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Educational Psychology and Inclusion in Education

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Educational Psychology and Inclusion in Education By Lisa DeSouza Academic & Professional tutor and Educational Psychologist University of Nottingham – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Educational Psychology and Inclusion in Education


1
Educational Psychology and Inclusion in Education
  • By
  • Lisa DeSouza
  • Academic Professional tutor and Educational
    Psychologist
  • University of Nottingham
  • December 2005

2
Aims of Session
  • To explore definitions of inclusion and what it
    means for the education of children and young
    people.
  • To briefly examine the history of special
    education and the move towards inclusion.
  • To compare and contrast the medical and social
    models of disability.
  • To examine the research evidence in relation to
    inclusive education.
  • To explore how educational psychologists can
    contribute to the inclusion of children and young
    people in schools.

3
What is Inclusive Education?
  • Rejecting segregation or exclusion of learners
    for whatever reason ability, gender, language,
    care status, family income, disability,
    sexuality, colour, religion or ethnic origin
  • Maximising the participation of all learners in
    the community schools of their choice
  • Making learning more meaningful and relevant for
    all, particularly those learners most vulnerable
    to exclusionary pressure
  • Rethinking and restructuring policies, curricula,
    culture and practices in schools and learning
    environments so that diverse learning needs can
    be met, whatever the origin or nature of those
    needs.
  • (From British Psychological Society Inclusive
    Education Position Paper, 20022)

4
What is Inclusive Education?
  • Inclusion means including all children and young
    people in their local mainstream school.
  • Inclusion means young people and adults with
    disabilities being included in mainstream
    society.
  • Inclusion is an ongoing process.
  • Inclusive schools help the development of
    communities where all people are equally valued
    and have the same opportunities for
    participation.

5
Inclusive Education versus Segregated Education
  • Questions have been raised internationally about
    the value of segregated education (i.e. special
    schools/units etc.)
  • Many argue that it encourages prejudice and
    discrimination in school and in the wider society.

6
Salamanca World Statement
  • Inclusion and participation are essential to
    human dignity and to the enjoyment and exercise
    of human rights. Within the field of education
    this is reflected in the development of
    strategies to bring about a genuine equalisation
    of opportunity
  • (United Nations Educational Scientific and
    Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), 199411)

7
History of Special Education
  • First special schools set up in UK in 1850s.
  • Set up initially to educate children with hearing
    or visual impairments only.
  • By end of 19th century, big expansion in special
    school sector which continued into the 20th
    century.

8
Moving towards Inclusion
  • Human Rights movement in the 1960s.
  • Changing views on people with disabilities within
    the wider society.
  • Lack of research evidence about value of special
    schools.
  • Focusing on similarities between children with
    disabilities and other children, rather than
    differences.
  • (Frederickson Cline, 2002)

9
The Medical Model of Disability
  • Child is faulty
  • Diagnosis
  • Impairment becomes focus of attention
  • Assessment, monitoring, programmes of therapy
    imposed
  • Segregation and alternative services
  • Ordinary needs put on hold
  • Re-entry if normal enough permanent
    exclusion

10
The Social Model of Disability
  • Child is valued
  • Strengths and needs defined by self and others
  • OUTCOME based programme designed
  • Resources made available to ordinary services
  • Training for parents and professionals
  • Relationships nurtured
  • DIVERSITY WELCOMED
  • Society evolves

11
Concepts of Special Educational Needs
  • Focus on individual differences
  • Focus on environmental demands
  • Interactional analysis of special educational
    needs
  • (See Frederickson Cline, 2002)

12
Inclusive Education and the Research Evidence
  • A wide variety of studies have produced some
    consistent results
  • No evidence that segregated education fosters
    social or academic progress over mainstream
    school education.
  • Some studies show advantages to inclusive
    placements if accompanied by an appropriate
    individualised programme.
  • Other studies have reported that there is a small
    to moderate advantage to inclusion on both social
    and academic outcomes.
  • (See Frederickson Cline, 2002)

13
Inclusive Education and the Research Evidence
  • Some research has focused on effect of inclusion
    on children without disabilities
  • Evidence suggests that inclusion supported
    progress of children without disabilities.
  • Inclusion found to have positive impact and
    facilitates the education of all children.
  • Teacher time not affected by presence of students
    with special educational needs
  • (See Frederickson Cline, 2002)

14
Inclusive Education and the Research Evidence
  • Research in this area has been limited.
  • Methodological limitations in many of the studies
    carried out.
  • More research on outcomes of inclusion is needed.

15
Components of Effective Inclusive Education-
Research Evidence
  • Strong visionary leadership
  • Flexible pupil groupings and adaptable teaching
    style
  • High expectations for all pupils
  • Collaboration
  • Community and parental involvement
  • (See Frederickson Cline, 2002)

16
Role of Educational Psychologists and Inclusion
  • Making psychology (knowledge about human
    behaviour and learning) available to schools and
    all learners.
  • Helping schools design appropriate learning
    environments for learners with different learning
    styles and needs.
  • Focusing on the effects of environment and
    systems on learning and behaviour.

17
Role of Educational Psychologists and Inclusion
  • Use of psychological skills and consultation to
    identify, assess and help resolve concerns.
  • Using research skills to examine how learning
    settings can become more inclusive.
  • Advocating for children and young people with
    disabilities. Enabling voices of the vulnerable
    to be heard.

18
References
  • Main Texts
  • Frederickson, N. and Cline, T. (2002) Special
    Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity Open
    University Press
  • Other References
  • British Psychological Society (BPS) (2002)
    Inclusive Education Position paper www.bps.org.uk
  • Bunch, G. and Valeo, A. (1997) Inclusion Recent
    Research Inclusion Press
  • Clark, C., Dyson, A. and Millward, A. (Eds.)
    (1998) Theorising Special Education Routledge
  • Clough, P. and Corbett, J. (2000) Theories of
    Inclusive Education A Students Guide London
    Chapman
  • Thomas, G. and Loxley, A. (2001) Deconstructing
    Special Education and Constructing Inclusion Open
    University Press
  • Thomas, G. and Vaughan, M. (2004) Inclusive
    Education Readings and Reflections Open
    University Press

19
References
  • Useful Journals
  • Educational Psychology in Practice
  • Educational and Child Psychology
  • International Journal of Inclusive Education
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