vietnam is still nearly a blank
    area in terms of photovoltaics.

50
Referring to the current situation, there are two
main questions - WHY? - Do we really need
photovoltaics?

51
  • YES, we need solar photovoltaics.
  • But, like everywhere, the first main reason is
    always the price.

52
  • To set up a photovoltaic system, we often need
  • - Solar panel (Kyocera, SolarWorld,)
  • - Control system
  • - Battery (Phoenix,)
  • - Converter
  • - Others
  • Current mean price in Vietnam (including solar
    panel and main components) 8USD/Wp - 10USD/Wp

53
That price is too high, it can not get the
attention of the community
  • We can see
  • - Rural area very high demand on solar
    photovoltaics, but because of high price poor
    people can not dream of getting it.
  • - Urban area good electricity supply from the
    national grid. But, if the price is good enough,
    solar photovoltaics can also attract the
    attention of the people living in the urban area
    to prevent unexpected power shortage (It is quite
    often in Vietnam, especially in the dry season).

54
  • Currently, there is general macroscopic energy
    policy. But, there are so far no concrete
    policies such as tax exemption and financial
    supports,
  • - Solar panels and corresponding parts are mainly
    imported. There is nearly no industry referring
    to solar photovoltaics in Vietnam, except one
    factory named RED SUN in Long An near Ho Chi
    Minh City.

55
Thus, what do we need to speed up the application
of solar photovoltaics in Vietnam?
  • Price reduction
  • 1. In-country fabrication by local and foreign
    investment.
  • 2. Detailed policies focusing on tax exemption,
    or tax reduction, or financial supports .

56
  • Development strategy
  • Two steps
  • 1.To promote the application of solar
    photovoltaics in Vietnam, we should firstly set
    up the new projects, it means we should not wait
    for the personal demands paid by personal
    budgets.
  • The new projects must be totally different from
    the previous ones, which have been often funded
    by international or national organizations and
    have been installed mainly for demonstration
    purpose.

57
  • The new projects should be invested by people
    who are intending to do business in this field.
  • Under this point of view, the new projects
    should not be decentralized and should be
    connected to the grid..
  • In order to set up the projects, it must be
    repeated that we need good financial policies,
    hopefully, which would be published in the first
    quarter of the next year.

58
  • 2. Following the success of the first step, the
    solar photovoltaics together with its low price
    can get the attention of the community.
  • After this step, hopefully personal budgets can
    be expended to buy solar panels.

59
  • SOLAR ROOF should be considered as one of main
    strategic approaches parallel with the new
    projects (step 1) to promote photovoltaic
    application in Vietnam, especially at NEW URBAN
    AREAS.
  • There is high potential to develop the notion
    SOLAR CITY at NEW URBAN AREAS.

60
4.2. CONCLUSION
61
  • Nearly blank market and blank area in terms of
    solar photovoltaics are awaiting you.

62
Lets spend several seconds to sweep a part of
the survey done by a German colleague
  • Vietnam Needs Investors To Promote Use Of
    Renewable Energy Technologies.
  • The Government of Vietnam has been exploring
    more and more the possibilities for investment in
    the country as they recognize the toll that
    electricity shortages nationwide are causing.

63
  • The climate of Vietnam is conducive to positive
    impacts from solar energy use, and the sun is a
    priceless commodity in both summer and winter.
    Research information shows that sunshine is
    available between 1,800 hours and 2,700 hours
    annually.

64
  • Experts agree that solar energy is a great way
    to fill off-grid electricity needs, especially in
    areas of a higher concentration of pollution
    where mini-grids are not a good idea.
  • Sherry Irvinon behalf of theBascoTec Internet
    LimitedTechnologie Park 1333100
    PaderbornGermany

65
HOT NEWS
  • The draft of the decree on the means supporting
    the development of renewable energy has just been
    submitted to the government by the ministry of
    industry and commerce (Tuoi Tre daily newspaper,
    Sept. 8, 2009).
  • Main contents of the draft of the decree
  • - The government commits to exempt those who
    invest to develop the electric generation by
    renewable energy from taxes.
  • - The price of electricity produced by
    renewable energy would be discussed to guarantee
    the investors rational benefit.

66
  • Its time to invest and to do business referring
    to solar photovoltaics in Vietnam.

67
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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