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The Water-Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins and Vitamin C

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The B Vitamins Vitamin B12 No known toxicities Food Sources. Meat, fish, poultry, and shellfish. Milk, cheese, and eggs. Fortified cereals. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Water-Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins and Vitamin C


1
The Water-Soluble Vitamins B Vitamins and
Vitamin C
  • Chapter 10

2
The Vitamins An Overview
  • Vital to health, organic, and available in foods
  • Vitamins differ from macronutrients
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Food contents
  • Both deficiency and excess of vitamins can affect
    health

3
The Vitamins An Overview
  • Bioavailability
  • Quantity provided by food
  • Amount absorbed and used by body
  • Factors influencing bioavailability

4
The Vitamins An Overview
  • Precursors
  • AKA Provitamins
  • Organic nature
  • Can be destroyed during storage and in cooking

5
The Vitamins An Overview
  • Solubility
  • Affects absorption, transport, and excretion
  • Water-soluble (B vit vit C) VS Fat-soluble
  • Consumption frequency of vitamins

6
The Vitamins An Overview
  • Toxicity
  • More is not necessarily better
  • Excessive intakes

7
The B Vitamins As Individuals
  • Very active in the body, but do not provide the
    body with fuel for energy.
  • Several B vits form part of the coenzymes
  • Others participate in metabolism and cell
    multiplication.
  • Recommendations for B vits come from RDA, AI, and
    Tolerable Upper Intake Levels.
  • deficiencies, toxicities, and food sources are
    unique for each

8
The B Vitamins As Individuals
9
The B Vitamins Thiamin
  • Part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)
  • Energy metabolism
  • Nerve activity and muscle activity
  • Recommendations
  • RDA Men 1.2 mg/day.
  • RDA Women 1.1 mg/day.

10
The B Vitamins Thiamin
  • Deficiency
  • Malnourished and alcoholics
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Enlarged heart and possible cardiac failure.
  • Muscular weakness.
  • Apathy, poor short-term memory, confusion, and
    irritability.
  • Anorexia and weight loss.
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a severe
    deficiency that develops in those who abuse
    alcohol.
  • Deficiency results in the disease beriberi (dry
    wet)
  • Toxicity
  • None reported

11
The B Vitamins Thiamin
  • Food sources
  • Whole-grain, fortified or enriched grain products
  • Moderate amounts in all foods
  • Pork
  • Other Information
  • easily destroyed by heat)
  • Leaches into water
  • Steaming and microwaving

12
The B Vitamins Thiamin
13
The B Vitamins Riboflavin
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
  • Involved in energy metabolism.
  • Coenzyme forms
  • Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) flavin adenine
    dinucleotide (FAD)
  • Recommendations
  • RDA Men 1.3 mg/day Women 1.1 mg/day
  • Deficiency
  • Inflammation of membranes
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Deficiency disease is ariboflavinosis.
  • Toxicity
  • No reported toxicities

14
The B Vitamins Riboflavin
  • Food sources
  • Milk and milk products, including yogurt and
    cheese
  • Whole-grain, fortified, and enriched grain
    products
  • Liver
  • Destruction of riboflavin
  • Destroyed
  • Not destroyed by cooking

15
The B Vitamins Riboflavin
16
The B Vitamins Niacin(Vitamin B3)
  • Two chemical structures
  • Nicotinic acid
  • Nicotinamide
  • Two coenzyme forms metabolic reactions
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
  • NADP (the phosphate form)

17
The B Vitamins Niacin
  • Recommendations
  • Body manufacturers from tryptophan
  • RDA is stated in niacin equivalents
  • RDA Men 16 NE/day.
  • RDA Women 14 NE/day.
  • Upper level of 35 mg/day for adults.

18
The B Vitamins Niacin
  • Deficiency
  • Pellagra
  • Symptoms Deficiency symptoms
  • Toxicity
  • Supplements or drugs
  • Niacin flush
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Potential health benefits of large doses of
    nicotinic acid

19
The B Vitamins Niacin
  • Food sources
  • Milk, eggs, meat, poultry, and fish
  • Whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals
  • Nuts and all protein-containing foods
  • Other Information
  • Also called nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and
    niacinamide.
  • The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor.
  • The vitamin can be lost from foods when it
    leaches into water.

20
The B Vitamins Niacin
21
The B Vitamins Biotin
  • As part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism
  • Coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide
  • Critical in TCA cycle
  • Participates in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid
    synthesis
  • Participates in breakdown of fatty acids and
    amino acids

22
The B Vitamins Biotin
  • Recommendations AI Adults 30 ?g/day.
  • Deficiency and Toxicity
  • Deficiencies are rare.
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • No reported toxicities.

23
The B Vitamins Biotin
  • Biotin can be bound with an egg-white protein
    called avidin.
  • Food Sources
  • Widespread in foods.
  • Organ meats, egg yolks, and fish.
  • Soybeans.
  • Whole grains.
  • Biotin can also be synthesized by intestinal
    bacteria.

24
The B Vitamins Pantothenic Acid
  • Part of chemical structure of coenzyme A, used in
    E metabolism
  • Recommendations
  • AI Adults 5mg/day
  • Deficiency
  • Rare
  • Symptoms

25
The B Vitamins Pantothenic Acid
  • Toxicity
  • None reported
  • Food sources (Widespread in foods)
  • Chicken, beef, liver, and egg yolks.
  • Potatoes, tomatoes, and broccoli.
  • Whole grains and oats.
  • Can be destroyed by freezing, canning, and
    refining.

26
The B Vitamins B6
  • Three forms Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and
    pyridoxamine
  • Recent research claiming influence on cognitive
    performance, immune funx, steroid hormone
    activity.
  • Stored exclusively in muscle tissue

27
The B Vitamins B6
  • Recommendations
  • Adults (19-50yrs) 1.3mg/day
  • Deficiency
  • Symptoms
  • Alcohol destroys the vitamin.
  • Isoniazid (INH) drug used for tuberculosis acts
    as an antagonist.

28
The B Vitamins B6
  • Toxicity
  • Upper level for adults 100 mg/day.
  • Food sources
  • Meats, fish, poultry, and liver
  • Legumes and soy products
  • Non-citrus fruits
  • Fortified cereals, potatoes and other starchy
    vegetables.

29
The B Vitamins B6
30
The B Vitamins Folate
  • Known as folacin or folic acid
  • Primary coenzyme form THF (tetrahydrofolate)
  • Transfers single-carbon compounds during
    metabolism

31
The B Vitamins Folate
  • Recommendations
  • RDA Adults 400 ?g/day.
  • Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE)
  • Higher recommendations for pregnant women.
  • Folate and Neural Tube Defects
  • Pregnant women should take folate supplements.

32
The B Vitamins Folate
  • Folate and Heart Disease
  • High levels of homocysteine and low levels of
    folate increase risk of heart disease.
  • Folate breaks down homocysteine.
  • Folate may help to prevent cancer, but may also
    promote cancer growth once cancer has developed.

33
The B Vitamins Folate
  • Deficiency
  • Elevated homocysteine levels.
  • Most vulnerable of all the vitamins to
    interactions with medications.
  • Toxicity
  • Masks vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms.

34
The B Vitamins Folate
  • Toxicity
  • Upper level for adults 1000 ?g/day.
  • Food Sources
  • Fortified grains
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Legumes and seeds
  • Liver
  • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen.

35
The B Vitamins Folate
36
The B Vitamins Vitamin B12
  • Cobalamin
  • Methylcobalamine and deoxyadenosylcobalamin are
    the coenzyme forms.
  • Recommendations
  • RDA Adults 2.4 ?g/day.

37
The B Vitamins Vitamin B12
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Anemia
  • Fatigue and degeneration of peripheral nerves
    progressing to paralysis.
  • Sore tongue, loss of appetite, and constipation.
  • Deficiency disease is called pernicious anemia.

38
The B Vitamins Vitamin B12
  • No known toxicities
  • Food Sources.
  • Meat, fish, poultry, and shellfish.
  • Milk, cheese, and eggs.
  • Fortified cereals.
  • Other Information
  • Binds with intrinsic factor
  • Easily destroyed by microwave cooking.

39
The B Vitamins In Concert
  • Each B vitamin coenzyme is involved in energy
    metabolism
  • Directly
  • Indirectly
  • Deficiencies
  • Single B-vitamin deficiencies seldom show up in
    isolation

40
The B Vitamins In Concert
  • The B Vitamins are interdependent
  • Presence of one may affect the absorption,
    metabolism, and excretion of another.
  • A deficiency of one may affect the functioning or
    deficiency of another.
  • A variety of foods from each food group will
    provide an adequate supply of all the B vitamins.

41
The B Vitamins In Concert
  • B Vitamin Roles
  • Coenzymes involved directly or indirectly with
    energy metabolism.
  • Facilitate energy-releasing reactions.
  • Build new cells to deliver oxygen and nutrients
    for energy reactions.
  • B Vitamin Deficiencies
  • Deficiencies rarely occur singly except for
    beriberi and pellagra.
  • Can be primary or secondary causes.
  • Glossitis and cheilosis are two symptoms common
    to B vitamin deficiencies.
  • Symptoms that individuals experience are not
    necessarily related to a vitamin deficiency.

42
The B Vitamins In Concert
  • B vitamin toxicities can occur with supplements.
  • B Vitamin Food Sources
  • Grains group provides thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
    and folate.
  • Fruits and vegetables provide folate.
  • Meat group provides thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6,
    and vitamin B12.
  • Milk group provides riboflavin and vitamin B12.

43
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44
The B Vitamins In Concert
45
Vitamin C Roles
  • Antiscorbutic factor is the original name
  • Roles
  • Serves as a cofactor to facilitate the action of
    an enzyme
  • Antioxidant
  • As a Cofactor in Collagen Formation

46
Vitamin C
  • As a Cofactor in Other Reactions
  • Hydroxylation of carnitine
  • Converts tryptophan to neurotransmitters
  • Makes hormones
  • Needs increase during body stress,
  • i.e. infections, burns, extremely high or low
    temperatures, heavy metal intakes, certain
    medications, and smoking

47
Vitamin C
  • In the Prevention and Treatment of the Common
    Cold
  • Role in disease prevention is still being
    researched
  • Vitamin C Recommendations
  • RDA Men 90 mg/day Women 75 mg/day
  • Smokers 35 mg/day
  • Deficiency
  • Disease is called scurvy
  • Deficiency symptoms

48
Vitamin C Deficiency
49
Vitamin C
  • Toxicity
  • Upper level for adults 2000 mg/day
  • Food Sources
  • Citrus fruits, cantaloupe, strawberries, papayas,
    and mangoes
  • Cabbage-type vegetables, dark green vegetables
    like red peppers and broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes,
    and potatoes
  • Other information
  • Also called ascorbic acid
  • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen

50
Vitamin C Food Sources
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