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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.)

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Vaccines, Clones &Transgenics Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of plant virus which are injected to plants against diseases Vaccines can also be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.)


1
Chapter 6Plant Biotechnology (contd.)
  • Vaccines, Clones Transgenics

2
What are plant vaccines?
  • Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains
    of plant virus which are injected to plants
    against diseases
  • Vaccines can also be encoded in plant DNA
  • Transgenic plants can synthesize protein antigens
    that retain immunological properties

3
What are plant vaccines?
  • The Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV), produces a
    protein on surface of the virus which turns on
    the plant immune system in tobacco plants
  • Tobacco plants with TMV has the resistance
    against the virus

4
Plants as surrogates to produce antigens
  • With the advent of modern molecular biology
    techniques in the 1980s, new strategies were
    developed for the production of subunit vaccines
  • Green plants are used as the surrogate
    production organism to produce antigens of human
    pathogens

5
Five antigens expressed in plants and useful to
animals and man
  • Rabies virus G-protein in tomato
  • Norwalk virus Capsid protein in tobacco potato
  • Hepatitus B virus surface antigen in tobacco
    potato
  • E.coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B)
    in tobacco potato
  • Cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in potato

6
Banana is a likely delivery plant
  • Eaten raw
  • Appealing to children
  • Inexpensive to produce
  • Native to many developing countries
  • Still under clinical trials

7
Genetic pesticides
  • The BT gene in Bacillus thuringiensis , produces
    a crystalline protein that kills insects and
    their larvae (an insecticidal protein).
  • Instead of spreading the bacteria in the field
    now can spread Bt genes!!! Tomatoes, potatoes,
    corn , cotton etc.
  • Today, plants can be genetically engineered to
    produce their own Bt

8
Genetic herbicides
  • Crops are genetically engineered to be resistant
    to common herbicide called glyphosate( an enzyme
    which block photosynthesis)
  • Generally herbicides are used to kill weeds and
    by doing so, crops get affected.
  • Hence the need for genetically engineered
    herbicide resistant crops

9
Golden Rice
  • Deficiency of Vitamin A causes night blindness.
  • Genetically engineered rice to produce large
    amount of Beta carotene, a provitamin which body
    converts to Vitamin A.
  • Read pg 144 test book for further info

10
Reference
  • http//www.nal.usda.gov/bic/BTTOX/bttoxin.htm
  • http//www.ag.uiuc.edu/vista/html_pubs/biotech/in
    sect.htm
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