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Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses: Who Are They?

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National Mental Health Act of 1946 Elimination of single-focus psychiatric nursing schools * Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1940-1990) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses: Who Are They?


1
Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses Who Are They?
  • Spring 2011
  • Myers

2
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses
  • What do they do?

3
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses - continued
  • Psychiatric-mental health nursing promotes mental
    health through
  • Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of human
    responses to mental health problems and
    psychiatric disorders (ANA, APNA, ISPN, 2007)

4
Standards
  • Standards of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing
    Practice
  • Guidelines for providing quality care

5
Standards - continued
  • Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Standards of
    Practice
  • Assessment
  • Diagnosis
  • Outcomes Identification
  • Planning

6
Standards - continued
  • Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Standards of
    Practice
  • Implementation
  • Coordination of Care
  • Health Teaching and Health Promotion
  • Milieu Therapy
  • Phamacological, Biological, and Integrative
    Therapies
  • Prescriptive Authority and Treatment (APRN only)
  • Psychotherapy (APRN only)
  • Consultation (APRN only)
  • Evaluation

7
Standards - continued
  • Standards of Professional Performance
  • Quality of Practice
  • Education
  • Professional Practice Evaluation
  • Collegiality
  • Collaboration
  • Ethics
  • Research
  • Resource Utilization
  • Leadership

8
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses
  • Generalist level
  • Advanced practice level
  • Prescriptive authority
  • Psychotherapy
  • Consultation

9
The Psychiatric-Mental Health Team
  • Psychiatric-mental health nurse
  • Psychiatrist
  • Clinical psychologist
  • Psychiatric social worker

10
The Psychiatric-Mental Health Team - continued
  • Marriage and family therapist
  • Occupational therapist
  • Recreational therapist
  • Creative arts therapist
  • Psychosocial rehabilitation worker

11
Effective Mental Health Services
Client
Partnerships
PMH Team
Family
12
Health Care Team Members
  • Maximizers
  • Rivalists
  • Cooperators

13
Lessons on Collaboration
  • Know thyself
  • Value diversity
  • Know that conflict is natural
  • Share your power with others
  • Master communication skills

14
Lessons on Collaboration - continued
  • Think life-long learning.
  • Embrace interdisciplinary situations.
  • Appreciate spontaneity.
  • Balance unity with autonomy.

15
The Role of the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse
Custodial Multifaceted
16
Early Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (19th
century)
  • First school of nursing
  • Florence Nightingales thoughts
  • American nursing schools

17
Early Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (19th
century) - continued
  • First American psychiatric nurse
  • Single-focused training schools
  • Custodial, mechanistic, directed by psychiatrists

18
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1900-1940)
  • Psychiatric nursing curricula
  • Psychiatric nursing texts
  • Single-focus psychiatric nursing schools

19
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1940-1990)
  • Nurses begin to educate nurses.
  • Psychiatric theory includes interpersonal and
    emotional dimensions.
  • National Mental Health Act of 1946
  • Elimination of single-focus psychiatric nursing
    schools

20
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1940-1990) -
continued
  • Period of role clarification
  • Hildegard Peplau
  • Gwen Tudor
  • Frances Sleeper
  • Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963
  • Psychiatric nursing journals

21
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1940-1990) -
continued
  • Birth of clinical nurse specialists and nurse
    therapist role
  • First standards of psychiatric-mental health
    nursing practice
  • Increase role of nurses at national level
  • Shift in psychiatric nursing toward humanistic
    interactionism

22
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1940-1990) -
continued
  • Decrease in numbers of psychiatric nurses
  • Decreased funding for training
  • Psychiatric nursing diagnoses

23
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (1990s) -
Decade of the Brain
  • Psychobiologic concepts
  • Nursing Psychopharmacology Project
  • Health care delivery reform
  • Outcome-based research
  • Cultural diversity
  • Integration of theoretical perspectives

24
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (2000s) - The
New Millennium
  • Standards of practice revisions
  • Knowledge explosion
  • Renewed focus on physical health
  • Single point of entry
  • Advanced practice nurses
  • Expansion of practice settings

25
Nursing Theories
  • Assist nurses to
  • Organize assessment data
  • Identify problems
  • Plan interventions
  • Generate goals and actions
  • Evaluate outcomes

26
Nursing Theories Impacting Psychiatric Nursing
  • Hildegard Peplau
  • Dorothea Orem
  • Martha Rogers
  • Sister Callista Roy
  • Ida Jean Orlando

27
Nursing Theories Impacting Psychiatric Nursing -
continued
  • Ernestine Wiedenbach
  • Joyce Travelbee
  • Paterson and Zderad
  • Jean Watson
  • Patricia Benner

28
Nursing Theories - Value
  • Nursing practice vs. medical practice
  • Caring vs. curing
  • Interpretation of meaning
  • Nurse-client relationship
  • Advocacy of client dignity
  • Advocacy of nurse authenticity

29
Application of Theoretical Frameworks
  • Application of various theoretical frameworks
    leads to
  • Quality client-centered care.
  • Efficient use of resources.
  • Practice-oriented research.
  • Clinical judgments and actions that can be
    articulated and taught to others.
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