States of Matter: Kinetic Molecular Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – States of Matter: Kinetic Molecular Theory PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4279df-Y2RiN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

States of Matter: Kinetic Molecular Theory

Description:

States of Matter: Kinetic Molecular Theory Holt McDougal Physical Science C3S1: Matter and Energy Glencoe Science Physical Science C16S1: Kinetic Theory – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:527
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 71
Provided by: McBr85
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: States of Matter: Kinetic Molecular Theory


1
States of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • Holt McDougal Physical Science C3S1 Matter and
    Energy
  • Glencoe Science Physical Science C16S1 Kinetic
    Theory

2
NGSSS Benchmark(s)
  • SC912P12.11
  • Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic
    molecular theory
  • SC912P8.1

3
Learning Objectives
  • What makes up matter?
  • What is the difference between a solid, a liquid,
    and a gas?
  • What kind of energy do all particles of matter
    have?
  • How do particles move in the four states of
    matter?
  • How do particles behave at the melting and
    boiling points of matter?

4
Characteristics of Matter
  • Has mass
  • Has volume
  • Made of atoms
  • Atoms in constant motion

5
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
  • All matter is made of particles that are in
    constant motion
  • Stuff is moving all the time

6
Kinetic Theory 2
  • The faster particles move, the higher the
    temperature of the substance.
  • Fast moving stuff is hotter than slow moving
    stuff.

7
Kinetic Theory 3
  • At the same temperature, more massive particles
    move more slowly than less massive ones.
  • Big stuff is slower than small stuff at the same
    temperature.

8
What explains how particles in matter behave?
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Law of Kinetic Movement
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • None of the above

9
What is Thermal Energy?
  • Energy ? ability to change/move matter
  • Total energy of the particles in a material
  • TE KE PE
  • If temperature is lowered, particles will have
    less thermal energy

10
Average Kinetic Energy
  • Temperature ? avg of how fast particles are
    moving
  • Molecules have kinetic energy at all temperatures
    (even absolute zero)

11
What two things comprise thermal energy?
  • Potential movement and Kinetic energy
  • Kinetic movement and Potential energy
  • Potential movement and Kinetic movement
  • Potential energy and Kinetic energy

12
Common States of Matter
  • Solid, liquid, gas
  • Definite ? something does not change
  • Variable ? something can change

13
Solids
  • Definite volume
  • Definite shape
  • Strong attraction keeps particles in place
  • Particle arrangement establishes chemical and
    physical properties

14
Solid to Liquid How?
  • Melting point ? temp for solid to begin turning
    to liquid
  • Particles slip out of ordered arrangement
  • Heat of Fusion ? amt of energy needed to change a
    substance from a solid to a liquid at its melting
    point

15
Liquids
  • Particles faster than solids
  • Flow freely
  • Definite volume
  • Variable shape

16
Liquid to Gas How?
  • Particles have enough energy to escape attractive
    forces
  • Evaporation ? particles at surface travel away
  • Boiling point ? temp at which pressure of the
    vapor in the liquid external pressure on
    surface of liquid
  • Heat of vaporization ? amt of energy needed for
    liquid at its boiling point to become a gas

17
Gases
  • Overcome attractive forces
  • Variable shape
  • Variable volume

18
How would you respond?
  • What is the temperature at which a solid begins
    to turn into a liquid called?
  • Which particles have the least kinetic energy?
  • What do particles need in order to overcome the
    force of pressure and become a gas?
  • How does the movement of particles in a liquid
    differ from the movement of particles in a solid?
  • What causes a solid to have a definite volume and
    shape?

19
Fluid What is it?
  • State of matter with variable shape
  • Liquids
  • Gases

20
Plasma
  • Matter made up of positively and negatively
    charged particles (i.e., ionized particles)
  • Neutral
  • Conducts electricity
  • Stars, lightning bolts, neon and fluorescent
    tubes, auroras

21
Thermal Expansion
  • Increase in the size of a substance when the
    temperature is increased
  • Hot stuff moves faster and takes up more space.

22
Solid or Liquid Which?
  • Amorphous solid ? no melting point soft over a
    range of temperatures
  • Glass
  • Plastic
  • Liquid Crystals ? maintain ordered structure from
    solid to liquid state

23
What do you think?
  • Describe the movement of particles in a fluid.
  • Is plasma a fluid? Explain your answer.
  • Why do all particles of matter have kinetic
    energy?
  • Which of the three common states of matter has
    particles with the most kinetic energy?
  • Why do all particle of matter have kinetic
    energy?
  • What does temperature measure?

24
Changes of State of Matter
  • Holt McDougal Physical Science C3S2 Matter and
    Energy

25
Learning Objectives
  • What happens when a substance changes from one
    state of matter to another?
  • What happens to mass and energy during physical
    and chemical changes?

26
What Causes Matter to Change States?
  • Change of state ? from one physical form to
    another
  • Caused by transfer of energy
  • Identity of substance remains the same

27
Adding and Removing energy
  • Heating ? adds energy
  • Adding NRG ? causes particles to move more
    quickly
  • Removing NRG ? causes particles to move more
    slowly

28
Temperature and Energy
  • Adding NRG ? increases kinetic energy of the
    particles
  • Removing NRG ? decreases kinetic energy of the
    particles
  • Temperature ? measure of the avg kinetic energy

29
Think fast!
  • What does hot mean for temperature?
  • What will removing all kinetic energy do to a gas?

30
Changes of State That Require Energy
  • Melting ? from solid to liquid
  • Melting point ? particles have enough nrg to
    break from rigid positions
  • Melting point ? can change if pressure changes

31
Evaporation
  • Change from liquid to gas
  • Boiling ? evaporation at specific temp and
    pressure
  • Boiling point ? temp at which liquid boils

32
Sublimation
  • Change from solid to gas
  • Example
  • Solid CO2
  • (room temp)? Gas CO2

33
Whats Your Answer?
  • What are three changes of state that require
    energy?
  • Melting
  • Boiling
  • Subliming

34
Changes of State That Release Energy
  • Condensation ? from gas to liquid
  • Condensation point ? temp to chg from gas to lqd
  • Condensation ? often happens when gas touches
    cool surface (e.g., vapor touches cold glass and
    becomes water droplets)

35
Freezing Point
  • Freezing ? chg from lqd to solid
  • Freezing point ? temp at which substances freezes
  • Freezing point Melting point Freezing point
  • Add nrg to melt release nrg to freeze

36
Do you recall?
  • What is the condensation point?
  • What is the melting point?
  • What is the boiling point?
  • What is the melting point?
  • What is the point? ?

37
What Happens to Temperature During Changes of
State?
  • Temp ? does NOT chg during a chg of state
  • When a substance loses or gains energy, either
    its temperature change or its state changes . . .
    (The) two changes do not happen at the same
    time. (p. 51)

38
By the Way Helpful Links
  • http//www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_intro.html
  • http//zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanic
    s/energy/heatAndTemperature/changesOfPhase/changeO
    fState.html

39
What Happens to Mass and Energy During Physical
and Chemical Changes?
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Conserve ? to keep the same

40
Fluids
  • Holt McDougal Physical Science C3S3 States of
    Matter?Fluids

41
Learning Objectives
  • How do fluids exert pressure?
  • What causes objects to float?
  • What happens when pressure in a fluid changes?
  • What affects the speed of a fluid?

42
What Are Fluids
  • Liquids and gases
  • Particles can move past each other
  • Exert pressure in all directions

43
What Is Pressure
  • With your neighbor, come up with a quick
    demonstration of pressure . . .
  • Pressure ? amt of force exerted on a give surface
    area

44
Calculating Pressure
  • Divide force by area
  • Pressure Force/Area PF/A
  • Pascal ? SI unit for pressure
  • Newton ? SI unit for force
  • 1 Pa 1 N/m2

Is pressure a derived unit? Why/not?
45
Try Calculating Pressure
  • Given a force of 20N over 60m2, how much pressure
    is being exerted? Try this on your whiteboard.
  • Write the formula P F / A
  • Substitute values P 20N/60m2
  • Divide the units P N/m2
  • Now, divide the quantities 20/60 .33
  • Assemble the answer P 0.33N/m2

46
What Causes an Object to Float?
  • Buoyant force ? upward force fluids exert on
    matter
  • Archimedes Principle ? The buoyant force of an
    object equals the weight of the fluid that the
    object displaces.

47
Do you remember . . .
  • What is pressure?
  • The amount of force exerted over an area
  • What is a Pascal?
  • The SI unit for pressure 1Pa 1N/m2
  • Given area and pressure, how does one determine
    the number of Newtons required?
  • Since PF/A, then F P A

48
Will It Sink or Float?
  • By Weight
  • By Density
  • Compare weight to buoyant force ? why?
  • Floats ? bouyant force gt or objects weight
  • Sinks ? bouyant force lt or objects weight
  • Compare density of object to density of fluid
  • Floats ? object is less dense than the fluid
  • Sinks ? object is denser than the fluid
  • BTW, the density of water is . ..
  • 1 g/cm3

http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.
html
49
(No Transcript)
50
What Happens When Pressure Changes in a Fluid?
  • What happens when you squeeze a balloon?
  • What happens when you squeeze a tube of
    toothpaste?
  • Pascals principle ? If the pressure in a
    container is increased at any point, the pressure
    increases at all points by the same amount.

51
Pascals Principle (formula)
  • P(1) P(2)
  • If P F / A, then what does F(1) / A(1) equal?
  • F(1)/A(1) F(2)/A(2)
  • Remember, pressure is measured in pascals and 1Pa
    1N/M2

52
Hydraulic Devices and Pascal
  • Use liquids to transmit pressure from one point
    to another
  • Car lift
  • Beautician chair
  • Barbershop

53
Apply Pascals Principle to Solve
  • A hydraulic lift uses Pascals principle to lift
    a 19,000N car. The area of the small pistons
    equals 10.5cm2 and the area of the large piston
    equals 400 cm2. What force must you exert on the
    small piston to lift the car?
  • Write formula
  • Substitute
  • Do the math

54
Properties of Fluids in Motion
  • Fluids and area
  • Fluid pressure and speed
  • Viscosity

55
Fluids and Area
  • What happens when you put your finger over the
    opening for a water/garden hose?
  • If the flow rate stays the same, fluids move
    faster through small areas than large areas.

56
Bernoullis Principle
  • Swiss Scientist from 1700 to 1782
  • Published his discovery in 1738
  • Blow across top of paper
  • As the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure
    exerted by the fluid decreases.
  • http//alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id24058

57
Quiz Write Questions and Answers
  1. How can you use density to determine if an object
    will float in a fluid?
  2. You put a small object into a cup of water and
    the displaced water weighs 235N. What is the
    buoyant force on the object? Explain your
    answer.
  3. How does a hydraulic device multiply force?
  4. A balloon filled with helium floats in the air.
    What does this tell you about the density of
    helium?
  5. How are speed and pressure of a fluid related?
  6. How do the attractions between particles in a
    fluid determine viscosity?

58
Fluid Flow Viscosity
  • Viscosity ? fluids resistance to flow
  • Think about the principles of Kinetic Molecular
    Theory why are some fluids more viscous than
    others?
  • In general, the stronger the attraction between
    the particles of a fluid, the more viscous the
    fluid is.

59
Behavior of Gases
  • Holt McDougal Interactive Reader Chapter 3
    Section 4

60
NGSSS and Learning Objective Questions
  • SC912P12.10 Interpret the behavior of ideal
    gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory
  • What are some properties of gases?
  • How do changes of pressure, temperature, or
    volume affect a gas?

61
Physical Properties of Gases
  • What are some physical properties of Gases?
  • Class Notes these properties
  • Expand to fill their containers
  • Easily mix with one another
  • Have low densities
  • Can be compressed
  • Are mostly empty space
  • Exert pressure on their containers

62
Gas Laws
  • Boyles Law ? variable volume
  • Gay-Lussacs Law ? variable pressure
  • Charless Law ? variable temperature

63
Boyles Law
  • Works if temperature and amount of gas are
    constant or unchanged
  • For a certain amount of gas at a constant
    temperature, the volume of a gas decreases as the
    gass pressure increases. Likewise, the volume
    of a gas increases as the gass pressure
    decreases.
  • P1V1 P2V2

64
Practice Boyles Law
  • Given a balloon with a volume of 7.5L at 100.0
    kPa, what is the pressure of the balloon when the
    volume is 11.0L?
  • Write the formula P1V1P2V2
  • Substitute values 7.5(100)P2(11.0)
  • Multiply 75011.0(P2)
  • Divide 750/11.011.0(P2)/11.0
  • Assign correct units 68kPa

65
Try Boyles Law, again
  • A 300mL sample of H gas is at a pressure of
    0.500KPA. If the pressure increases to 0.750kPa,
    what will be the final volume of the sample?
    Assume that temperature stays constant.
  • Write the formula
  • Substitute values
  • Multiply
  • Divide
  • Assign correct units

66
Think About It . . .
  • What might happen if you threw a full can of
    spray paint into a raging fire?
  • . . . remember the container is rigid, so its
    volume cannot increase!

67
Pressure and Temperature
  • Temperature ? measure of avg kinetic nrg
  • Increase temp ? particles gain kinetic nrg and
    bump sides of container more often
  • Increase temp ? pressure increases

68
Gay Lussacs Law
  • When volume is constant, the pressure of a gas
    increases as temperature increases. Pressure
    decreases as temperature decreases.
  • Pressure and temperature directly related.
  • Change one same kind of change in the other

69
Charless Law Its the Kinetic Theory!!!
  • A scientist named Jacques Charles did many
    experiments involving gas volumes and
    temperatures.
  • If gas and pressure are constant, the volume of
    gas increases as temperature increases.
  • VTk (where k is a constant pressure).

70
How Can Graphs Illustrate the Gas Laws?
  • Graphs show relationship between two factors
  • Direct relationship ? two variables change in the
    same direction
  • Inverse relationship ? variables change in
    opposite directions
  • Straight line ? directly proportional
  • Curved line ? variables dont maintain ration
About PowerShow.com