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John Keats 1795-1821

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John Keats 1795-1821 Ode to a Grecian Urn (1819) John Keats 1795-1821 Life John Keats, one of the greatest English poets and a major figure in the Romantic movement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: John Keats 1795-1821


1
John Keats 1795-1821
  • Ode to a Grecian Urn (1819)

2
John Keats 1795-1821
3
Life
  • John Keats, one of the greatest English poets and
    a major figure in the Romantic movement, was born
    in 1795 in Moorefield, London. His father died
    when he was eight and his mother when he was 14
    these sad circumstances drew him particularly
    close to his two brothers, George and Tom, and
    his sister Fanny.

4
  • Keats was well educated at a school in Enfield,
    where he began a Keats was well educated at a
    school in Enfield, where he began a translation
    of Virgil's Aeneid. In 1810 he was apprenticed to
    an apothecary-surgeon. His first attempts at
    writing poetry date from about 1814, and include
    an Imitation' of the Elizabethan poet Edmund
    Spenser.

5
  • In 1815 he left his apprenticeship and
  • became a student at Guy's Hospital,
  • London one year later, he abandoned
  • the profession of medicine for poetry.

6
  • Keats' first volume of poems was published in
    1817. It attracted some good reviews, but these
    were followed by the first of several harsh
    attacks by the influential Blackwood's Magazine.
    Undeterred, he pressed on with his poem
    Endymion', which was published in the spring of
    the following year.

7
  • Keats toured the north of England and Scotland in
    the summer of 1818, returning home to nurse his
    brother Tom, who was ill with tuberculosis. After
    Tom's death in December he moved into a friend's
    house in Hampstead, now known as Keats House.

8
  • There he met and fell deeply in love with a young
    neighbour, Fanny Brawne. During the following
    year, despite ill health and financial problems,
    he wrote an astonishing amount of poetry,
    including The Eve of St Agnes', 'La Belle Dame
    sans Merci', Ode to a Nightingale' and To
    Autumn'.

9
  • His second volume of poems appeared in July 1820
    soon afterwards, by now very ill with
    tuberculosis, he set off with a friend to Italy,
    where he died the following February.

10
  • Keats and his friend Joseph Severn arrived in
    Rome, after an arduous journey, in November 1820.
    They found lodgings in a house near the Spanish
    Steps. Keats rallied a little at first, and was
    able to take gentle walks and rides, but by early
    December he was confined to bed, extremely ill
    with a high fever.

11
  • Severn nursed him devotedly throughout the next
    few distressing and painful weeks. Keats died
    peacefully, clasping his friend's hand, on 23
    February 1821.

12
Ode to a Nightingale
13
Ode to a Nightingale - Background
  • Ode to a Nightingale is a poem by John Keats.
    Written in May, 1819, it was first published in
    Annals of the Fine Arts in July of the same
    year. Referred to by critics of the time as "the
    longest and most personal of the odes," the poem
    describes Keats journey into the state of
    Negative Capability. The poem explores the themes
    of nature, transience and mortality, the latter
    being the most personal to Keats, making as he
    does a direct reference to the death in 1818 of
    his brother, Tom.

14
Ode to a Nightingale - Form
  • The ode consists of eight stanzas, each
    containing ten lines. The rhyme scheme
    (ababcdecde) has a link to the Sonnet form. The
    poet makes use of enjambment between stanzas two
    and three.

15
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • John Keats was one of the pre-eminent Romantic
    poets who was influenced by Greek Classical
    literature and mythology. In his poem Ode to a
    Nightingale, which he writes after the death of
    his younger brother, he uses imagery to explicate
    his pain.

16
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • Keats is primarily using images to give
    expression to the pain and suffering. At the same
    time, he is using imagery to contrast the magical
    impact of melodious music of a nightingale. Here,
    Keats takes poetic license. While he addresses
    the nightingale as an individual bird, the
    implication of thou immortal bird is that he is
    addressing the species.

17
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • There is a continuous image of jump from self to
    bird, and from bird to self. This is followed be
    an image wherein Keats joins the bird with the
    help of Bacchus. The classical allusion to
    Bacchus creates an image of rollicking fun and
    gaiety.The full-throated ease leads Keats to
    the dream of an extremely enjoyable summer of
    Dance and Provencal song, and sun burnt mirth.
    This image of dance, music, and rollicking fun is
    heightened by the contrasting reference to human
    misery, weariness, the fever and the fret.

18
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • In this world where men sit and hear each other
    groan is the exact opposite of dance, song and
    happiness. The image of human misery is very
    profound when Keats alludes to his brothers
    death "Where youth grows pale , and spectre-thin
    and dies Where but to think is to be full of
    sorrow and leaden-eyed despairs".

19
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • This image, of the youth dying and transient
    nature of love, is further heightened by the
    image of Keats predicting his own death. As the
    poem progresses, Keats associates his death with
    the song. The image used by Keats of a human body
    becoming a clod of earth, the human body becoming
    one with the earth creates a vision of coffin
    being lowered into grave and covered by shovels
    of earth, the human body becoming one with earth
    and all the time sweet music being produced by
    the nightingale.

20
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • Hardly is this image digested by the reader that
    a new image is created and an extremely powerful
    at that! We see possibly a castle on the rocky
    shores with the sea waves rising up, and slapping
    the walls of the castle and slowly, as if by
    magic, the windows open.The image of the windows
    opening on stormy sea is evocative of some fairy
    princess being imprisoned by some ogre. This
    image works like a bell and the poet is tossed
    back to the world of reality. Keats is left
    wondering at his state - wake or sleep.

21
Ode to a Nightingale - Imagery
  • The whole poem can be seen as a movement of
    images right from the beginning to the end. Each
    image heightens the feeling that changes from
    sheer pain and numbness to fairy lands and a bell
    tolling back to reality.

22
Ode to a Nightingale - Mortality
  • Both the third and sixth stanzas contain
    references to mortality. The third stanza
    discusses the death of his brother, Tom, while
    the sixth expresses Keatss own fear of death.
    "Half in love with easeful death," found in the
    sixth stanza, shows his fear, not of death, but
    of a slow, painful one from Consumption

23
Ode on Grecian Urn
24
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • Introduction
  • 1.)Written in 1819, 'Ode on a Grecian Urn' was
    the third of the five 'great odes' of 1819, which
    are generally believed to have been written in
    the following order - Psyche, Nightingale,
    Grecian Urn, Melancholy, and Autumn.  Of the
    five, Grecian Urn and Melancholy are merely dated
    '1819'. 
  • 2.)This ode contains the most discussed two lines
    in all of Keats's poetry - '"Beauty is truth,
    truth beauty," - that is all/Ye know on earth,
    and all ye need to know.'  The exact meaning of
    those lines is disputed by everyone.

25
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • Content
  • In the first stanza, the speaker stands before an
    ancient Grecian urn and addresses it. He is
    preoccupied with its depiction of pictures frozen
    in time.
  • It is the "still unravish'd bride of quietness,"
    the "foster-child of silence and slow time." He
    also describes the urn as a "historian" that can
    tell a story. He wonders about the figures on the
    side of the urn and asks what legend they depict
    and from where they come.

26
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • Content
  • He looks at a picture that seems to depict a
    group of men pursuing a group of women and
    wonders what their story could be "What mad
    pursuit? What struggle to escape? / What pipes
    and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?"

27
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In the second stanza, the speaker looks at
    another picture on the urn, this time of a young
    man playing a pipe, lying with his lover beneath
    a glade of trees.
  • The speaker says that the piper's "unheard"
    melodies are sweeter than mortal melodies because
    they are unaffected by time.
  • He tells the youth that, though he can never kiss
    his lover because he is frozen in time, he should
    not grieve, because her beauty will never fade.

28
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In the third stanza, he looks at the trees
    surrounding the lovers and feels happy that they
    will never shed their leaves.
  • He is happy for the piper because his songs will
    be "for ever new," and happy that the love of the
    boy and the girl will last forever, unlike mortal
    love, which lapses into "breathing human passion"
    and eventually vanishes, leaving behind only a
    "burning forehead, and a parching tongue."

29
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In the fourth stanza, the speaker examines
    another picture on the urn, this one of a group
    of villagers leading a heifer to be sacrificed.
    He wonders where they are going ("To what green
    altar, O mysterious priest...") and from where
    they have come.
  • He imagines their little town, empty of all its
    citizens, and tells it that its streets will "for
    evermore" be silent, for those who have left it,
    frozen on the urn, will never return.

30
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In the final stanza, the speaker again addresses
    the urn itself, saying that it, like Eternity,
    "doth tease us out of thought.
  • " He thinks that when his generation is long
    dead, the urn will remain, telling future
    generations its enigmatic lesson "Beauty is
    truth, truth beauty." The speaker says that that
    is the only thing the urn knows and the only
    thing it needs to know.

31
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • It is true that the speaker shows a certain kind
    of progress in his successive attempts to engage
    with the urn. His idle curiosity in the first
    attempt gives way to a more deeply felt
    identification in the second, and in the third,
    the speaker leaves his own concerns behind and
    thinks of the processional purely on its own
    terms, thinking of the "little town" with a real
    and generous feeling.

32
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • But each attempt ultimately ends in failure. The
    third attempt fails simply because there is
    nothing more to say--once the speaker confronts
    the silence and eternal emptiness of the little
    town, he has reached the limit of static art on
    this subject, at least, there is nothing more the
    urn can tell him.

33
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In the final stanza, the speaker presents the
    conclusions drawn from his three attempts to
    engage with the urn. He is overwhelmed by its
    existence outside of temporal change, with its
    ability to "tease" him "out of thought / As doth
    eternity.
  • " If human life is a succession of "hungry
    generations," as the speaker suggests in
    "Nightingale," the urn is a separate and
    self-contained world. It can be a "friend to
    man," as the speaker says, but it cannot be
    mortal the kind of aesthetic connection the
    speaker experiences with the urn is ultimately
    insufficient to human life.

34
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • The final two lines, in which the speaker
    imagines the urn speaking its message to
    mankind--"Beauty is truth, truth beauty," have
    proved among the most difficult to interpret in
    the Keats canon.
  • After the urn utters the enigmatic phrase "Beauty
    is truth, truth beauty," no one can say for sure
    who "speaks" the conclusion, "that is all / Ye
    know on earth, and all ye need to know."

35
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • It could be the speaker addressing the urn, and
    it could be the urn addressing mankind. If it is
    the speaker addressing the urn, then it would
    seem to indicate his awareness of its
    limitations The urn may not need to know
    anything beyond the equation of beauty and truth,
    but the complications of human life make it
    impossible for such a simple and self-contained
    phrase to express sufficiently anything about
    necessary human knowledge.

36
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • If it is the urn addressing mankind, then the
    phrase has rather the weight of an important
    lesson, as though beyond all the complications of
    human life, all human beings need to know on
    earth is that beauty and truth are one and the
    same. It is largely a matter of personal
    interpretation which reading to accept.

37
Ode on a Grecian Urn
  • "Ode on a Grecian Urn" follows the same
    ode-stanza structure as the "Ode on Melancholy,"
    though it varies more the rhyme scheme of the
    last three lines of each stanza.
  • Each of the five stanzas in "Grecian Urn" is ten
    lines long, metered in a relatively precise
    iambic pentameter, and divided into a two part
    rhyme scheme, the last three lines of which are
    variable. The first seven lines of each stanza
    follow an ABABCDE rhyme scheme, but the second
    occurrences of the CDE sounds do not follow the
    same order.

38
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • In stanza one, lines seven through ten are rhymed
    DCE in stanza two, CED and in stanza five, DCE,
    just as in stanza one. As in other odes
    (especially "Autumn" and "Melancholy"), the
    two-part rhyme scheme (the first part made of AB
    rhymes, the second of CDE rhymes) creates the
    sense of a two-part thematic structure as well.

39
Ode on Grecian Urn
  • The first four lines of each stanza roughly
    define the subject of the stanza, and the last
    six roughly explicate or develop it. (As in other
    odes, this is only a general rule, true of some
    stanzas more than others stanzas such as the
    fifth do not connect rhyme scheme and thematic
    structure closely at all.)

40
  • Ode on Melancholy

41
Ode on Melancholy
  • Summary
  • The three stanzas of the "Ode on Melancholy"
    address the subject of how to cope with sadness.

42
Ode on Melancholy
  • Summary
  • The first stanza tells what not to do The
    sufferer should not "go to Lethe," or forget
    their sadness.
  • ?For shade to shade will come too drowsily, And
    drown the wakeful anguish of the soul.
    (Line9-10)

43
Ode on Melancholy
  • Summary
  • In the second stanza, the speaker tells the
    sufferer what to do in place of the things he
    forbade in the first stanza. When afflicted with
    "the melancholy fit," the sufferer should instead
    overwhelm his sorrow with natural beauty,
    glutting it on the morning rose, "on the rainbow
    of the salt sand-wave," or in the eyes of his
    beloved.

44
Ode on Melancholy
  • Summary
  • In the third stanza, the speaker explains
    these injunctions, saying that pleasure and pain
    are inextricably linked Beauty must die, joy is
    fleeting, and the flower of pleasure is forever.
  • ? Turning to poison while the bee-mouth sips."
    The speaker says that the shrine of melancholy is
    inside the "temple of Delight," but that it is
    only visible if one can overwhelm oneself with
    joy until it reveals its center of sadness, by
    "bursting Joy's grape against his palate fine."
    The man who can do this shall "taste the sadness"
    of melancholy's might and "be among her cloudy
    trophies hung."

45
Ode on Melancholy
  • Vocabulary and Allusions
  • Stanza I
  • Line 1, Lethe river in the underworld Hades
    in which
  • souls about to be
    reborn bathed to forget
  • the past hence,
    river of forgetfulness.
  • Line 2, wolf's-bane poison
  • Line 4, nightshade poison
  • Proserpine the queen of the
    underworld.
  • Proserpine
    was kidnapped by Pluto
  • and taken to
    Hades, his kingdom. Her
  • mother
    Demeter, the goddess of
  • fertility and
    grain, grieve for her loss
  • and the earth
    became sterile.
  • Line 5, yew-berries symbol of mourning. The
    yew is

  • traditionally associated with mourning.          
    rosary prayer beads.

46
Ode on Melancholy
  • Vocabulary and Allusions
  • Stanza I
  • Line 6, beetle The Egyptians regarded the
    beetle as sacred as a
    symbol of resurrection,
    a jewel-beetle or
    scarab was placed in tombs.        
     death-moth the death's head moth, so
    called because its
    markings
    resemble a human skull. Line 7, Psyche in Greek,
    the soul or mind as
    well as butterfly (used as its
    emblem). Line 8, mysteries secret rites.

47
Ode on Melancholy
  • Vocabulary and Allusions
  • Stanza III Line 8, palate the roof of the
    mouth, hence, the sense
    of taste sometimes,
    intellectual or aesthetic taste.          
    fine refined, sensitive.

48
Ode on Melancholy
  • Form
  • "Ode on Melancholy," the shortest of Keats's
    odes, is written in a very regular form that
    matches its logical, argumentative thematic
    structure. Each stanza is ten lines long and
    metered in a relatively precise iambic
    pentameter. The first two stanzas, offering
    advice to the sufferer, follow the same rhyme
    scheme, ABABCDECDE the third, which explains the
    advice, varies the ending slightly, following a
    scheme of ABABCDEDCE, so that the rhymes of the
    eighth and ninth lines are reversed in order from
    the previous two stanzas.

49
Finis...
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