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Animal Science 2-Small Animal

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Title: Animal Science 2-Small Animal


1
Animal Science 2-Small Animal
  • Unit I-Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

2
Competency 21.00
  • Summarize the use of fish, amphibians, and
    retiles for pets.

3
Objective 21.01
  • Identify the major species of fish, amphibians,
    and reptiles used for pets.

4
Species/Breeds of Fish
  • Egg laying fish
  • Koi
  • Goldfish
  • Betas
  • Tetras
  • Barbs
  • Catfish
  • Chinese Algae EaterHeadstanders

5
Koi
  • Member of the goldfish family used in cold water
    aquariums
  • Prefer water temperatures between 32-68F
  • Moved to outside pools once they reach 5 in
    length and may grow to 3 in a pool of adequate
    size
  • Occupy all levels of the pool or aquarium

6
Koi
  • Colors range from yellow or orange to
    multi-colors of blue, white, and red

7
Goldfish
  • Very popular first fish for many children
  • Hardy and easy to keep freshwater fish that
    prefers pools or cold water aquariums
  • Prefer a temperature range of 32-68F
  • Can live in various types of water as long as
    water is kept clean

8
Goldfish
9
Betas
  • Freshwater fish that are very aggressive
  • Frequently kept alone as a specimen fish in a
    species-only aquarium
  • Males must never be put in the same aquarium
  • One or two females may be put in a community
    aquarium but it may affect their coloration
  • Prefer a temperature range of 80F 3

10
Betas
Female Beta
Male Beta
11
Tetras
  • Easy to medium care ornamental fish that prefer
    soft water that is slightly acidic
  • A very sociable fish that does well in community
    aquariums
  • Average 1 ½-3 in length
  • One species is the neon

12
Tetras
13
Barbs
  • Freshwater fish that like water 73-77 F
  • Occupy lower levels and average 2-4 in length
  • Eat all types of food

14
Catfish
  • Grown as ornamentals including the upside-down
    catfish, glass catfish, and electric catfish
  • Prefer their water temperature to be 70-80 F

15
Chinese Algae Eater
  • Soaking loach that grows up to 10 long when the
    aquarium size permits
  • Large, fleshy lips that can cling to vegetation,
    rocks or the sides of a glass aquarium
  • Good community fish and feed off algae
  • Prefer a water temperature of 70-80F

16
Chinese Algae Eater
17
Headstanders
  • Grow 3-5 long and are known for the way they
    position themselves vertically with their head
    down while at rest
  • Middle to bottom dwellers that are excellent in
    community aquariums
  • Prefer a temperature of 79F

18
Headstander
19
Livebearing fish
  • Give birth to live young
  • Live in shoals or groups of five or more
  • Guppies
  • Swordtails
  • Mollies
  • Platys

20
Guppies
  • Most popular
  • Varieties only differ in shapes of their fins and
    tails
  • Prefer water temperatures 68-75F
  • May average giving birth to 50 young, but adults
    may try to eat the young fry

21
Guppies
22
Swordtails
  • Known for its long sword-like caudal fin
  • Like environment similar to guppies
  • Average 3-4 ¾ long
  • Prefer water temperatures 68-70F

23
Mollies
  • Most species are black and differ only in the
    size of their fins
  • Prefer water temperatures 72-82F
  • Dwell in large groups or schools
  • Have problems with large fins (may grow so large
    that swimming is difficult)

24
Mollies
25
Platys
  • Very popular
  • Average only 2 ½ in length
  • Prefer water temperature 68-77F

26
Saltwater Breeds
  • Live in saltwater and require the addition of
    sodium chloride (salt) to create a marine
    environment
  • Most of these ornamental fish lay eggs
  • Angelfish
  • Butterfly fish
  • Brasslets
  • Clown fish
  • Sergeant Major

27
Angelfish
  • Some can live in freshwater
  • Delicate in appearance, but are very hardy
  • Eggs are carried in the parents mouth and placed
    either in foliage or sand as part of the
    incubation process
  • Prefer water temperature of 77-86F

28
Angelfish
29
Butterfly Fish
  • Beautiful and very popular marine fish
  • Need lots of space because they are territorial
    and need to be separated from other butterfly
    fish
  • Prefer water temperature of 75-82F

30
Butterfly Fish
31
Brasslets
  • Small, popular, colorful fish for marine
    aquariums
  • Royal gamma is the suggested brasslet for
    beginner marine aquarists
  • Mix well with other species, but must be isolated
    from their own due to aggressive nature
  • Eat a diet of brine shrimp
  • Prefer water temperatures 79-82F

32
Clown Fish
  • Orange in color with three white bands encircling
    the body
  • Each white band fins are edged in black
  • Known for their ability to live around the
    tentacles of the sea anemone in a mutually
    beneficial relationship known as symbiosis

33
Clown Fish
34
Sergeant Major
  • Marine fish that grows to 7 in length
  • Silver-blue in color with a yellow tinge on its
    body and has seven vertical dark bands on each
    side.

35
Breeds of Amphibians
  • Newts
  • Salamanders
  • Frogs
  • Toads

36
Newts and Salamanders
  • Range in size from a few inches to 5 or more
  • Usually have four legs and long tails

37
Frogs and Toads
  • Differ in that frogs make a croaking noise, have
    slender, longer bodies, and moist skin while
    toads have a rough skin and dry appearance
  • True frogs include the American Bullfrog and may
    grow to 14 long

38
Frogs and Toads
  • American Toad is the common toad in the eastern
    United States
  • Green Tree Frog is actually a yellow-green toad
    with a yellow stripe running from its lower jaw
    back along its sides

39
Species of Reptiles
  • Boa constrictors
  • Garter snakes
  • Green anole
  • Skinks
  • Savannah Monitor
  • Chameleon

40
Boa Constrictors
  • Popular pets because they adjust well to
    captivity and tame quickly
  • May grow 18 long
  • Like to feed on small animals, birds, fish, and
    eggs

41
Garter Snakes
  • Adjust well in captivity and can be tamed
  • Easily recognized by stripes running the length
    of their body
  • May reach 2-3 in length

42
Green Anole
  • An iguana that is often found in pet stores
  • Reaches a length of 8 and feeds on insects
  • Changes color from various shades of gray to brown

43
Skinks
  • Very tame and make excellent pets
  • Secretive and do best with leaves to burrow under
  • May reach 2 in length

44
Savannah Monitor
  • A lizard that can be used as a pet
  • May reach sizes up to 6 or more and become hard
    to handle

45
Common Chameleon
  • A true chameleon that reaches about 10 in length
  • Can change their colors rapidly to adapt to their
    surroundings

46
Objective 21.02
  • Discuss the physiology of fish, amphibians, and
    reptiles.

47
Terminology
  • Ornamental fish-
  • Kept for their appearance (bright colors and
    fancy fins)
  • Personal appeal to people
  • Not usually used for food

48
Terminology
  • Tropical fish
  • Popular fish for aquariums that come from the
    warmer regions of the world

49
Terminology
  • Marine fish
  • Fish that are kept in salt water aquariums
  • Often more colorful than freshwater varieties

50
Terminology
  • Freshwater fish
  • Fish that are kept in a freshwater tank
  • Often the most popular fish for pets

51
Terminology
  • Community fish
  • Fish that do well in an aquarium with other fish
    species
  • Examples include Tetras, barbs, catfish,
    Mollies, Platys, and Swordtails

52
Terminology
  • Species fish
  • Do best in an aquarium with fish of the same
    species
  • Examples Blind Cave Fish, Piranhas, Red-Tailed
    Shark, Schomburgks Leaf Fish, Spiny eels,
    Killifish (one pair alone in an aquarium), Betas
    (alone in an aquarium)

53
Terminology
  • Gonopodium
  • Modification of anal fin into a tube-shaped organ
    in male live-bearers that provides passage for
    sperm packets to enter the oviduct of the female

54
Terminology
  • Live bearer
  • Fish that give birth to live young
  • Examples guppies, Mollies, Platys, and
    Swordtails

55
Terminology
  • Egg layers
  • Fish that expel eggs from the female to be
    fertilized by the male
  • Examples tetras, barbs, catfish, goldfish

56
Terminology
  • Shoals
  • Small colonies of fish
  • Some species prefer to live in shoals
  • Examples African refin, catfish, tetras

57
Terminology
  • Spawning
  • The reproduction ritual where eggs are deposited
    and fertilized by egg laying species of fish

58
Terminology
  • Scales
  • Thin, bony plates that develop from and are
    embedded in dermis
  • Overlap each other and provide protection
  • Exposed part of the scale is covered with a thin
    layer of epidermis that produces a slimy mucous
    which protects the fish from water borne bacteria

59
Water/Salt Requirements
  • Fish must maintain proper levels of salt and
    water in their bodies.
  • Water flows from areas of weak salt solution to
    areas of strong salt solution by osmosis.

60
Water/Salt Requirements
  • Freshwater fish do not need to drink water
    because their body concentration is higher than
    the water
  • Saltwater fish have a lower concentration of salt
    in their bodies than in the water. Therefore,
    they must drink water to keep from dehydrating.

61
Feeding Habits
  • Bottom feeders (dwellers) are fish that inhabit
    the lower level of the aquarium and feed off the
    bottom.
  • Their mouth may be turned down or underslung and
    they may have barbs to help them locate food.
  • Example barbs

62
Feeding Habits
  • Middle feeders (middle-water fish) primarily
    occupy the middle layer of the aquarium and
    usually have small mouths that are straight
    forward because they are eating feed that is
    straight in front of them.

63
Feeding Habits
  • Top feeders usually eat from the surface and
    occupy the upper levels of the aquarium.
  • Often, their mouths will be turned upward and
    they will have long streamlined bodies designed
    for rapid movement to help them catch insects.

64
Feeding Habits
  • Some fish, like goldfish, do not show a
    preference for the level of the aquarium.

65
Physiology of Respiration
  • Fish use organs called gills to breathe.
  • Water is drawn through the mouth by constant
    opening and closing of the mouth.
  • This forces water into the pharynx and out
    through gills.

66
Physiology of Respiration
  • Dissolved oxygen in water is taken into the blood
    and CO2 is released into the water from the
    gills.

67
Physiology of Respiration
  • A few species of fish come to the surface and
    gulp air into their mouth. They are able to use
    atmospheric oxygen because part of their
    intestines allow for intake of oxygen. The air
    is then swallowed into the digestive system and
    taken into the blood.

68
Physiology of Movement
  • Fins-a moveable structure that allow the fish to
    swim and maintain balance.
  • Most bony fish have rayed fins that consist of
    webs of skin supported by bone or cartilage rods
    called rays.
  • Rays can be sharp, soft, or spiny.
  • Fins are very flexible.

69
Physiology of Movement
  • Most fish have at least one fin along their back
    (dorsal), one underside near the tail (anal), and
    one tail fin (caudal).
  • Some have a small fleshy fin located between the
    dorsal and caudal called an adipose fin.
  • Fish also have a pair of fins located behind the
    head called the pectoral and the pelvic located
    behind them.

70
Physiology of Amphibians
  • Cold blooded animals that have thin, moist skin
    that allows them to breathe through the skin by
    osmosis.
  • Amphibians usually live in moist environments,
    but location usually depends on their skin
    thickness.
  • Amphibians do not have scales.

71
Physiology of Amphibians
  • Amphibians crush their prey and swallow it whole
    because they do not have teeth.
  • They also live part of their life in water.
    Adult amphibians spend part or all of their life
    on land.

72
Physiology of Reptiles
  • Reptiles are cold blooded vertebrates that have
    dry, scaly skin and lungs for breathing.
  • Reptiles have bony skeleton scales or horny
    plates that cover their body.
  • Reptiles include crocodiles, lizards, snakes,
    turtles, tortoises, etc.

73
Physiology of Reptiles
  • Some give birth by laying eggs (oviparous),
    others retain the eggs in their body until they
    hatch and give birth to young (ovoviviparous),
    and in others their young develop in a placental
    sac and are born live (viviparous).

74
Competency 22.00
  • Establish a healthy habitat for fish, amphibians,
    and/or reptiles.

75
Objective 22.01
  • Discuss major health issues related to aquarium
    fish, amphibians, and/or reptiles.

76
Signs of Disease-Fish
  • Strange or unusual behavior.
  • Floating to the surface, sinking to the bottom,
    or leaning to the side of the aquarium.
  • Fins are unusually laying flat against the body.
  • Rolled or closed caudal fins.

77
Signs of Disease-Fish
  • A fish is off by itself and not swimming with the
    school.
  • Appears to be in slow motion and not keeping up
    with the other fish.
  • Breathing seems faster and deeper than normal.
  • Fish is at the surface gasping for air.

78
Signs of Disease-Fish
  • Rubbing or scratching against objects in the
    aquarium.
  • Not interested in eating.
  • Belly appears caved in or unusually thin.
  • Belly appears bloated or swollen.
  • Color of fish has changed or is unusual.
  • Fins appear frayed.

79
Signs of Disease-Fish
  • Back and spinal column appear distorted.
  • Eyes are not clear, appear cloudy.
  • Scales are sticking out instead of flat against
    the body.
  • White spots covering body.
  • Protruding eyes.
  • Anal discharge hanging from the fish.

80
Parasites in Fish
  • White spot (Ich)
  • Caused by the parasitic organism Ichthyophthirius
    multifiliis and causes numerous white spots on
    the body and fins of stressed fish.
  • One of the most common diseases found in aquarium
    fish.

81
Parasites in Fish
  • Slime disease
  • Parasites attack skin of fish causing a large
    amount of mucus.
  • May cause death if it attacks the gills.

82
Parasites in Fish
  • Hole-in-the-head
  • Organism Hexsamita live under skin in muscle
    tissue and make tissue break down where skin
    opens to make fish appear to have holes.

83
Parasites in Fish
  • Velvet disease
  • Organism Oodinium penetrates skin cells and feed
    on fish

84
Parasites in Fish
  • White Fungus growth
  • White growth around mouth, fins, eye, and gills.
  • A secondary infection is usually present already.

85
Parasites in Fish
  • Flukes
  • Worm-like parasite that attaches to the gills and
    body of fish.

86
Parasites in Fish
  • Anchor worms
  • Adhere and burrow under scales to attack the
    muscles

87
Parasites in Fish
  • Fish lice
  • Attach to body of fish and pierce skin to
    discharge a poison.

88
Bacterial Diseases-Fish
  • Finrot
  • Where the edges of the fishs fins start to
    appear frayed and ragged
  • Fish lose their color
  • Tissue between the fins breaks down

89
Bacterial Diseases-Fish
  • Mouth fungus
  • Caused by a bacteria which a white, tufty
    material appears around the mouth and white
    patches on the skin.

90
Bacterial Diseases-Fish
  • Neon Disease
  • Caused by a parasite Plistophora hyphessobryconis
  • This organism is found in the fishs body tissue
    where it causes the production of spores which
    are released when it dies.

91
Bacterial Diseases-Fish
  • Tuberculosis
  • Causes by bacteria that invades the organs and
    tissues of the body

92
Bacterial Diseases-Fish
  • Pseudomonas and Aeromonas
  • Secondary infections in fish that are already
    sick
  • Fish will have swollen bellies, lesions, or
    ulcers.

93
Treatment of Diseases
  • Use of chemicals in the water with the aquarium
    being thoroughly cleaned before fish are
    returned.
  • Some need to be placed in a hospital tank and
    treated before returning to normal tank.
  • Most treatments can be found at the local pet
    store.

94
Prevention of Disease
  • Environmental Control-avoid problems in the tank
  • Lack of oxygen and overabundance of carbon
    dioxide can be readily observed when almost all
    of the fish are swimming near the surface gulping
    for air.
  • Incorrect water pHcauses respiratory problems
    and excess mucus production.

95
Prevention of Disease
  • Environmental Control Contd
  • Chemical filtration ability reduced and ammonia
    build up can be observed by cloudy, murky water
  • Gravel filtration system pollution buildup of
    iron sulphite can be observed by the black color
    on the gravel.

96
Diseases-Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Salmonella is a bacterial disease that can be
    transmitted to humans. It affects the digestive
    tract and causes watery, green, foul-smelling
    diarrhea.

97
Diseases-Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Mouth Rot is a fungal disease associated with
    sores or open wounds in the mouth.

98
Diseases-Amphibians and Reptiles
  • Mites and ticks are external parasites that
    attack amphibians and reptiles.
  • Mites usually go undetected until there is a
    heavy infestation.
  • Symptoms include anemia, anorexia, depression,
    stress, listlessness, lack of appetite, and
    possible death.

99
Objective 22.02
  • Use principles of aquarium, terrarium, and
    vivarium management to create a suitable
    environment for fish, amphibians, and/or reptiles.

100
Purchasing an Aquarium
  • Decide on tank type (glass or plastic)
  • Plastic is cheaper, but glass is easier to clean.
  • Framed tanks are more expensive than all glass
    and offer more support to the glass.

101
Purchasing an Aquarium
  • Tank size
  • Size depends on the amount you want to invest and
    the type (species) of fish.
  • Ranges from a simple Beta or goldfish bowl with a
    1 gallon capacity to 10, 30, 50, or 100 gallons.
  • Thickness of glass ranges from ¼ for small
    aquariums to 3/8 for larger aquariums.

102
Purchasing an Aquarium
Stocking Rate for Aquariums Stocking Rate for Aquariums
1 inch of fish requires a MINIMUM of 1 inch of fish requires a MINIMUM of
Tropical fish aquarium 10 in2 of surface area
Cold water aquarium 30 in2 of surface area
Marine aquarium 48 in2 of surface area
103
Purchasing an Aquarium
  • For example
  • An aquarium that is 24 long by 10 wide has 240
    in2 of surface area.
  • The tank would hold 24 of tropical fish, 8 of
    cold water fish, or 5 of marine fish.
  • One could have eight swordtails 3 long in a
    tropical aquarium, two goldfish 4 long in a
    coldwater aquarium, or two Brasslets 2.5 long in
    a marine aquarium.

104
Purchasing an Aquarium
  • Shape
  • Depends on personal preference and species of
    fish you are raising.
  • The most common shape is rectangular, but square,
    spherical, etc are also common.

105
Purchasing an Aquarium
  • Species
  • Type of fish purchasing
  • Freshwater vs. saltwater

106
Aquarium Equipment
  • Power filter with an electric motor
  • Filtration systems remove uneaten food materials,
    dissolved materials, solid waste and neutralize
    harmful substances.

107
Types of Filtration Systems
  • Mechanical
  • Removal of waste by using various kinds of
    filtration devices
  • Modern systems use an external filter box

108
Types of Filtration Systems
  • Chemical
  • Removal of dissolved material by using a chemical
    process
  • The use of activated charcoal to soak up
    dissolved minerals and chemicals is the most
    common chemical removal process.
  • Activated charcoal is often part of the filter
    system and must be changed at regular intervals.

109
Types of Filtration Systems
  • Biological
  • Use bacteria to feed on toxic substances such as
    ammonia excreted from fish during respiration or
    as a result of decaying waste and food material.
  • Waste is changed from a harmful substance to a
    harmless one (nitrogen)
  • Dissolved oxygen in the water is also replenished.

110
Aquarium Equipment
  • Air Pumps for aeration
  • Water is circulated from the bottom of the tank
    to the surface where aeration can take place.
  • Compressed air (oxygen) is pumped through
    airstones (fused, porous glass) to break the
    airflow into minute bubbles.

111
Aquarium Equipment
  • Air Pumps Contd
  • As the compressed air goes into the water, it
    disperses carbon dioxide (aeration)
  • Air bubbles rising from the bottom aid in
    equalizing the water temperature throughout and
    circulating the water to the top where aeration
    can take place.

112
Aquarium Equipment
  • Hydrometer
  • For measuring salt content
  • GFCI electrical outlet preferred

113
Aquarium Equipment
  • Heater/Thermostat
  • Needed to maintain water temperature for tropical
    aquariums
  • Must be the right size (approximately 10 watts of
    power for each 1 ½ gallons of water

114
Aquarium Equipment
  • Thermometer
  • Liquid crystal thermometers that are adhesive
    strips that stick to the outside of the aquarium
    are popular

115
Aquarium Equipment
  • Other materials
  • Water container (for exchanging water)
  • Gravel or sand
  • Plants
  • Decorative stones
  • Hood with starter for fluorescent lights
  • Dip nets
  • Decorative materials

116
Aquarium Maintenance
  • Remove temporary hardness of water by boiling and
    allowing to sit prior to its use in the aquarium
  • Eliminate chlorine by aerating it for 12-24 hours
    prior to use or allowing it to sit for 48 hours
    so the chlorine will evaporate.

117
Aquarium Maintenance
  • Daily Maintenance
  • Check heater, temperature, aeration, and
    filtration
  • Remove dead fish
  • Observe for any unusual behavior

118
Aquarium Maintenance
  • Weekly Maintenance
  • Check water level and pH and add water and
    chemicals as appropriate

119
Aquarium Maintenance
  • Monthly Maintenance
  • 1/4 to 1/5 of the water needs to be changed every
    three to four weeks to provide fish a stress free
    environment and prolong the life of the filters
  • Siphon off any dead material from bottom of the
    aquarium.
  • Tend to plants and remove algae.

120
Aquarium Maintenance
  • Factors that contribute to increased ammonia and
    nitrates in the tank
  • Increase in waste material and uneaten food on
    the bottom (Dont overfeed)
  • Dirty filters and failure to change water monthly
  • Overpopulation of fish

121
Feeding Fish
  • Vary feed to prevent boredomfish really like
    live food, but freeze-dried and frozen food is a
    good alternative
  • Feed fish 2 to 3 times per day
  • Feed only enough for the fish to eat in 3-5
    minutes.
  • Live foods like brine shrimp, earthworms, wood
    lice, and worms are treats to fish.

122
Feeding Fish
  • Commercially prepared flake foods are ideal for
    small fish up to 4-5 long. Vitamins and
    nutrients are provided in amounts needed by the
    fish.
  • Commercially prepared pellets work well for
    larger fish. The type depends on the eating
    habit of the fish being kept.

123
Reptile and Amphibian Habitats
  • Vast differences between species, but the goal
    should always be to duplicate the natural
    environment of the pet.
  • Aquariums usually make the best containers.
  • Semi-aquatic aquariums may be made by using
    plexi-glass to partition the aquarium in half

124
Reptile and Amphibian Habitats
  • Vivariums should be designed to give the reptile
    an environment close to its actual habitat.
  • Reptiles are ectotherms. They do not generate
    body heat and must rely completely on the
    temperature of their environement.

125
Reptile and Amphibian Habitats
  • Reptiles need ultraviolet (UV) rays for calcium
    metabolism, formation of pigment, and vitamin D
    synthesis.
  • Reptiles need sunlight.
  • Fluorescent lights will provide UV rays as long
    as there is not glass between the light and the
    reptile. Glass filters the UV rays out.
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