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Title: TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO SOIL MECHANIC


1
TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO SOIL MECHANIC
Course S0705 Soil Mechanic Year 2008
2
CONTENT
  • INTRODUCTION (SESSION 1 F2F)
  • SOIL CHARACTERICTIC (SESSION 1 F2F)
  • SOIL CLASSIFICATION (SESSION 2 F2F)
  • SOIL COMPACTION (SESSION 3-4 F2F)
  • SOIL INVESTIGATIONS (SESSION 5-6 OFC)

3
SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION SOIL CHARATERICTIC
4
DEFINITION OF SOIL
  • Soil is a natural body comprised of solids
    (minerals and organic matter), liquid, and gases
    that occurs on the land surface, occupies space,
    and is characterized by one or both of the
    following horizons, or layers, that are
    distinguishable from the initial material as a
    result of additions, losses, transfers, and
    transformations of energy and matter or the
    ability to support rooted plants in a natural
    environment.
  • Soil is formed over a long period of time.
  • The formation of soil happens over a very long
    period of time. It can take 1000 years or more.
    Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks and
    minerals. The surface rocks break down into
    smaller pieces through a process of weathering
    and is then mixed with moss and organic matter.

5
SOIL MECHANIC/GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
  • Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil
    engineering concerned with the engineering
    behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical
    engineering includes investigating existing
    subsurface conditions and materials assessing
    risks posed by site conditions designing
    earthworks and structure foundations and
    monitoring site conditions, earthwork and
    foundation construction.
  • A typical geotechnical engineering project begins
    with a site investigation of soil, rock, fault
    distribution and bedrock properties on and below
    an area of interest to determine their
    engineering properties including how they will
    interact with, on or in a proposed construction.
    Site investigations are needed to gain an
    understanding of the area in or on which the
    engineering will take place. Investigations can
    include the assessment of the risk to humans,
    property and the environment from natural hazards
    such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil
    liquefaction, debris flows and rock falls.

6
SOIL FORMATION
  • Weathering is the process of the breaking down
    rocks. There are two different types of
    weathering. Physical weathering and chemical
    weathering. In physical weathering it breaks down
    the rocks, but what it's made of stays the same.
    In chemical weathering it still breaks down the
    rocks, but it may change what it's made of. For
    instance, a hard material may change to a soft
    material after chemical weathering.

STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3
STAGE 4
7
SOIL PROFILE
8
SOIL PROFILE
9
SOIL TYPES
  • SOIL TYPES
  • RESIDUAL SOIL
  • SEDIMENT SOIL
  • ALLUVIUM SOIL
  • LACUSTRINE SOIL
  • MARINE SOIL
  • PARTICULAR SOIL
  • EXPANSIVE SOIL
  • ORGANIC SOIL
  • COLLAPSIBLE SOIL
  • QUICK CLAY

10
BASIC CHARACTERISTIC
  • PARTICLE BONDING
  • THE PARTICLE BONDING IS VERY WEAK SO RELATIVELY
    EASY TO GOING TO CHANGE AND HAVE NON-LINEAR
    BEHAVIOUR AND CHARACTERISTIC
  • SHAPE, SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF SOIL PARTICLE
  • Cohesive Soil
  • Non-cohesive Soil

11
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12
LOOSE SAND
DENSE SAND
13
  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL
  • BASIC DEFINITION AND PHASE RELATIONS

14
  • VOID RATIO (Angka Pori) e The ratio of void
    volume (Vv) to soil volume (Vs)
  • 0 lt e lt ?
  • POROSITY (Porositas) n The ratio of void
    volume (Vv) to total volume (V)
  • 0 ? n ? 1
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOID RATIO AND POROSITY
  • or

15
  • WATER CONTENT (kadar air) ? The ratio of the
    amount of water (Ww) in the soil (Ws) and
    expressed as a percentage
  • 0 lt ? lt ?
  • DERAJAT KEJENUHAN (DEGREE OF SATURATION) S
    The ratio of water volume air (Vw) to void volume
    (Vv) and expressed as a percentage
  • 0 ? S ? 100

16
  • UNIT WEIGHT (Berat Volume) The ratio of weight
    to volume
  • SPECIFIC GRAVITY (Berat Jenis) GS The ratio
    of unit weight of soil to unit weight of water
  • RELATIVE DENSITY (Kepadatan Relatif) Dr

17
  • RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL PARAMETERS

18
SESSION 2 SOIL CLASSIFICATION
19
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
  • PURPOSE
  • To classified the soil into a group according
    to the soil behaviour and physical shape
  • TYPE OF CLASSIFICATION
  • CLASSIFICATION BY VISUAL
  • AASHTO
  • UCS
  • SOIL TESTS
  • ATTERBERG LIMIT
  • SIEVE ANALYSIS
  • HYDROMETER ANALYSIS

20
  • Atterberg Limit
  • Cohesive Soil
  • Base on water content
  • Consistency Limit Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit
    and Shrinkage Limit

21
LIQUID LIMIT (LL)
  • The liquid limit is that moisture content at
    which a soil changes from the liquid state to the
    plastic state. It along with the plastic limit
    provides a means of soil classification as well
    as being useful in determining other soil
    properties
  • Two main methods to determine the liquid limit
  • Cone Pentrometer Method
  • Casagrande Method

22
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
23
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • SAMPLE PREPARATION
  • Any coarse particles present need to be removed,
    by hand or by wet sieving (coarse particles are
    defined as any particles retained on a 425 micron
    sieve).
  • Next a representative sample is required weighing
    around 200g.
  • This sample should be cut into small pieces using
    a knife or shredder and any coarse particles
    removed with tweezers.
  • Then the sample is transferred to a flat glass
    plate, distilled water is added and the soil and
    water are mixed thoroughly with two palette
    knives until the mass becomes a thick homogenous
    paste.
  • The paste is then transferred to an air tight
    container for 24 hrs to allow the water time to
    penetrate the soil fully.

24
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • TESTING PROCEDURES
  • Push a portion of the sample into the cup with a
    palette knife taking care not to trap air, strike
    off the excess and with the straight edge to get
    a smooth and level surface.
  • With the penetration cone raised and locked lower
    the supporting assembly so that the tip of the
    cone just touches the surface of the soil in the
    cup.
  • When the cone is in position a slight movement of
    the cup will mark the surface.
  • Lower the stem of the dial gauge so that it comes
    into contact with the cone shaft and gives a
    reading, record the reading to the nearest 0.1mm.
  • Release the cone for a period of 5s (plus or
    minus 1s) if the apparatus is not fitted with an
    automatic release and locking device take care
    not to jar the apparatus during the procedure.
    After 5s the cone should have, to some extent,
    penetrated the smooth surface of the soil, lock
    the cone in this new, lower, position and lower
    the stem of the dial gauge again so that it just
    comes into contact with the cone shaft, record
    this new reading to the nearest 0.1mm Lift out
    the cone and clean it carefully, to avoid
    scratching, then add a little more wet soil and
    repeat the test.

25
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • Notes
  • If the difference between the first and second
    penetration readings is less than 0.5mm record
    the average of the two penetrations.
  • If the second penetration is more than 0.5mm and
    less than 1mm from the first, carry out a third
    test.
  • If the overall range is then not more than 1mm
    record the average of the three penetrations. If
    the overall range is more than 1mm remove the
    soil from the cup, remix and repeat until
    consistent results are obtained.

26
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • TESTING PROCEDURES (continued)
  • Take a moisture content sample of about 10g from
    the cup around the area penetrated by the cone.
  • Repeat the test at least three more times using
    the same sample of soil - to which further
    increments of distilled water have been added.
    Proceeding from the drier state to the wetter.
    The amount of water added shall be such that a
    range of penetration values of approximately
    15-25mm is covered by four or more test runs and
    is evenly distributed.
  • Each time the soil is removed from the cup for
    the addition of water the cup and cone must be
    thoroughly cleaned, if the soil is to be left for
    any length of time it should be covered with a
    damp cloth to prevent it drying out.

27
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • Result
  • Calculate the moisture content of each test
    sample,
  • plot the relationship between the moisture
    content and the corresponding cone penetration
    recorded on a linear chart, with the percentage
    moisture content as ordinates on the linear scale
    and the number of bumps on the opposite scale,
  • draw a line of best fit between the points.
  • From the curve read off the moisture content
    corresponding to a cone penetration of 20mm to
    the first decimal place,
  • express this moisture content to the nearest
    whole number and report it as the liquid limit.

28
CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
  • Example of
  • Typical Result

29
CASAGRANDE METHOD
  • Per definition as water content at 25 blows

METHOD A MULTI-POINT
30
CASAGRANDE METHOD
METHOD B SINGLE-POINT
31
CASAGRANDE METHOD
32
CASAGRANDE METHOD
33
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL)
  • Plastic behaviour
  • The test is done by rolling up the soil sample to
    3.2mm diameter
  • Defined as the water content, in percent, at
    which the soil crumbles, when rolled into threads
    of 1/8 in (3.2mm) in diameter.

34
SHRINKAGE LIMIT (SL)
  • Test Standard ASTM D 427
  • Defined as the moisture content, in percent, at
    which the volume of soil mass ceases to change
  • WS ltltlt ? easy to have volume change

35
  • CONSISTENCY RELATIONSHIP
  • Plasticity Index (PI)
  • PI LL - PL
  • Liquidity Index (LI)
  • Consistency Index (CI)

36
CONSISTENCY RELATIONSHIP
  • Activity (A)
  • A lt 0.75 ? non-active clay
  • 0.75 ?Alt1.25 ? normal clay
  • A ?1.25 ? active clay

37
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38
  • Sieve Analysis
  • Test Standard
  • ASTM D422, AASHTO T88
  • The testing should be only carried out once for
    one sample

39
  • Curve of Particle Size Distribution

40
  • Hydrometer Analysis
  • Used to extend the distribution curve of particle
    shape and to predict the particle size less than
    200 sieve
  • Principle of work sedimentation of soil
    particle in water
  • Assumption All particle have rounded shape
  • Stoke rule is valid

41
BASIC OF CLASSIFICATION
42
CLASSIFICATION BY VISUAL
  • Carried out by direct observation (visual
    examination) to the sample and approximate the
    type of soil by
  • Colour
  • Smell
  • Sense/Feeling
  • endurance
  • Swelling
  • Sedimentation

43
AASHTO
  • The soil classified into 7 major categories (A-1
    to A-7)
  • Based on
  • The result of Sieve Analysis
  • Atterberg Limits
  • The soil quality based on Group Index Calculation

Plasticity Index for sub group A-7-5 ? LL minus
30. Plasticity Index for sub group A-7-6 gt LL
minus 30
44
AASHTO
  • GROUP INDEX

F The percentage of soil pass sieve no. 200
Subgrade Group Index Value
Very good Soil Class A-1-a (0)
Good 0 1
Medium 2 4
Bad 5 9
Very Bad 10 - 20
45
AASHTO
  • GROUP INDEX
  • Rules
  • If GI lt 0, GI 0
  • GI ? Integer Number
  • No upper limit of GI
  • For coarse grained,
  • GI 0 for A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5 and A-3
  • GI 0,01(F-15)(PI-10) for A-2-6 and A-2-7

46
AASHTO
47
AASHTO PROCEDURE
48
AASHTO
49
USCS (UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM)
  • Soil classification determined base on the soil
    parameter i.e.
  • Diameter of soil particle
  • Gravel pass sieve no.3 but retained at sieve
    no. 4
  • Sand pass sieve no. 4 but retained at sieve no.
    200
  • Silt and Clay pass sieve no. 200
  • Coefficient of soil uniform
  • Atterberg Limits

50
USCS (UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM)
  • Notation
  • G Gravel
  • M Inorganic Silt
  • C inorganic Clay
  • O Organic Silt or Clay
  • W Well Graded
  • P Poorly Graded
  • L Low Plasticity
  • H High Plasticity

51
USCS (UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM)
  • Steps of determination
  • Determine the soil particle by count the
    percentage of soil pass sieve no. 200. If the
    percentage less than 50 so the soil is
    classified as coarse grained.
  • Determine the percentage of soil pass sieve no. 4
    and retained at sieve no. 200. If the percentage
    less than a half of the percentage of coarse
    material, the soil is classified as gravelly soil

52
THE FLOW CHART OF USCS METHOD
53
FLOWCHART OF USCS METHOD (CONTINUED)
54
FLOWCHART USCS METHOD (CONTINUED)
55
USCS (UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM)
56
USCS (UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM)
57
COMPARISON OF AASHTO AND USCS
58
EXAMPLE
  • RESULT OF ANALYSIS AND ATTERBERG LIMIT
  • GROSS WEIGHT OF SAMPLE 1000 GRAM

Sieve Size Soil 1 Soil 2 Soil 3
No. 4 990 gram 970 gram 1000 gram
No. 10 920 gram 900 gram 1000 gram
No. 40 860 gram 400 gram 1000 gram
No. 100 780 gram 80 gram 990 gram
No. 200 600 gram 50 gram 970 gram
LL 20 - 124
PL 15 - 47
PI 5 NP 77
59
Sieve Size Soil 1 Soil 2 Soil 3
No. 4 99 97 100
No. 10 92 90 100
No. 40 86 40 100
No. 100 78 8 99
No. 200 60 5 97
LL 20 - 124
PL 15 - 47
PI 5 NP 77
60
SESSION 3-4 SOIL COMPACTION
61
INTRODUCTION
  • Soil compaction is defined as the method of
    mechanically increasing the density of soil.  In
    construction, this is a significant part of the
    building process.  If performed improperly,
    settlement of the soil could occur and result in
    unnecessary maintenance costs or structure
    failure

62
SOIL COMPACTION
  • PURPOSE
  • Improving the soil quality by
  • Increasing the shear strength of soil
  • Improving the bearing capacity of soil
  • Reduces the settling of soil
  • Reduces the soil permeability
  • To control the relative volume change

63
TYPES OF COMPACTION
  • 4 types of compaction effort on soil  
  • Vibration
  • Impact
  • Kneading
  • Pressure

64
SOIL COMPACTION
  • BASIC THEORY
  • Developed by R.R. Proctor at 1920-an with 4
    variables
  • Compaction efforts (Compaction Energy)
  • Soil types
  • Water content
  • Dry Unit Weight
  • LABORATORY COMPACTION TEST
  • Standard Proctor Test
  • Modification Proctor Test
  • Dietert Compaction
  • Harvard Miniatur Compaction

65
STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
  • The soil is compacted at cylindrical tube
  • Specification of test and equipments
  • Hammer weight 2,5 kg (5,5 lb)
  • Falling height 1 ft
  • Amount of layers 3
  • No. of blows/layer 25
  • Compaction effort 595 kJ/m3
  • Soil type pass sieve no. 4
  • The test is carried out several time with
    different water content
  • After compacted, the weight, moisture content and
    unit weight of samples are measured
  • Test Standard
  • AASHTO T 99
  • ASTM D698

66
MODIFIED PROCTOR TEST
  • The soil is compacted at cylindrical tube
  • Specification of test and equipments
  • Hammer weight 4.5 kg (10 lb)
  • Falling height 1.5 ft
  • Amount of layers 5
  • No. of blows/layer 25, 56
  • Compaction effort 2693 kJ/m3
  • Soil type pass sieve no. 4
  • The test is carried out several time with
    different water content
  • After compacted, the weight, moisture content and
    unit weight of samples are measured
  • Test Standard
  • AASHTO T 180
  • ASTM D1557

67
TEST RESULT
68
DIETERT COMPACTION
  • Principle of work
  • Impact Compaction is acted like Proctor Test
  • The size of soil particle
  • Pass sieve 2 mm
  • The falling height is more constant ?
    reproducible
  • To get the approximation of compaction
    characteristic of less soil sample
  • Purpose for other soil testing such as unconfined
    compression test

69
HARVARD MINIATUR COMPACTION
  • Principle of work
  • Alat pemadat sheepsfoot roller ? aksi kneading
    pada tanah
  • Spring Load Tamper
  • Spring 40 lb
  • The size of soil particle
  • Lolos saringan 2 mm
  • Pemadatan dalam 3 lapis dengan 25 tekanan per
    lapis
  • ? Standar Proctor Test

70
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Smooth Wheel Roller
  • compaction equipment which supplies 100
    coverage under the wheel, with ground contact
    pressures up to 400 kPa and may be used on all
    soil types except rocky soils. Mostly use for
    proofrolling subgrades and compacting asphalt
    pavements.

71
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Rubber Tire Roller
  • A heavily loaded wagon with several rows of
    three to six closely spaced tires with tire
    pressure may be up to about 700 kPa and has about
    80 coverage (80 of the total area is covered by
    tires).
  • This equipment may be used for both granular and
    cohesive highway fills.

72
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Sheepsfoot Roller
  • This roller has many round or rectangular shaped
    protrusions or feet attached to a steel drum.
  • The area of these protusions ranges from 30 to
    80 cm2.
  • Area coverage is about 8 12 with very high
    contact pressures ranging from 1400 to 7000 kPa
    depending on the drum size and whether the drum
    is filled with water.
  • The sheepsfoot roller is best suited for
    cohesive soils.

73
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Tamping Foot Roller
  • This roller similarly to sheepsfoot roller,
    which has approximately 40 coverage and generate
    high contact pressures from 1400 to 8400 kPa.
    Tamping foot rollers are best for compacting
    fine-grained soils.

74
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Grid Roller
  • This roller has about 50 coverage and pressures
    from 1400 to 6200 kPa, ideally suited for
    compacting rocky soils, gravels and sand. With
    high towing speed, the material is vibrated,
    crushed, and impacted.

75
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Baby Roller
  • Small type of smooth wheel roller yang, which
    has pressure ranges from 10 to 30 kPa. The
    performance base on static weight and vibration
    effect.

76
FIELD COMPACTION
  • Type of Compaction Equipment
  • Vibrating Plate
  • Compaction equipment, which has plate shape. In
    Indonesia this equipment sometimes called as
    stamper. Usually used for narrow area and high
    risk when use large compaction equipment like
    smooth wheel roller etc.

77
FIELD COMPACTION
78
FIELD COMPACTION
79
FIELD COMPACTION
80
FIELD COMPACTION
81
CHARACTERISTIC AND APPLICATION
82
CONDITIONER FACTORS
  • Characteristic of compaction equipment
  • Weight and size
  • Operation frequency and frequency range
  • Soil Characteristic
  • Initial density
  • Soil type
  • Size and shape of soil particle
  • Moisture Content
  • Compaction Procedure
  • No. of passes of the roller
  • Layer thickness
  • Frequency of operation of vibrator
  • Towing speed

83
FIELD COMPACTION CONTROL
  • Excavate a hole with certain diameter and depth.
    Determine the mass of excavated material.
  • Determine the moisture content
  • Measure the volume of excavated material by
  • Ottawa Sand ? Sand cone
  • The balloon method
  • Pouring water or oil
  • Compute the total density, ? and ?d,field
  • Compare ?d, field with ?d,max and calculate the
    relative compaction

84
SPECIFICATION OF COMPACTION
  • End Product Specification
  • Method of Specification
  • Minimum soil sample 100 kg
  • Need special experience to find out the optimum
    moisture content in order to get optimum
    compaction performance

85
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENSITY AND CBR
86
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENSITY AND CBR
87
Session 5 6 SOIL INVESTIGATION
88
SOIL INVESTIGATION AND LABORATORY TESTS
  • SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • LABORATORY TESTINGS
  • EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS
  • CPT AND N-SPT VALUE
  • BETWEEN SOIL PARAMETER

89
SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • PURPOSE
  • To describe the soil condition and its
    stratification.
  • To get the soil sample for laboratory testing
  • undisturbed sample
  • disturbed sample
  • To find out the ground water level
  • To get the soil properties directly
  • In-situ Test

90
SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • STAGES
  • Site Inspection
  • Initial Investigation
  • Cone Penetration Test (Sondir)
  • Advance Investigation (detail)
  • Boring and sampling
  • Standard Penetration Test
  • Pressuremeter
  • Dilatometer
  • Additional Investigation

91
SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • DEPTH OF SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • Shallow Foundation 3 x Foundation width (min.
    9m)
  • Raft Foundation 2 x Foundation width
  • Pile Foundation 2 x Pile width (measured from
    pile tip)
  • Pile Raft Foundation 2 x building width
  • Retaining Earth Structure 0.7 x cutting width
    or 1 x cutting height (take the biggest)
  • Soil Embankment 2 x embankment width

92
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93
SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • NO. OF SOIL INVESTIGATION
  • Initial Investigation
  • Normal Soil every 100 to 200 m
  • Soft Soil every 50 to 100 m
  • Detail Investigation
  • Square structure every 15 to 25 m
  • Strip structure every 25 to 50 m
  • At the important side of the structure, the
    number of soil investigation can be increased

94
BORING INVESTIGATION
  • AUGER BORING
  • WASH BORING
  • CORE DRILLING
  • TEST PIT

95
BORING INVESTIGATION
  • AUGER BORING (PENGEBORAN MANUAL)
  • Carried out by pushing and rotating the auger
    into soil
  • Limited application, only suitable for shallow
    foundation
  • Not suitable for boring under ground water table
  • Simple, easy to operate and minimum disturbance
    to soil

96
BORING INVESTIGATION
  • WASH BORING (PENGEBORAN BILAS )
  • Use rotary bore machine
  • Soil dig and washed by water circulation
  • Can not used for soil identification
  • Less suitable for rock boring
  • Suitable for all type of soil
  • Very suitable for soft soil
  • Disturbance to soil structure is minimum

97
BORING INVESTIGATION
  • CORE DRILLING (PENGEBORAN INTI)
  • Use rotary bore machine
  • Single tube without water circulation
  • Double or triple tube with water circulation
  • Can use for rock
  • Can identify soil directly
  • Not suitable for boring of soft soil
  • Can make a disturbance soil structure

98
BORING INVESTIGATION
  • TEST PIT
  • Carried by excavated soil manually
  • For shallow depth
  • Difficult to apply to soil with high water level
  • Very simple and relative cheap
  • Identification can be done directly by visual.
  • Large number of soil sample

99
SAMPLING METHOD
  • UNDISTURBED SOIL SAMPLING (CONTOH TANAH TAK
    TERGANGGU)
  • Sampling Technique
  • Sensitive and soft to very soft clay or silt ?
    thin wall tube piston
  • Soft to medium stiff clay or silt ? shelby thin
    wall tube sampler
  • Hard to very hard clay or silt ? thick wall tube
    sampler or Denison or Pitcher samplers

100
THIN WALL and PISTON SAMPLER
101
THICK WALL and DENISON SAMPLER
102
SOIL SAMPLER TUBE (ASTM D1587)
103
SAMPLING METHOD
  • UNDISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE (CONTOH TANAH TAK
    TERGANGGU )
  • Storage Technique/Sample treatment
  • The tube shall be covered by paraffin candle
  • Storage at cool place and at vertical position
  • Shall be labeled to facilitate soil
    identification
  • The tube shall be folded by foam during
    transportation
  • The laboratory tests shall be carried out as soon
    as possible

104
SAMPLING METHOD
  • DISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE (CONTOH TANAH TERGANGGU )
  • Sampling Technique and Sample Treatment
  • Can get from core drilling or SPT tube
  • Shall be folded by plastic and storage at cool
    place
  • Shall be labeled to facilitate soil
    identification
  • Usually use for fill material

105
INSITU TEST (UJI LAPANGAN)
  • BASIC AND SIMPLE INSITU TEST
  • Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
  • Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
  • INSITU TEST for DIRECT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
    SOIL
  • Field vane shear test ? Soil Strength
  • Pressuremeter Test/Lateral Load Test (LLT) ? Soil
    Deformation
  • Flat Dilatometer Test ? Soil Deformation
  • Plate Bearing Test ? Strength and Deformation of
    Soil

106
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
  • PRINCIPLE OF WORK
  • Carried out by punching the standard tube to
    bore hole using free fall 63.5 kg hammer from
    760mm height. The number of blows required for
    spoon penetration of three 150mm. The number of
    blow counted at the last of 300mm penetration.
  • RULES
  • Dimension of SPT tube according to ASTM D1586
  • The hammer type is conventional or automatic

107
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Could be used to identify soil types visually
  • Could be used to get qualitative soil properties
    by empirical correlation
  • LIMITATION
  • The soil strength profile can not be measured
    continuously
  • The high accuracy is needed during investigation
    in case of weight and falling height of hammer

108
SPT HAMMER
109
DIMENSION OF SPT TUBE
110
EXAMPLE OF BORING LOG AND SPT
111
SPT EXECUTION
112
CONE PENETRATION TEST (CPT)
  • TYPE OF PENETROMETER AND PRINCIPLE OF WORK
  • Mechanical friction-cone penetrometer
  • by pushing a cone with projection area 10
    cm2 and 60o
  • angle and standard velocity 20 mm
    per-second.
  • 2 measurement parameters each 20 cm of depth
  • Cone Resistance (qc)
  • Local Friction (fs)
  • Electric friction-cone penetrometer
  • measure the cone pressure and continuously
    friction with better accuracy level

113
CONE PENETRATION TEST (CPT)
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Continuous Soil strength profile
  • Give fast description of soil
  • Simple
  • LIMITATIONS
  • Bad accuracy for soil with some stones
  • Mechanical friction-cone penetrometer is less
    sensitive when applied in very soft clay

114
CPT CONE SIZE (ASTM D 3441)
115
ELECTRIC FRICTION-CONE PENETROMETER TIP
116
EXAMPLE OF CPT GRAPH
117
FIELD VANE SHEAR TEST (FVT)
  • Measure undrained shear strength of soil
  • Suitable for very soft clay to medium stiff clay
  • Principle of equipment operation vane pushed
    and rotated
  • The vane shear equation
  • Correlation between vane shear and shear strength
    of soil

118
FIELD VANE SHEAR TEST (FVT)
119
PRESSUREMETER TEST (PMT)
  • Measure the strength and deformation of soil
  • Recommended use for the soil which need elastic
    settlement prediction
  • Equipment mechanism expanding the rubber
    cylinder of water by using air pressure

120
PRESSUREMETER TEST (PMT)
121
DILATOMETER TEST (DMT)
  • Have similar purpose and equipment mechanism with
    Pressuremeter
  • The difference is in the pressure direction
  • DMT ? one direction
  • PMT ? radial

122
DILATOMETER TEST (DMT)
123
PLATE LOAD TEST
  • Measure strength and deformation of soil
  • Use to determine bearing capacity of soil and its
    settlement especially for shallow foundation
  • Work mechanism push the circle/square plate at
    the certain depth with load of 2 3x design load
    until rupture
  • Loading influence 1.5 2x plate width
  • Relationship to undrained shear strength
  • Su (qu - ?t.H)/Nc
  • qu rupture load
  • ?t unit weight of soil
  • H thickness of soil on the sample surface
  • Nc bearing capacity factor

124
GROUND WATER INVESTIGATION
  • Purpose
  • Ground water elevation
  • Seepage behaviour
  • Method
  • Ground water elevation
  • Observation at bore hole
  • Observation at observation well (standpipe)
  • Measure using piezometer
  • Seepage behaviour
  • Seepage test at bore hole
  • Pump test at bore hole
  • Large scale of pump test

125
PIEZOMETER
126
PUMPING TEST
127
LABORATORY TESTS
  • Soil Index (?, ?, e, GS etc.)
  • Measurement of soil volume and mass
  • Sieve analysis test
  • Atterberg test
  • Shear Strength (c, ?)
  • Triaxial Test (UU, CU, CD)
  • Direct Shear
  • Unconfined Compression Test
  • Compresibility (Cc, Cv)
  • Consolidation test
  • Permeability (k)
  • Constant Head
  • Falling Head

128
EMPIRICAL CORRELATION
  • N-SPT value

Sandy Soil Clayey or Silty Soil N-SPT
Value Relative Density N-SPT Value Consistency 0
4 Very loose 0 2 Very soft 4
10 Loose 2 4 Soft 10 30 Medium 4
8 Medium stiff 30 50 Dense 8 15 Stiff gt
50 Very dense 15 30 Very stiff gt
30 Hard
129
EMPIRICAL CORRELATION
  • CPT value

130
EMPIRICAL CORRELATION
  • Between soil properties
  • Cc 0.009 (LL 10)
  • C qu/2
  • C (19 23) CBR (C in kN/m2)
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