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Animal Science II- Small Animal

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Animal Science II- Small Animal Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Science II- Small Animal


1
Animal Science II- Small Animal
  • Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry

2
Essential Standard 3.00
  • Discuss the importance of the small animal
    industry.

3
Objective 3.01
  • Discuss careers and skills needed for employment
    in the small animal care industry.

4
Assignment
  • Title your notes today Small Animal Industry
  • Brainstorm how the Small Animal Industry can
    benefit society in general. Put a few of your
    own ideas in you notebook.

5
Benefits of Small Animals
  • Economic
  • 38.5 billion to national economy (2006)
  • Companions to 60 of American Families
  • Children learn responsibility
  • Improves quality of life for elderly

6
Benefits of Small Animals
  • Product testing
  • Develop drugs and vaccines
  • Hepatitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio
    vaccines

7
Benefits of Small Animals
  • Pet therapy
  • Relieve depression
  • Reduces heart disease
  • Watch dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs
  • Rabbit meat
  • Low in cholesterol, sodium and fat
  • Fur and wool

8
Benefits of Small Animals
  • Exhibition
  • Zoos, circus acts, etc.
  • Rabbits provide multiple benefits
  • Pets
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Research

9
Economics
  • Retail pet stores
  • 15,000-18,000 in the U.S.
  • Biomedical research
  • Supported by 15 billion in taxes and charity
  • 65-100 million small animals
  • Education
  • 6 million used for dissection

10
Economics
  • 4 million small animals used in the LD50 test
  • Americans spending on pets
  • 20.3 billion

11
Economics
  • Veterinary expenses
  • 9.2 billion annually
  • Supplies and OTC medicines 9.3 billion
  • Grooming and Boarding 2.7 billion
  • Dogs require twice as much for veterinary care as
    cats
  • Pet food manufacturers produce 15.4 billion in
    sales (2006)

12
General Pet Ownership
  • 10 million more cats than dogs (81.7 to 72
    million)
  • Each owner averages two cats
  • More households have dogs (37.2) than cats
    (32.4)
  • Fish, birds, and rabbits rank third, fourth, and
    fifth respectively.

13
Job Types
  • Care and management industry
  • Pets
  • Lab animals
  • Zoo animals
  • Health
  • Training
  • Biological Sciences
  • Food and equipment supply

14
Job Types
  • Pharmaceutical and biotechnology research
  • Hospitals
  • Universities
  • Diagnostic Labs
  • Private firms

15
Job Types
  • Exhibitors
  • Operates animals acts
  • Carnivals
  • Circus
  • Fairs (Cleveland County Fair)
  • Zoo
  • Marine mammal displays

16
Care and Management Jobs
  • Pet care worker
  • Boarding kennels
  • Animal hospitals
  • Shelters
  • Pet stores
  • Training schools
  • Pet grooming parlors

17
Care and Management Jobs
  • Kennel attendants
  • Feeds and cares for animals
  • Cleans
  • Animal groomers
  • Bathes, brushes trims hair and nails
  • Dog trainers
  • Teaches the dog to obey signals or commands

18
Care and Management Jobs
  • Small Animal Breeders
  • Raise market fur-bearing animals, lab animals,
    and supply animals for pet shops
  • Usually specialized for one breed
  • Pet shop owners and managers
  • Dealers
  • Sell lab animals
  • Research
  • Education

19
Care and Management Jobs
  • Veterinarians (DVM)
  • Control animal injuries and disease
  • Disease prevention
  • Inspection
  • Meat and animals products
  • Surgery
  • Establish diets
  • Prescribe medications

1/3 small animals only
20
Care and Management Jobs
  • Vet. Technicians
  • Assist veterinarians and other staff
  • Skills needed
  • Previous experience as a keeper
  • Part-time volunteer work
  • Shelters
  • Pet shops
  • clinics

21
Essential Standard 3.00
  • Discuss the importance of the small animal
    industry.

22
Objective 3.02
  • Discuss medical terminology used by those working
    in the veterinarian phase of the small animal
    care industry

23
Medical Terminology
  • Components of medical terminology
  • Prefix
  • Beginning of the word indicating
  • Number
  • Location
  • Time
  • Status
  • Root words
  • Word part that gives the fundamental meaning of a
    word

24
Medical Terminology
  • Suffixes
  • Word part at the end of a word indicating
  • Procedure
  • Condition
  • Disease
  • Disorder

25
Medical Prefixes
  • a-, an- without, lack of
  • Anemia- without blood
  • anti- against, opposing
  • Antiseptic- against infection
  • bi- two, double, twice
  • Bilateral- two sides
  • dys- painful, difficult, abnormal
  • Dysentery- abnormal infection of the colon
  • pre- before
  • Preoperative- before surgery

26
Medical Root Words
  • carp
  • wrist
  • carpel- pertaining to the wrist
  • cardi
  • heart
  • cardiology- study of the heart
  • dors
  • back
  • dorsal- relating to the back

27
Medical Root Words
  • dent, odont
  • teeth
  • dentist- person who works with teeth
  • Gastr
  • stomach
  • gastronomy- surgical opening of the stomach
  • Gingiv
  • gums
  • gingivitis- inflammation of the gums
  • phleb, ven
  • vein
  • phlebotomist- person who obtains blood from veins

28
Medical Suffixes
  • algia
  • Pain
  • arthralgia- painful joints
  • centesis
  • Procedure to remove fluid
  • Cytocentesis- removing fluid from the bladder
  • itis
  • inflammation
  • bronchitis
  • rrhea
  • Flow or discharge
  • diarrhea

29
Positional Terminology
  • Ventral-underside of the body
  • Cranial-head
  • Anterior-front of the body
  • Posterior-rear of the body
  • Dorsal-back
  • Caudal-tail

30
Positional Terminology
  • Dorsal (frontal) plane-plane that divides the
    body into the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly)
    parts

31
Positional Terminology
  • Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional)
    plane-plane that divides the body into cranial
    and caudal parts.

32
Positional Terminology
  • Visit the following website to view a Virtual Cat
    Dissection
  • External Anatomy Link
  •  
  • http//bio.bd.psu.edu/cat/index.htm

33
General Terminology
  1. Antisepsis
  2. Biopsy
  3. Catheterization
  4. Clutch

34
General Terminology
  1. Colostrum
  2. Contact transmission
  3. Endogenous
  4. Exogenous
  5. Incubation

35
General Terminology
  1. Infectious disease
  2. Pocket pets
  3. Preventative health care programs
  4. Quarantine
  5. Spaying
  6. Neutering
  7. Zoonoses

36
Essential Standard 4.00
  • Explore social issues related to working with
    small animals.

37
Objective 4.01
  • Summarize animal rights and animal welfare

38
Animal Rights
  • Not the same as animal welfare.
  • Media may wrongly use the two terms
    interchangeably.

39
Modern Animal Rights Movement
  • Over 400 animal rights groups exist today
  • Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s
  • Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of
    whom were vegetarians

40
Animal Rights Beliefs
  • Animals have same rights as humans (humans are
    also animals).
  • Use of animals for human purpose is wrong and
    suggests that humans are superior to animals.
  • Animals should not be used for entertainment.

41
Animal Rights Beliefs
  • Animals should not be used for
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Medical research
  • Product testing
  • Ecoterrorism is often used to prevent people from
    using animals.

42
PETA
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
  • Largest animal rights group in the world with
    over 800,000 members
  • Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing
    and protecting rights of animals.

43
Animal Welfare
  • Animal domestication dates back to early Chinese
    and Egyptian cultures.
  • Early U.S. used animals for food, clothing,
    shelter, transportation, and horsepower.

44
Animal Welfare (Religious)
  • Creation view that God gave man dominion over
    animals including use and care
  • Genesis 126
  • Various religions use animal sacrifice and detail
    how to humanely slaughter the animal.

45
Animal Welfare (Legal)
  • Animal welfare influenced early laws.
  • Laws protecting animals were present before the
    animal rights movement.

46
Animal Welfare Beliefs
  • Humane treatment of animals
  • Proper housing and nutrition
  • Proper care for disease prevention and treatment
    for injuries
  • Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a
    humane way.

47
The Vote?
  • Do animals have rights?
  • Should animals be used for food?
  • Should animals be used for experimentation?
  • Should hunting and trapping of animals be allowed?

48
Objective 4.02
  • Demonstrate safe work habits and techniques used
    when working with small animals.

49
Zoonoses
  • A disease that can be transmitted from animals to
    humans
  • Example Rabies

50
Rabies
  • A viral disease
  • Affects the nervous system
  • Contracted by
  • Bites
  • Scratches
  • Saliva

51
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52
Rabies
  • Immunization is recommended when in doubt
  • 93 of reported cases were in wild animals
  • Children ages 5-9 make up less than 9 of the
    population receive the most animal bites (30)
  • Most domestic animals are not infected if
    vaccinated regularly

53
Toxoplasmosis
  • Disease from Toxoplasma gondii parasite
  • Usually carried by cats
  • Infected by ingesting contaminated mice
  • Spread by
  • Cat feces
  • Contaminated cat litter
  • Affects those with suppressed immune system

54
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55
Toxoplasmosis
  • Concern for pregnant women
  • Miscarriage
  • Premature babies
  • Blindness in babies
  • Prevention
  • Disposable gloves when cleaning litter box
  • Thoroughly washing hands

56
Ringworm
  • Fungal disease
  • Skin lesion
  • Round
  • Scaly and encrusted
  • Loss of hair at site
  • Spread by direct contact
  • Indirectly by equipment
  • Treatment
  • Iodine soap or antifungal drugs

57
Psittacosis (Parrot Fever)
  • Contracted by caged birds such as parrots,
    budgerigars, and related birds
  • Transmitted through feces and fecal dust
  • Bacteria
  • Prevention
  • Wear dust mask
  • Eliminating mites and lice
  • Spraying disinfectants on bird feathers

58
Cat-scratch fever
  • Non-serious
  • Cat bites and scratches
  • Symptoms
  • Localized swelling and soreness
  • Treated with antibiotics
  • Affected area may be slow to heal

59
Cat-scratch fever
60
Samonellosis
  • Caused by the Salmonella bacteria
  • Children and elderly most at risk
  • Symptoms appear 12-72hrs after infection
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea for 4-7 days
  • Pet turtles and reptiles
  • Most likely to infect humans

61
Streptococcal
  • Bacteria
  • Results in sore throat
  • Can be transmitted by dogs
  • Treated with penicillin

62
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Cause coagulation of the blood
  • Fever
  • Headaches
  • Nausea Vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Death if not treated
  • Primarily passed by the American dig tick
  • 6 other species can carry the disease

63
Lyme Disease
  • First case in 1969 in Wisconsin
  • Named in 1977
  • Lyme Connecticut
  • Children developed arthritic condition
  • Bacterial disease (Borrelia burgdurferi)
  • Distinctive skin lesion 3-32 days

64
Lyme Disease
  • Flu like symptoms
  • Painful joints
  • Fatigue may last for months
  • Can damage internal organs without antibiotics
    used as treatment
  • Vaccines can be administered

65
Parasites
  • Gain subsistence from a host organism
  • Can be internal or external
  • Children are most at risk because they play with
    animals and in the areas where animals have been.

66
Ticks
  • Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
  • Five species carry Lyme disease

67
Roundworms
  • Ascarids (Toxocara species) Hookworms
  • Affect dogs and cats
  • May be passed to humans
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • De-worming cats and dogs most effective
    preventative method

68
Tapeworms
  • Tapeworm
  • Occasionally carried by dogs and cats
  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD)
  • Rare
  • Potentially fatal (50-70)
  • Parasitic tumors of the liver
  • May go unnoticed for years
  • Avoid hand to mouth contact

69
Tapeworm
70
Life Cycle of AHD
71
Working with Animals Safely
  • Frequently wash hands and use protective clothing
    to avoid contamination.
  • Separate sick animals and treat in separate
    areas.
  • Do not eat, drink, or store food and drink in
    treatment areas.
  • Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with
    regular clothes.

72
Working with Animals Safely
  • Protective Clothing
  • Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face
    shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be
    worn when handling chemicals or applying
    pesticides.
  • Leather gloves help to protect from bites and
    scratches.

73
Working with Animals Safely
  • Protective Clothing
  • Coveralls and lab coats offer some protection
    from bites and scratches.
  • Respirators should be worn when there is a danger
    of inhaling toxic dust and other substances.

74
Chemical Safety
  • Use chemicals according to label instructions
  • Store chemicals in the original container
  • Avoiding over-mixing and storing chemicals, but
    if they must be stored make sure they are in a
    locked location and clearly labeled.

75
Chemical Safety
  • Dispose of all chemicals and their containers
    according to label instructions.
  • Frequently wash hands and exposed area after
    using chemicals.

76
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Prevent injury to the animal and the handler.
  • Keep a first-aid kit available for workers who do
    suffer bites or scratches.
  • Briefly restrain animals when needed for
    examination or treatment.

77
Proper Handling Techniques
  • To work around the head of a cat, wrap the animal
    in a blanket and place it into a zippered canvas
    bag so the handler can grasp the back of the head
    and hold the head between the thumb and fingers.

78
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Dogs are restrained by placing one arm under the
    dogs neck with the forearm holding the head
    while the other arm is placed around the animals
    body to pull it close to the handler.

79
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Dog muzzles can be created by looping a strip of
    gauze over the nose and mouth, crossing under the
    jaw and then tying into a bow behind the dogs
    ears.

80
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff
    of the neck and placing a hand under the rump for
    support.
  • To hold them, simply move the hand from the rump
    to the abdomen.

81
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Rabbits seldom bite, but can cause injury by
    kicking with their back legs.
  • They may be injured if placed on a smooth
    surface.
  • Foot pads are covered with fur.
  • Can result in dislocation of hips or spine.

82
Proper Handling Techniques
  • Rats and mice that are used to being held may be
    picked up by grasping the tail close to the body
    and then using the other hand to grasp the loose
    skin in the neck and shoulder area.
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