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Radiation Safety Training

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Marie Curie - student of Henri, determined the emissions were radiation and ... Irene Joliot-Curie - induction of radioactive material Ni, P and Si (1935 Nobel Prize) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Radiation Safety Training


1
Radiation Safety Training
  • Short course at
  • MSUM
  • Radiation Safety Officer
  • Joseph J Provost

2
Introduction
  • Radiation and radioactive materials can be
    valuable tools in research
  • There are 3 labs using radioactive isotopes at
    MSUM
  • Radioactive materials are used in a variety of
    disciplines, ranging from the biological sciences
    to physics even art!

3
Radiation and You
  • Radiation and radioactive materials are safe if
    used properly
  • Background radiation is the ionizing radiation
    emitted from a variety of natural and artificial
    radiation sources

Your exposure can never realistically be zero,
because background radiation is always present
4
Decay
  • Radiation from radioactive materials is the
    result of radioactive decay. An atom with an
    unstable nucleus will decay until it becomes a
    stable atom, emitting radiation as it decays.

5
Introduction
  • Radioactivity comes from the atomic nucleus, not
    from the electron cloud.
  • Without instruments, radioactivity cannot be
    seen, felt, smelled, tasted, or detected by human
    beings.
  • For this reason, it went undiscovered until this
    century.

6
Where Does It Come From?
  • Radiation results from an unstable nucleus

e-
e-
H-3
This is called radioactive decay
7
Who found it?
  • 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered natural radiation
    - Uranium energy captured by phosphorus and X-Ray
    film
  • Marie Curie - student of Henri, determined the
    emissions were radiation and found the
    radioactive element - Radium and Polonium. First
    person to win two Nobel Prizes in two fields
    (1903 and 1911) one with HB and one with her
    husband
  • Irene Joliot-Curie - induction of radioactive
    material Ni, P and Si (1935 Nobel Prize)

8
Decay
  • For example, the H-3 (also known as tritium)
    nucleus consists of one proton and two neutrons.
    When undergoing radioactive decay, one of the
    tritium neutrons emits an electron and becomes a
    proton resulting in He-3, which has three protons
    and one neutron.

e-
3H
3He
9
  • Sometimes a substance will progress through
    several radioactive decays until it reaches a
    stable state.

10
Where Does it Come From?
  • Radiation results from an unstable nucleus

e-
e-
He-3
H-3
  • This is called radioactive decay

11
Nuclear Arithmetic
  • Protons and neutrons are collectively called
    nucleons
  • where
  • 1. Number of neutrons A-Z
  • 2. The nucleon number of an isotope is written as
    a suffix to the name ex. Hydrogen - 2

X chemical symbol A nucleon number (sum of p
and n) Z atomic number ( of p)
12
Transmutation
  • Not all nuclei are radioactive
  • OF ALL OF THESE ARE ISOTOPES, ONLY ONE IS
    RADIOACTIVE!

13
Transmutation
  • Not all nuclei are radioactive. Some nuclei are
    stable while other are radioactive those that
    are radioactive are sometimes referred to as
    RADIOISOTOPES.

14
Radioactive Decay
  • Radioactive decay is a random event
  • Half life is the time it takes for half of the
    nuclei is a substance to undergo radioactive
    decay

of unstable nuclei
long half life
short half life
Time
15
Half Life
  • Radioactive decay occurs randomly, that is, it is
    not known when

individual atoms will undergo decay. However,
although the decay of individual atoms is random,
a radioactive substance, consisting of many
atoms, will decay according to a known pattern.
16
  • A property often used to describe a radioactive
    substance is known as the half-life.
  • The half life is the time it takes for half of
    the unstable nuclei in the radioactive substance
    to undergo radioactive decay.

17
For example, the half-life of P-32 is 14.3 days.
  • If you start with 100 microcuries(the unit of the
    microcurie will be explained later) of P-32 ,
    after 14.3 days there would be 50 microcuries
    left.
  • After another 14.3 days there would be 25
    microcuries left.
  • After 10 half-lives, only about 1/1000th
    (actually 1/210, which is 1/1024) of the original
    will be left.

18
  • There is a wide range of half-lives for
    isotopesThe half-life of P-32 is only 14.3 days
    whereas the half-life of C-14 is 5730 years

19
Radioactive decay Equation
  • Activity(A)number of nuclei (N) that decay per
    unit of time
  • A(t) dN/dt -lN(t) A(t) AOe-lt

AO
initial activity
of undecayed nuclei (N)
l is called the decay constant
time(t)
20
Half-life the Decay Constant
  • Half-life (t1/2) is related to the constant
    according to this equationt1/2 (ln 2)/l

AO
Activity
1/2 AO
1/2 AO
t1/2
t1/2
Time
21
Radioactive Emissions
  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles

22
Radioactive Emissions
  • Alpha particles contain two protons and two
    neutrons (a helium nucleus). They have an atomic
    number of 2.

23
Properties-Alpha Particles
  • consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
  • have 2 charge
  • can only travel up to a few centimeters in air
  • are stopped by the protective layer of your skin

2
24
Alpha emitters
  • We do not currently use isotopes which emit alpha
    particles
  • Generally these are elements which are very heavy
  • Atomic Number greater than 83
  • Thorium, radon and so on.

25
Radioactive Emissions
  • Alpha particles contain two protons and two
    neutrons (a helium nucleus). They have an atomic
    number of 2.
  • Beta particles

26
Radioactive Emissions
  • Alpha particles contain two protons and two
    neutrons (a helium nucleus). They have an atomic
    number of 2.
  • Beta particles are simply electrons. Beta
    radiation is a stream of electrons.

27
Properties - Beta Particles
b
b
  • Beta particles
  • are either an electron (-1 charge) or positron
    (1 charge)
  • travel about 12 feet per MeV in air
  • Higher energy betas should be shielded with low Z
    materials such as Plexiglas/Lucite or wood

b-
28
Typical beta isotopes
  • We use several ß emitters at MSU. These can be
    classified as low or high energy particles

29
Radioactive Emissions
  • Gamma rays
  • Positron emission

30
Radioactive Emissions
  • Gamma rays are a high energy form of
    electromagnetic radiation. They are similar to
    light waves but have shorter wavelengths and are
    more energetic.
  • Positron emission

31
Properties - Gamma Rays
  • Gamma rays
  • are photons that originate from the nucleus of
    the atom
  • do not carry a charge
  • can cause ionization when they interact
  • should be shielded with high Z materials, such as
    lead, if appropriate

32
  • Some possible gamma emitters
  • 22Na
  • 36Cl
  • 125I
  • 131 I

33
Radioactive Emissions
  • Gamma rays are a high energy form of
    electromagnetic radiation. They are similar to
    light waves but have shorter wavelengths and are
    more energetic.
  • Positron emission equal in mass to beta particles
    but opposite in charge

34
Radiation particles
35
Properties - Characteristic X-rays
  • Characteristic X-rays are generated when
    electrons fall from higher energy to lower energy
    electron shells



e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
e-
X
36
Properties - Bremsstrahlung X-rays
  • Bremsstrahlung X-rays are created when electrons
    are slowed down in the field of a nucleus

e-

X
e-
37
Penetrating Power
  • The penetrating power of radiation varies in
    part due to their masses and their charges
  • Protection from radiation - distance and shielding

38
Penetrating Power
  • Alpha - outside of body little damage, not able
    to penetrate skin. Inside of the body causes
    much damage to tissues cells DNA and Proteins
  • Beta - some harm but much less than alpha can go
    through skin
  • Gamma - is the most harmful easily penetrates
    skin and damages DNA and Cells as it rips
    through

39
Exposure
  • Elements tend to concentrate in certain parts of
    the body
  • I - Thyroid
  • S - Skin
  • P - Bone
  • H - Throughout

40
Radiation Units
  • There are specific units for the amount of
    radiation you receive in a given time and for the
    total amount of exposure you are subjected to.

41
Measuring radioactivity rates -What Is a Curie?
  • This is the amount of radioactivity in a sample
    (the amount of radioactivity activity)
  • A commonly-used unit for measuring activity is
    the curie(Ci)
  • 1 curie is equal to 2.2 x 1012 disintegrations
    per minute (dpm)
  • Typical activities found in a university lab are
    in the microcurie (mCi) to millicurie (mCi) range

42
Measuring radioactivity rates- What is a
Becquerel (Bq)
  • The amount of radioactive material which decays
    at a rate of one disintegratration per second
    (dps)
  • This is the SI unit of radioactive material or
    activity

43
CPM DPM
  • CPM is the counts per minute that a detector
    sees
  • DPM are the actual disintegrations (release of
    energy) by a radioactive sample disintegrations
    per minute
  • Since detectors arent 100 efficient...DPM
    CPM / Detector Efficiency(the detector
    efficiency for the specific radioisotope, that is)

44
Radiation Dose vs Rate
  • Dose is the amount of radiation you were actually
    exposed to
  • Roentogen - This can only be used to describe an
    amount of gamma and X-rays, and only in air. One
    roentgen is equal to depositing in dry air enough
    energy to cause 2.58E-4 coulombs per kg. It is a
    measure of the ionizations of the molecules in a
    mass of air. (NOT a or b particles)

45
What is a REM?
  • REM - The most common used unit for measuring
    radiation dose in people is the rem
  • REM Roentgen equivalent for man, a roentgen (an
    international unit of X- or gamma-radiation)
    adjusted for the atomic makeup of the human body
  • Since the rem is a relatively large unit, it is
    more common to use the millirem (mrem), which is
    1/1000th of a rem

46
Rem is a Dose equilavent
  • The Dose equivalent is the product of the
    absorbed dose in tissue times a quality factor
  • This relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to
    the effective biological damage of the
    radiation.
  • Not all radiation has the same biological effect,
    even for the same amount of absorbed dose.
  • Rem Quality factor x dose in rads
  • Sievert is the SI unit of dose equivalent

47
Quality factors
  • X and gamma rays 1
  • Beta particles 1
  • Thermal Neutrons 2
  • Fast Neutrons 10
  • Protons 10
  • Alpha particles 20

48
Other Dose Units
  • Rad (Radiation Absorbed Dose)- this is the amount
    of exposure to any type of material from any type
    of radiation measured in Joules/kg tissue
  • The Gray is the absorbed dose that corresponds to
    the transfer of 1 joule to 1 kg of material (SI
    unit). Does not relate to biological effects.

49
Background Radiation
  • Natural sources 300 mrem Medical 53 m
  • Occupational 0.9 mrem Nuclear Fuel 0.05 mrem
  • Consumer products 5-13 mrem
  • Misc. environmental 0.06 mrem

From NCRP Report 93
50
Occupational Radiation Exposure Limits
  • Whole body 5,000 mrem/year
  • Extremities 50,000 mrem/year
  • Eye 15,000 mrem/year
  • Fetus 500 mrem/gestation period (declared
    pregnancy)
  • Minors 500 mrem/year
  • Rad workers 100 mrem/year over background

51
Review
  • Rate - of disintegration
  • DPM
  • Curie
  • Becquerel (SI)
  • NOT CPM
  • Dose - amount of radiation exposed
  • Roentogen
  • Rad
  • Gray (SI)
  • REM (equivalent)
  • Sievert (SI equivalent)

52
Declared Pregnant Woman
  • A woman who has voluntarily informed the
    Radiation Safety Section in writing of her
    pregnancy and estimated date of conception

53
Relative Risk -A Comparison
Examples of relative risk adapted from Cohen and
Lee, A Catalogue of Risks, Health Physics,
vol. 36, June 1979.
54
Reduction in life span
  • Activity Avg. Reduction
  • Living in a city Vs country 5 years
  • Single Vs. Married 5 years
  • Male Vs female 3 years
  • Radiation
  • Cosmic 25 days
  • Medical 30 days
  • Terrestrial 50 - 100 days
  • World fallout 1 day

55
Biological effects
  • Two types stochastic and non-stochastic
  • Stochastic effects
  • Stochastic effects are associated with long-term,
    low-level (chronic) exposure to radiation.
    ("Stochastic" refers to the likelihood that
    something will happen.)
  • Increased levels of exposure make these health
    effects more likely to occur, but do not
    influence the type or severity of the effect.
  • The severity of the ultimate effect is not linked
    to the amount of the dose
  • There is NO threshold for the effects to be
    observed - Rad safety assumes no safe amount.

56
Somatic, Prompt Effects
Acute Dose (rem) Syndrome 1 - 25 No
detectable effects 25 - 100 Slight sickness
RBCs drop 100-1000 Hemopoietic 1000-5000 Gas
tointestinal 5000-10000 Central Nervous System
57
Gamma Radiation
  • Absorbed Dose Survival Probability
  • 100 rad Virtually certain
  • 100 - 200 rad Probable
  • 200 - 450 rad Probable
  • 500 - 600 rad Almost impossible
  • 900 - 1200 rad Possible in some cases
  • with bone marrow t-plant

58
Non-stochastic effects
  • Severity of the result is related to the dose
    (usually high dose).
  • Adverse effect happens soon after exposure and
    can be directly linked to exposure
  • Generally related to a large dose over a short
    time
  • There is a threshold level - observed effects
    follow typical distribution around a dose

59
Cancer Risks
Excess Cancer Deaths after Acute, one-time
exposure to 10 rem per 100,000 People (BEIR V)
Adult Leukemia 95 Cancer of
digestive system 230 Cancer of Respiratory
System 170 Leukemia risk (without excess 10
rem) was 685 excess deaths per 100,000 people
(1980 Vital Statistics of the U.S.)
60
Teratogenic Effects
Another class of biological effects of concern
are called the teratogenic effects.
Teratogenic effects are effects which occur in
offspring as a result of exposure to a hazard
while in-utero
61
Maternal Factors Pregnancy
62
Occupational Dose
Annual Limits For Workers
  • Whole body(active blood forming organs) 5 REM
  • Eyes - 15 REM Extremities - 50 REM
  • Minors (10 of adult limits)
  • Embryo/Fetus - 0.5 REM over the entire pregnancy.

Annual Limits For General Public
  • Total Effective Dose Equivalent lt 0.1 REM

63
ALARA
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
MSUM is committed to keeping radiation
exposures to personnel ALARA
64
ALARA
Education - Ensure proper training and use
reduces unnecessary exposure Dose - The lower the
dose the better, but all within reason Reasonable
- is determined on a case by case basis with the
PI and RSO Protection - Use proper shielding and
reduce time of exposure
65
Radiation Protection
The three principles of radiation
protection Time Distance
Shielding
66
Time
Decreasing the time spent near a radiation
source decreases radiation exposure
67
Distance
Increasing the distance from a radiation source
decreases radiation exposure
68
Shielding

Increasing the shielding of a radiation source
decreases radiation exposure
shield
69
Shielding Beta Emitters
  • H-3, C-14, S-35 do not require shielding for the
    quantities typically in use.
  • Higher energy beta-emitters, such as P-32, may
    need to be shielded
  • Shield with low Z materials, such as Plexiglas or
    wood
  • Do NOT shield with high Z materials, such as
    lead- you can actually generate additional
    radiation in the form of x-rays!

70
Shielding Gamma Emitters
  • Lead Shielding is not required for most
    quantities of gamma emitters in use, such as
    I-125 or Cr-51
  • If lead shielding is used, be careful not to
    contaminate it with long-lived radioisotopes

71
Protective Clothing
  • Gloves
  • Lab Coat
  • Eyewear
  • Closed toe footwear

72
Contamination Control
  • Watch out where you put your hot little hands
    during an experiment
  • Monitor yourself and your work area frequently
    for radioactivity
  • Make sure to wash your hands after finishing an
    experiment

73
Avoid Ingesting Radioactive Material
  • Dont bring hands or objects to your mouth when
    performing an experiment
  • Eating, drinking, smoking, and applying cosmetics
    are strictly forbidden in radioisotope use areas
  • Never mouth pipette
  • Food doesnt belong in a refrigerator which
    stores radioactive materials

74
Avoid inhaling radioactive material
  • Make sure that you have proper ventilation for
    your experiment
  • When using volatile materials, use a fume hood
    which has been certified

75
Radioactive Signs Labels
Radioisotopes use areas should be
clearly marked Use warning signs/ labels
on - work areas - rad waste containers
- sinks - refrigerators - equipment
76
Using H-3 (Tritium)
  • Betas from H-3 are stopped by the protective
    layer of your skin- shielding is not needed for
    quantities typically in use at MSUM
  • H-3 tends to creep - do not store tritiated
    water in refrigerators or freezers without
    keeping in a sealed container
  • Can not detect by Geiger counter - must use a
    wipe test.

77
Using C-14 S-35
  • Shielding is not needed for quantities typically
    in use at MSUM
  • Spot checks for contamination can be performed
    using direct monitoring, but contamination
    surveys must be performed using a swipe survey
  • These isotopes can not be detected by Geiger
    counter.

78
Using P-32
  • If shielding is needed, use a low Z material such
    as wood or Plexiglas
  • Do NOT use lead shielding- x-rays can be
    generated
  • Geiger counter or wipe test will measure this
    isotope.

79
Using Carrier-free I-125
  • Perform iodination as quickly as possible in a
    certified fume hood
  • Reduce (iodine to iodide) all fractions, liquid
    waste and equipment used ASAP
  • Store unused portions and items which cannot be
    reduced inside a sealed bag with activated
    charcoal in a fume hood
  • Geiger counters will detect this isotope

80
General Spill Procedures
  • When cleaning up a spill, place absorbent
    material around the edges of the spill and clean
    from the outside edges of the spill towards the
    center to avoid spreading contamination
  • Place materials used to clean the spill into the
    appropriate radioactive waste containers
  • The Radiation Safety Officer can provide advice
    to lab personnel regarding decontamination
    procedures

81
Minor Radioactive Spills
  • A minor spill is one that involves small
    quantities/activities/energies of radioactive
    material confined to a relatively localized area
  • Most spills that occur in the lab are minor, and
    should be cleaned up by lab personnel ASAP
  • You do not need to inform the Radiation Safety
    Officer in the event of a minor spill

82
Intermediate Spills
  • An intermediate spill may involve larger amounts
    of radioactive material spread over a greater
    area
  • Intermediate spills can also involve small
    amounts of more hazardous radioactive materials,
    e.g., higher energy emitters

83
Intermediate Spills- What to Do
  • Confine contamination with absorbent materials
  • Check yourself for contamination before leaving
    area remove contaminated clothing and shoes.
  • Restrict access to the spill area
  • If the spill involves a volatile material,
    increase ventilation if it is a dry spill,
    decrease ventilation

84
Intermediate Spills- What to Do(cont..)
  • If contamination is widespread outside the lab,
    it may be necessary to contact campus police to
    assist with traffic control
  • Contact the Radiation Safety Officer (5085/4323)
    to report the spill
  • Do not attempt decontamination unless the
    situation threatens to become much worse

85
High Level Spills
  • Protecting personnel is the FIRST priority
  • If high level exposures or airborne contamination
    are possible - evacuate area immediately -
    rid yourself of contamination - keep others out
    of area

86
And Another Thing About Spills
You will not be penalized for reporting a spill,
but on the other hand.
87
Radiation Survey Requirements
  • When should Surveys be conducted?-
  • Whenever radioactive materials are present in the
    lab, contamination surveys MUST be performed and
    documented at least once a week.
  • The area you are working with must be surveyed
    before finishing for the day.
  • If no experiments are being conducted, it is
    permissible to halt tests until starting again.

88
Contamination Surveys
  • Direct monitoring with a Geiger counter can be
    performed when using P-32 and other high energy
    beta emitters
  • Swipe surveys must be performed for low energy
    beta emitters (e.g., H-3, C-14, S-35) and must be
    counted in a liquid scintillation counter or
    equivalent instrument
  • Direct monitoring with a low energy gamma probe
    (NaI) can be performed when using gamma emitters
    such as I-125

89
General Survey Information
  • Randomly survey selected areas outside of normal
    radioisotope use areas at least once a month
  • Using a map of your lab can make documenting
    surveyed areas easier
  • Look for levels twice as large as the background
  • Check for contamination wherever human hands
    normally go...

90
10 Most Often Contaminated Sites
10. Soap/towel dispenser 9. Microwave
oven 8. Radio dials 7. Phones 6. Pens/pencils
5. Chairs 4. Drawer handles 3. Refrigerator h
andles 2. Lab books
1. Geiger counters
91
Documenting Surveys
  • Contamination surveys must be documented
  • Record the following - date performed -
    area(s) surveyed ( a map helps!) -
    results - identity of surveyor -
    instrument used - action taken is
    contamination is found

92
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93
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94
Step-by-step Guide to Direct Monitoring - Before
You Start
  • 1 Don protective
  • equipment (e.g. gloves)
  • 2 Check your Geiger
  • counter
  • - battery test
  • - note background
  • radiation level
  • - turn on speaker
  • - check probe with
  • check source

95
Step-by-step Guide to Direct Monitoring, How-to
  • 3 Switch Geiger counter to lowest multiplier,
    usually X1
  • 4 Hold probe window 1 cm from the surface you are
    surveying
  • 5 Move probe over surface at a rate of about 1
    cm/second
  • 6 If surveying for alpha or beta contamination,
    do not cover probe with parafilm or plastic wrap

96
Step-by-step Guide to Swipe Surveys- General Tips
  • Change gloves frequently
  • Avoid cross-contaminating samples
  • Use filter paper or cotton swabs

97
Step-by-step Guide to Swipe Surveys, How-to
  • 1. Don protective equipment (e.g., gloves)
  • 2. Lightly moisten swipe with alcohol or water
  • 3. Using uniform pressure, swipe an area about
    100-200 cm2 (survey a discrete area so that if
    contamination is found the area will be easier to
    identify)

98
Radioactive Material Delivery
  • Deliveries are generally performed every weekday
    afternoon except for University holidays
  • All packages are delivered the same day that they
    are received we will not hold a package unless
    absolutely necessary
  • If you did not receive a package you were
    expecting, contact your business office, the
    vendor and the carrier before calling the
    Radiation Safety Officer

99
Receipt of Radioactive Materials
  • Open containers with volatile, gaseous or readily
    dispersible materials in a fume hood
  • When you receive your shipment, check the inner
    container for leakage- a simple swipe test is
    sufficient
  • If there is a problem with the shipment, notify
    the Radiation Safety Officer immediately
  • Remember to document the receipt if radioactive
    material in your labs records

100
Personnel Monitoring
  • Personnel monitoring devices are assigned at the
    discretion of the Radiation Safety Officer in
    accordance with all applicable rules and
    regulation

101
The Care and Feeding of Your Dosimeter
  • Always
  • make available for exchange on the appropriate
    exchange date
  • report contamination of dosimetry
  • store away from radioactive sources
  • Never
  • share dosimetry
  • remove film from holder
  • expose to heat
  • take off campus
  • intentionally expose to radiation

102
Wearing Dosimeters
  • Whole Body
  • wear between neckline and waist unless otherwise
    instructed
  • wear with name on badge facing outwards
  • Extremity
  • the label side of the ring should usually face
    the palm
  • wear gloves over ring, if possible

103
Missing Dosimeters
  • If you lose, damage or fail to make dosimeters
    available for exchange you will be required to
    provide a detailed description of all radioactive
    sources in use during the wear period

104
Storage of Radioactive Waste
  • Each radioactive waste container must have a
    Caution Radioactive Materials sign/label
  • Radioactive waste containers must be stored in a
    controlled area

105
Radioactive Waste Types
Solid
Liquid
Sharps
Carcass
106
Solid Radioactive Waste
  • Segregate waste into three categories
  • glass and plastic that cannot be decontaminated
    easily
  • paper, gloves, etc.
  • short-lived waste (T1/2 lt 90 days) to be held for
    decay
  • Line containers with clear plastic bags at least
    4 mils thick
  • Do not put liquids into the solid waste

107
Liquid Waste
  • Organic
  • store in 1 - 5 gal plastic carboys with outer
    containment
  • filter out solids (use 60 mesh screen)
  • pH must be adjusted to between 6.8 and 8.0
  • Aqueous
  • low activity waste can be disposed into the
    sanitary sewer system in specific amounts and/or
    concentrations with prior approval from the
    Radiation Safety Officer only

108
Radioactive Sharps
  • radioactive sharps are items such as Pasteur
    pipettes, syringes and hypodermic needles
  • most glass items (test tubes, vials, etc.) can be
    decontaminated and should not be disposed of as
    radioactive sharps

109
Radioactive Carcasses
  • Prior arrangements must be made with the
    Radiation Safety Officer for disposal of
    radioactive carcasses

110
User Definitions
Principle Investigator - Tenure Track MSUM
Faculty. Approved by Radiation Safety
Committee Workers - Those staff or research
students, who are using radioactive materials
under the supervision of a principle investigator
111
User Responsibility
  • Principle Investigator -Ensure that all
    procedures are authorized and followed.
  • - Ensure surveys are conducted and reported
  • Monitor use and disposal of isotopes
  • Ensure their workers are trained
  • Workers - Must be trained and pass short course
    test
  • Must practice ALARA and monitor use
  • Conduct surveys and report spills or contamination

112
SL 222 Access
Principle Investigator - Has full access to side
rooms and main room keys Workers - May only have
access to outside doors of SL222 after passing
test. Can not have full access to side rooms.
Must get those keys from PI.
113
MSUM Radiation Safety Manual
  • The MSUM Radiation Safety Manual contains
    information that all users of radiation sources
    at MSUM should know
  • Permission to use
  • Worker and PI responsibilities
  • Health Definitions
  • Forms in the handbook and on the web
  • www.mnstate.edu/provost/radsafe.html

114
MSUM Radiation Authorization
  • Now What?
  • Rad Safe Test - take on your own
  • You must take the MSUM Rad Safe test and pass
    with a score of 75
  • The test is found on-line.
  • Sign and agree to info on the test form
  • Complete forms 1 and 2 (also found online)
  • Turn forms and test to Dr Provost
  • Orientation - you must make appt
  • Conducted by RSO (Dr. Provost)
  • Tour / review of site and storage
  • Answer questions on use and procedures
  • Wipe test/Survey review
  • Key control / access privilege
  • Web site Handbook review
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