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Introduction Medical Mycology

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Introduction Medical Mycology Prof. Dr. Asem Shehabi Faculty of Medicine University of Jordan General Fungi-1 Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms.. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction Medical Mycology


1
Introduction Medical Mycology
  • Prof. Dr. Asem Shehabi
  • Faculty of Medicine
  • University of Jordan

2
General Fungi-1
  • Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms.. Larger
    than bacteria occur as Yeasts (unicellular cells
    0.5-4 um) or Molds/ filamentous Fungi..
    composed of various cellular structures spores,
    filaments/Hyphae.. cells up 20um)..
  • Nest branching filament/ Multicellular fungi
  • Masses of Hyphae are called mycelium.
  • In molds, the mycelia often spread to fill the
    available space, limited by available nutrients.

3
Hypha Cell-Yeast Cell
4
General Fungi-2
  • Essentially Aerobic .. Mostly found in Nature
    living in association with plants ..often as
    harmful organisms..free saprophytes on dead
    organic substances.
  • Fungi have chemoheterotrophic metabolisms,
    obtaining nutrients through chemical absorption..
    Certain Fungi .. Producer Antibiotics..
    Decompose organic materials.. plants.
  • Molds Reproduction by various spores, hyphae..
    apical extension of cells..
  • Yeast Mostly reproduce asexually by budding,
    although a few reproduce by binary fission.
  • Baker's yeast/ Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Sugar-
    Fermentation.. Important in Production Bread..
    Vitamins Medical drugs like Insulin.

5
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6
1-Aminata Toxic Mushroom 2-Non-Toxic Mushroom in
Nature
7
Fungi cell Structures
  • About 100 Fungi types are opportunistic
    pathogens.. Yeast part normal flora.. Oral
    cavity-intestine-Vagina.. Few types true
    pathogens
  • They are not susceptible to antibacterial drugs ,
    phages
  • Fungi Cell wall Mostly Polysaccharides (chitin,
    glucan, mannan), lipid-phosphate-protein,
    protease, melanin . Their Plasma membranes
    containing Ergosterol, Cytoplasm contains
    microtubules composed of tubulin/Specific
    Protein..Mitochondria, Lipids phosphate
    granules
  • Pathogenic Yeasts produce often elongated Oval
    cell Pseudohyphe on body mucosal cells
    ..Pathogenic Mold single and multiply
    filaments.. cell fragments in infected tissue.
  • Antifungal drugs Nystatin, Fluconazol,
    Amphotericin B, Casbofungin.. All react with
    ergosterol forming compmlex molecules.. damage
    cell membrane.

8
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9
Budding Yeast/Germ Tubes
10
Capsulated Yeast / Cryptococcus neoformans
(India ink test)
11
Filaments Fungi/ Molds
  • Molds form multicellular filaments/ hyphae ..
    non-septate/ septate hyphae.. spores of different
    sizes.. color.. arrangement .. A mass of hyphae
    and spores represent Aerial Vegetative Mycelium
  • Dimorphic Pathogenic fungi grow as Yeasts or
    Yeast-like structure in vivo at 37C, but as
    Molds at 25C
  • Lab Identification Direct smear .. Culture on
    Sabourauds dextrose agar/ blood agar.. Slow or
    rapid growth (2-30 days).. Morphology
    reproduction of spores/yeast cells/ Filments
    (Hyphae).. Colors of Micro/Macro Conidia..
    Arrangement of spores on septet or non-septet
    hyphae.

12
Human Mycosis-1
  • Dermatophytosis /Superficial Mycoses/ Cutaneous
    Mycoses/ Ringworm / Tinea ..
  • Involve superficial keratinize.. Dead tissues..
    skin, hair, Nails.. Caused by Dermatophytes
    Trichophyton - Microsporium -, Epidermophyton
    species
  • Worldwide distribution.. Spores, Hyphae
    fragments.. Common in nature, skin human,
    animals.
  • Tinea versicolor / Pityriasis versicolor.. Yeast
  • Clinical Features Erythematic Skin
    lesions..Rare inflammation.. Allergic reaction..
    Common under stress conditions.. Fever, Unknown
    Factors.

13
Human Mycosis-2
  • Skin spots commonly affect the back, underarm,
    upper arm, chest, lower legs, and neck.
    Occasionally it can also be present on the face.
  • The yeasts can often be seen under the microscope
    within the lesions with typically round yeasts
    filaments. Light to Dark patches on skin..
    Difficult to culture.
  • Hair Tinea capitis, Hairshaft /hair follicles.
    Scalp, Endo-Exothrix, Common in Children.. Rare
    Adults.. Infection Outbreaks .
  • Nail Tinea unguium Tinea pedis.. Feet fingers,
    Feet interspace, moist skin lesions, Common in
    Adults, develop Chronic
  • Causative agents Dermatophytes.. Trichophyton -
    Microsporium -, Epidermophyton species.

14
Tinea corporis-
Pityriasis versicolor
15
Tinea unguium Tinea
Tineacapitis
16
Microconidia-Macroconidia
17
Penicillinums-Trichophyton spp.
18
Yeast /Candida species
  • Candidiasis/ Candidiosis C. albicans (50-70)..
    Less C. glabrata, C. tropicalis., C. Krusei..
    Others spp.
  • Part normal body Flora.. Mouth, Vagina, Skin,
    Intestine, Urinary tract.
  • Opportunistic Pathogens.. mostly endogenous
    infection, arising from overgrowth of the fungus
    .. intensive use of antimicrobial drugs..
    Inhibiting normal flora.. Underlining diseases,
    compromised host, Radiation, Toxic drugs
  • Exogenous infection .. catheters or prosthetic
    devices.. Respiratory tubes.. person-to-person
    transmission,
  • Common Nosocomial Infection.
  • Clinical Features Oral mucosa.. Thrush ..
    Throat- Pharynx, Lung , Candidiasis ,vaginal
    Candidiasis.. discharge Irritation, Candidemia,
    meningitis.

19
Candida Pseudohyphae ( Chlamydo-Blastospores)
20
Candida Trush
21
Other Yeast Infection
  • Encapsulated C. neoformans.. Large Capsule..cause
    a chronic- subacute- acute pulmonary.. May spread
    to blood, CNS.. causes ..systemic or meningitic
    disease.. Often isolated from pigeon, Birds
    excreta.
  • C. neoformans has a world-wide distribution.. now
    one of the most significant opportunistic
    pathogens in humans.. immunodifficient ..AIDS
    patients..

22
Mold infection Aspergillosis
  • Aspergillus species are common in nature ..
    Spores spread with dust particles..Inhalation. .
    Few develop Allergy or clinical disease
  • A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger.
  • Human Aspergillosis Mycotoxicosis due to
    ingestion of contaminated foods with fungal toxin
    ..Peanuts, Rice,
  • A. flavus .. Produce Aflatoxins.. Liver
    cirrhosis..Death
  • 2) Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
    Presence of conidia or transient growth of the
    organism in body Respiratory tract.. Sinuses..
    often associated with Allergic reaction
    ..Eosinophilia.. Asthma..
  • 3) Pulmonary lesions in preformed cavities ..
    debilitated tissues.. Common in Tuberculosis
    Lung carcinoma, Localized Lesions, ..Eye ,
    Sinuses, External Otitis infection Surgery
    Antifungal Treatment

23
1-Aspergillus niger growth2- Wet preparation,
Aspergillus
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