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Solid Waste Management and Disposal

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Solid Waste Management and Disposal Chapter 18 * iRespond Question Master A.) Response A B.) Response B C.) Response C D.) Response D E.) Response E Percent Complete ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solid Waste Management and Disposal


1
Solid Waste Management and Disposal
  • Chapter 18

2
Kinds of Solid Waste
  • ___________ is generally made of objects or
    particles that accumulate ___________where they
    are produced.
  • Typically categorized by the ____________
    responsible for producing them.
  • Mining Wastes
  • Waste Material ____________
  • Milling Tailings
  • Waste or Tailings __________
  • Agricultural Waste
  • Includes _____________________as well as crop and
    tree ___________.
  • 90 is used as ___________ or other forms of soil
    enhancement.

3
Kinds of Solid Waste
  • Industrial Solid Waste - Solid waste other than
    mining.
  • Estimated 180-540 million tons annually.
  • ____________ Waste
  • Sludge
  • Combustion _____
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • All the materials ________________________________
    _.
  • 230 million tons annually.
  • In modern society, many products are discarded
    when they are broken or worn out, while others
    _______________________.
  • Those that have only temporary uses make up the
    majority of solid waste.
  • Unites States produces about _______________of
    municipal solid waste annually.
  • Equates to 2 kg of trash person / day.
  • Per capita waste has increased 70 since 1960.

4
Municipal Solid Waste
  • In modern society, many products are discarded
    when they are broken or worn out, while others
    only have a temporary use.
  • Those that have only temporary uses make up the
    majority of solid waste.
  • Unites States produces about 230 million tons of
    municipal solid waste annually.
  • Equates to 2 kg of trash person / day.
  • Per capita waste has increased _______________.

5
Waste Generation and Lifestyle
  • Nations with a _____________________ tend to
    produce more municipal solid waste per person
    than less-developed countries.
  • Large metropolitan areas have the greatest
    difficulty dealing with solid waste.
  • Traditional Methods (__________________) no
    longer accepted.

6
Methods of Waste Disposal
  • Landfills
  • Municipal solid waste landfill typically a
    ____________________________, lined with
    impermeable membrane.
  • Each days deposit of fresh garbage is
    ____________________to prevent it from blowing
    around and to discourage animal scavengers.
  • Traditionally been primary method of waste
    disposal.
  • Cheap and Convenient

7
Landfills
  • New landfills have ________________to trap
    contaminant-laden __________.
  • Monitoring systems are necessary to detect
    _________production and _______________________.
  • In some cases, methane collected and used to
    _________________.
  • Currently cost up to 1 million per hectare to
    prepare.

8
Modern Landfill
9
Landfills
  • Number of landfills is __________.
  • Many small landfills ____________
  • __________
  • Capacity has been reached.
  • New landfills often resisted due to
    __________________________________________________
    ______________
  • Politicians are often unwilling to take strong
    positions that might alienate constituents.

10
Reducing the Number of Landfills
11
Incineration
  • Currently, about 15 of U.S. municipal solid
    waste is _________.
  • Production of __________ partially offsets
    disposal ________.
  • Most incinerators burn unprocessed municipal
    solid waste.
  • Mass Burn

12
Incineration
  • Incinerators ______________the amount of
    municipal waste.
  • Up to 90 by volume and 75 by weight.
  • Primary risks of incineration________________
  • ________________________________________________
  • Even with modern pollution controls, small
    amounts of pollutants still released into
    environment
  • ________________________for new incinerators are
    also major concerns facing many communities.
  • Construction costs in North America in 2000
    ranged from __________________.
  • U.S. EPA has not looked favorably on construction
    of new waste-to-energy facilities.
  • Encouraged ______________________as more
    effective solutions to deal with solid waste.

13
Producing Mulch and Compost
  • Mulch is ____________used to protect areas where
    the soil is disturbed, or to control growth of
    unwanted vegetation.
  • Organic material _____________________into
    smaller pieces.
  • Composting is using ______________________
  • _____________________________(humus-like
    product).
  • With proper management of air and water,
    composting can __________________over a short
    period of time.
  • About 3,800 composting facilities currently in
    use in the United States.

14
Diverting Waste Through Composting
15
Source Reduction
  • Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it
    from ever becoming waste in the first place.
  • Source reduction is the practice of
    ____________________
  • ___________________________________so that the
    amount of waste or its toxicity is reduced.
  • Design Changes
  • Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in
    1977, weight has been reduced by 25.
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • _______ waste, ________ efficiency.
  • Purchasing Decisions
  • Choose ____________and plan quantities
    accordingly.
  • Reusing Items
  • Delay or prevent entry of items into waste
    collection stream.

16
Recycling
  • In the United States, recycling (including
    composting) diverted about 30 of solid waste
    stream from landfills and incinerators in 2001.
  • Benefits
  • Resource Conservation
  • _________ Reduction
  • Energy _________
  • Job Creation
  • __________for Landfills and Incinerators

17
Recycling
18
Recycling Programs
  • Container Laws
  • _______________on all reusable beverage
    containers.
  • ______________would reduce litter, save energy
    and money, create jobs, and help conserve natural
    resources.
  • Mandatory Recycling Laws
  • Provide statutory incentive to recycle.

19
Recycling Programs
  • Curbside Recycling
  • 1990 - __________ U.S. cities had __________
    recycling programs.
  • Grown to ________ cities by 2000.
  • Cities with curbside recycling tend to have
    higher recycling rates than cities that lack such
    programs.

20
Recycling Concerns
  • Plastics are recyclable, _______________
  • ________________________.
  • Milk Container
  • High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
  • Egg Container
  • Polystyrene (PS)
  • Soft-Drink Bottle
  • Poly-Ethylene Terephthalate (PET)
  • http//lifecycle.plasticsresource.com/

21
Increasing Amounts of Plastic in Trash
22
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