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Next Generation Internet

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Title: Next Generation Internet


1
Next Generation Internet
  • Bill St. Arnaud
  • CANARIE Inc www.canarie.ca
  • Bill.st.arnaud_at_canarie.ca

2
Observation
  • Dennis Jennings original director for NSFnet
  • The original Internet was neither pre-ordained or
    a given
  • Internet was fortunate series of accidental
    events
  • We could have easily ended up with X.25 or ATM
    has the foundation of the Internet as we know it
    today
  • Large part of its success was the telcos ignored
    Internet development for the first 20 years
  • Still ignoring it
  • Will a 20 year pure research program result in a
    better Internet?
  • Future Internet has to be anchored with practical
    implementation issues and business models
  • Critical role for NRENs GLIF

3
NSF/OECD workshop Jan 31
Social Economic Factors Shaping the Future of
the Internet
  • In terms of the Future of the Internet there is a
    current window of opportunity to consider
    economic, social and regulatory issues in
    relation to work being undertaken under the
    umbrella of the Global Environment for Network
    Innovations (GENI) and the OECD Committee on
    information and communications policy (ICCP).
  • The NSF/OECD Workshop will bring together whos
    who of economists, policy-makers, social
    scientists and technologists, to consider a broad
    range of factors which have relevance for the
    future of the Internet.
  • In considering a new infrastructure, such as
    GENI, it is important to highlight the Internets
    growing role as a driver of innovation leading to
    economic growth and social well-being.
    Specifically, Workshop participants are asked to
    draw lessons from the applications and use
    associated with the evolution of the current
    Internet and to identify the features that have
    been critical to the Internets success.
  • At the same time, the Internet faces many
    challenges which are not only related to its
    technical limitations and it is increasingly
    clear that many of the problems the Internet has
    encountered concern economic and social issues.

4
The research challenge
  • The Internet is a tremendous success, but
  • Can we meet tomorrows needs by incremental
    improvement of todays design?
  • NSF and its research community have concluded
    that they must take a leadership position with
    respect to revolutionary network research, and
    must provide suitable infrastructure for this
    research.

Source David Clark MIT
5
Next Generation Internet approaches
  • Incremental
  • Next Generation Internet will be achieved through
    small incremental improvements to existing
    Internet
  • E.g. Phosphorous, NGI
  • Federated
  • Next Generation Internet will be a federation of
    different networks with different architectures
    and protocols
  • E.g. CAnet 4, NLR, SURFnet
  • Big Bang
  • Next Generation Internet will have to be a
    complete fresh start
  • E.g. NewARCH, GENI

6
Next Generation Internet Initiatives
  • USA NSF
  • FIND Future Internet Directions - 40m PI
    driven research program
  • GENI Global Experimental Network Initiative
    proposed 350m infrastructure to support next
    generation Internet research
  • USA DARPA
  • NewARCH New Internet Architecture
  • CORONET - Dynamic Multi-Terabit Core Optical
    Networks Architecture, Protocols, Control and
    Management
  • CBMANET - Control-Based Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking
  • EU
  • INTERNET OF THE FUTURE
  • FIRE -Autonomic networks and self organizing
    networks
  • JAPAN
  • NGI Next Generation Internet Initiative

7
FIND An NSF challenge question
  • 1) What are the requirements for the global
    network of 10 or 15 years from now, and what
    should that network look like?
  • To conceive the future, it helps to let go of the
    present
  • 2) How would we re-conceive tomorrows global
    network today, if we could design it from
    scratch?
  • This is not change for the sake of change, but a
    chance to free our minds.

Source David Clark MIT
8
Security and reliability
  • Define the objective broadly.
  • Classic security, availability, resilience.
  • Hard because
  • Many problems are in the end-hosts.
  • Many problems involve a balance of interests.
  • Among actors, states and societies.
  • We dont have agreement about the objective.
  • Different contexts call for different answers.
  • We dont have a coherent approach.

9
Economic landscape
  • In 1975, it was not clear to the early designers
    that we were designing the landscape of
    investment and competition.
  • Now it is.
  • Could we do a better job to shape
  • Regulation (or lack of)?
  • Continued investment and innovation?
  • Options for user choice?
  • Deployment of new services?
  • Health of the value chain?
  • Consider the role of facilities providers, for
    example.
  • Role of advertising?

Source David Clark MIT
10
Technology drivers
  • New network technology.
  • Usual place to start, but I will get to it later.
  • New computing technology.
  • Whatever computing is, that is what the Internet
    should support.
  • The Internet grew up in a stable PC time.
  • The cellular industry evolved independently.
  • Tomorrow many different views sensors, cell
    phones, embedded processors, 100 laptops, etc.
  • Rich space of services and servers.
  • Design alternatives will have important influence
    on personal choice, control, innovation, etc.

Source David Clark MIT
11
Summary--integrative visions
  • What are candidate designs of a future global
    network suited for the needs of 2020?
  • What are good design principles for large scale
    future distributed systems and services?
  • Alternative approaches will lead to different
    outcomes in the socio-technical space.

12
Van Jacobson
  • Content Centric Networking
  • Move from channels to platforms
  • The old Internet and telecom was focused on
    setting up communication channels to distribute
    data routers, switches, paths, etc
  • But data should not have locality
  • Convergence of cyber-infrastructure and next
    generation Internet
  • Integration of Grids, Web 2.0, SOA, P2P,
    Enterprise 2.0 and NGI
  • Possible significant impact on new business models

13
ISOC Internet 2020
  • Not Internet 2 too or similar incremental
    initiatives
  • Radical transformative network originating from
    research community
  • Pervasive Information systems
  • Terabit to the desktop

14
Internet 2020- What will be there
  • Optical of course
  • Terabits to the Desktop
  • Hybrid networks
  • Generic packet based IP-network and
  • Dynamically established high speed end-to-end
    optical circuits
  • Bandwidth on Demand (BoD)
  • Lambda Grids

15
Solutions?
  • Require interdisciplinary research
  • Long term research, not restricted to 4 years
  • More like 10 to 15 years
  • Meanwhile we see short term partial fixes
  • E.g. NRENs move towards fully owned optical
    hybrid networks
  • Works within NREN
  • Commercial providers work on local solutions
  • Network Neutrality debate
  • Walled garden approaches or
  • Verticalization

16
GENI Vision Implementation
  • A shared facility that allows
  • Concurrent exploration of a broad range of
    experimental networks and distributed services
  • Interconnection among these experimental networks
    and with the Internet
  • Real users utilizing experimental services
  • Observation, measurement, and recording of the
    resulting experimental outcomes
  • Funding for new router architecture already
    underdevelopment
  • Third RE network in the USA

Source Peter Freeman NSF
17
GENI Facility Conceptual Design
Slicing, Virtualization, Programmability
Source Peter Freeman NSF
18
EU Internet of the FutureNetwork service
infrastructures
  • Rationale
  • Networks and service infrastructures underpin
    economic progress and the development of our
    societies
  • 2 billion mobile terminals in commercial
    operation, 1 billion Internet users, 400 million
    internet enabled devices
  • Determining factor in business development in all
    sectors
  • Of a growing and changing demand
  • For more, and more user control of
    content/services, for interconnecting things ,
    for convergence in networks, services and devices
  • Current technologies can be, and need to be
    improved significantly
  • for scaling up, for more flexibility, for more
    security and dependability
  • Europe is in a leading position Industry,
    technology and use
  • Networks equipment and services, business
    software, security, GRIDs technology

Source Fabrizio Sestini EU-Canada workshop
19
Limits of Internet architecture and IP, current
solutions
  • Scalability
  • devices (users AND nodes, mostly wireless) will
    outnumber humans by several orders of magnitude
  • Not only numbering Service-centric networks
    invalidate the source-destination approach of the
    Internet (semantic addressing, space-aware
    models)
  • Need to overcome the intrinsic limitations of a
    centralised control (self-management,
    self-organisation), multidisciplinary approaches
    to cope with complexity (e.g. bio-inspired)
  • Multiple points of attachments to the
    infrastructure, edge diversity
  • Routing
  • Suitability for ad-hoc/multi-hop/mesh networking
  • disconnected operation is common (opportunistic,
    trust and privacy, )
  • Mobility
  • Mobile IP (or MIPv6) not effective, overhead
  • Transparency
  • QoS???
  • Web of trust?
  • Usability
  • Security
  • How to embed it, how to cope with heterogeneous
    networks
  • Machine-to-machine communication

patches
patches
patches
patches
patches
patches
Source Fabrizio Sestini EU-Canada workshop
20
FIRE-baseline
21
A Testbed for Emergence of Innovation
  • Unique NG Router
  • Lego Design
  • Off-the-Shelf Blades
  • Custom FPGA Blade
  • National Scale Network through CANARIE uclp
  • Multiple Virtual Networks
  • Large-Scale Access

IP
FPGA
Source Albert-Leon Garcia University of Toronto
22
Problem You cant make money from broadband
  • Broadband networks, whether wireless or FTTx,
    overbuilders, municipal or customer owned,
    requires huge capital outlay with a big risk of
    slow take-up. In addition
  • subject to intense competition from incumbents
  • High churn
  • Low takeup Tyranny of the takeup
  • Consumers unwilling to spend more than 40/mo for
    broadband
  • Generally prefer lower cost, rather than higher
    bandwidth
  • http//news.com.com/DSLstrikesachordwithfruga
    lshoppers/2100-1034_3-6084717.html
  • Margins are very thin, even for incumbents
  • Many companies starting to offer free broadband,
    both wired and wireless
  • Inuk, Sky, TalkTalk, Google, Microsoft, Cable and
    Wireless etc
  • The real winners in the broadband game are those
    providing advanced services
  • Google, Inuk, Yahoo, Skype, Joost, etc
  • CBS is going to deliver prime time TV over
    Internet this fall one day ahead of broadcast
    TV

23
Net Neutrality CALEA- etc
  • Universities and Telephone companies face the
    same problem of small number of heavy users
    consuming expensive Internet bandwidth
  • University solution is to cap bandwidth from
    dormitories and/or block types of traffic
  • Telecom solution is to build a two tiered
    Internet or doing volume capping
  • A high speed un-congested channel for the telco
    traffic particularly aimed at carrying video
  • Universities NRENs can play a leadership role
    in piloting new last mile (hundred feet)
    architectures that address problems of
    dormitories
  • May serve as possible model for telcos
  • University students are ideal early adopters and
    were instrumental in diffusion of the Internet
    throughout larger community

24
One possible solution
  • Following is example of one possible solution
  • There may be others- this is not intended to be
    definitive or exclusive
  • Work with a few universities NRENs on a small
    number of pilots where interested students can
    lease or control dedicated fiber/copper to
    university colo point
  • They can directly peer with other students in the
    dormitory across a white light switch or user
    controlled VLAN switch and/or
  • Connect to service providers of their and/or
    setup point to point user controlled VLANs to
    other students across NLR, CAnet 4, GLORIAD,
    GLIF, SURFnet, i2Cat, KREOnet, etc
  • Primary application would be collaborative video
    such as Inuk, Joost, YouTube and/or CineGrid

25
Advantages for student
  • One time very small cost for UNLIMITED bandwidth
    forever to university colo
  • Cross connect to service provider of their choice
    or research network(s)
  • NO or very low monthly Internet service fees for
    connection to content providers or connection
    across research networks
  • Participate in new global collaborative models
    such as Inuk, YouTube.com, MySpace, Joost, Inuk
    or CineGrid
  • Direct connection to content and application
    providers
  • Student installs transceiver or simple media hub
    at their computer
  • Media hub with CWDM for about 200 which includes
    laser, Gbe transceiver etc

26
Inuk Networks www.inuknetworks.com
  • Offering free triple play to university
    dormitories in the UK
  • Free cable TV, telephony
  • Over the air channels from around the world
  • Also deliver university content to cable systems
    and other institutions around the world
  • Make money by selling eyeballs
  • Joost has same strategy

27
Ottawa backbone fiber
28
Student Empowered Network
University A
University C
YouTube or CineGrid server
University Residence
Internet transit provider
University Residence
CAnet 4 UCLP switch
University Neutral Colo switch/RPON
UCLP Virtual Router Under control of students
University Neutrol Colo switch/RPON
ORAN- CAnet 4 Lighpaths
University B
CAnet 4 UCLP switch
Dark Fiber
Internet transit or content provider
29
Conclusions
  • GLIF essential for international collaboration to
    support Internet of the Future research projects
  • Phosphorous a good example
  • Next Generation PlanetLab VINI, GENI?
  • NRENs can play important leadership role to
    anchor research with practical real issues
  • Most important economic models
  • New wireless Internet models picoGSM, WiFi/GSM
  • Wireless Internet peering

30
Background material
  • http//www.multichannel.com/article/CA6332098.html
  • it only takes about 10 BitTorrent users bartering
    files on a node (of around 500) of traditional
    shared IP network to double the delays
    experienced by everybody else.
  • http//www.news.utoronto.ca/bin6/060222-2074.asp
  • University students played critical role in
    diffusion of the Internet to the global community
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